326.   The En-curl. - The consonant n may be added after final breves es, est, and ster, by continuing the circle or loop beyond the point of its finish, and forming a curl on the opposite side of the outline to which it is joined.

327.   The Ing-curl. - After the loops this same curl-sign may also be employed to indicate the syllable ing as well as the consonant n.

328.  Curl for "ing" on Final Hooks. - The use of the curl for ing is also allowable, in a few cases, in connection with final hooks, there being, of course, no circle or loop intervening. It is turned on the outside of the hooks. See referring, apportioning, etc., below

Remark. This use of the curl on hooks for final ing should only be resorted to when the position of the hook precludes the joining of the stem Ing.


Initial Curls

Initial Curls

329. Curl for "in," "en," or "un."—Before the initial breve-s of any stem of the Sper-series (313, 314), and before an initial breve-s on any curved stem that is formed by a movement opposite to that of the stem En.

as Ish, Es, Er, Em, Lee, etc., either in, en, or un, may be joined by a curl turned on the opposite side from the circle. Examples:

The Ishun Hook

The Ishun Hook.

330. Shun-hook and Breve-s. - A large hook joined after a final breve-s, and turned on the same side of the stem as the circle, represents the terminal syllables ishun, izhun, ashun, and eshun, in such words as position, physician, transition, recision, pulsation, possession, etc. Examples:


331. Name of Hook. - This is called the "Ishun-hook." It may be used at the end of any stem with a final breve-s that is not turned within a hook, including stems of the Ens-series. Its stenotype is "shn " or "zhn," and to avoid confusion with the preceding "s" or "z", it is always printed in italics ; thus, sNsshn {sensation), Rszhn (recision), Pzshn (position).

332. Curl for " in," etc., in Initial Hooks. - Whenever at the beginning of a word the syllable in, en, or un occurs before a stem with a large initial hook, to which the stem En cannot conveniently be prefixed, the syllable may be written with a curl turned on the inside of the hook. Examples:


Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

333.  Chosen, Edison, poison, cousin or cozen, risen, Orson, mason, moisten, lesson, arisen, Jackson, vixen, Remsen, treason, messenger, Watson, Samson, Peterson, Johnson, posting, infesting, fostering, dozens, fastens. Instruction, instrument, inspiration, inscribing, insecurity, unstrung, insulted. Position, accession, musician, annexation, proposition, requisition, supposition, sensational. Inflaming, inflammable, inflict, influx, invalid, unflagging, involution.