190. Either f or v may be added to any straight stem by a small final hook turned on the side opposite the En-hook. This hook is not written on curved stems. Examples:


191. Names of Ef or Vee Hook Stems. - The names of the Ef or Vee Hook stems are as follows: Chef, Jef, Tef, Def, Pef, Bef, Kef, Gef (G hard as in "gaff"), Ref.

Reading Exercise.


Writing Exercise.

192. Chafe, tough, dive, cave, reef, rave, tariff, toughen, outfit, devote, divide, define, devisee, cover, referee, reefer, roughly, rival or rifle, adverb, divinity, devourer, beverage, rivalry, revolve, cavalry, riffraff. Gough, Tiffin, David, Dover, Baffin.

193. En-hook Abbreviations. - The following abbreviations contain the En-hook:


194. Ef or Vee Hook Abbreviations. - The following are abbreviations that contain, the Ef or Vee Hook: