22.   Materials Used. - Phonography should always be written on paper with lines - wide ruled being the best ; and either pen or pencil may be used.

23.   How to Hold the Pen. - In writing phonography hold the pen as you are accustomed to hold it in writing longhand ; that is, between the thumb and first finger, or between the first and second fingers, as the case may be. But the penholder should be thrown out a little more than in writing longhand, and should generally point in a line with the forearm, so that, without changing its position, a phonographic Dee or Bee can readily be made.