93 Kansas Inv. Co. v. Carter, 160 Mass. 421, 36 N. E. 63; Phelps v. Randolph, 147 111. 335, 35 N. E. 243. And see Bentley v. City of Atlanta, 92 Ga. 623, 18 S. E. 1013. Any right of re-entry in the lessor Is entirely a reserved right. Heermance v. Vernoy, 6 Johns. (N. Y.) 5; Dixon v. Clow, 24 Wend. (N. Y.) 188; Parker v. Griswold, 17 Conn. 288; State v. Piper, 89 N. C. 551.

94 See post, p. 349.

Premises.95 He is entitled to estovers,96 but not to emblements,97 unless his interest is terminated, without his fault, by some contingency happening during the term.98 If he causes a forfeiture, his subtenant is entitled to emblements.99 A lessee is liable for waste committed either by himself 100 or another.101 But he may remove his chattel fixtures without any express permission in the lease.102

Estoppel to Deny Lessor's Title.

A lessee is estopped to deny his lessor's title,103 and the estoppel extends to all claiming under the lessee.104 It can be set up by the

95 Crook v. Hewitt, 4 Wash. 749, 31 Pac. 28. And see Marsh v. Mcnider, 88 Iowa, 390, 55 N. W. 469. The tenant is bound by any easements to which the land is subject. Mcdermott v. Railroad Co., 28 Hun (N. Y.) 325; Prescott v. White, 21 Pick. (Mass.) 342.

96 Hubbard v. Shaw, 12 Allen (Mass.) 120; Walters v. Hutcbins' Adm'x, 29 Ind. 136; Harris v. Goslin, 3 Har. (Del.) 340.

97 Carney v. Mosher, 97 Mich. 554, 56 N. W. 935; Gossett v. Drydale, 48 Mo. App. 430; Baker v. Mclnturff, 49 Mo. App. 505; Maclary v. Turner, 9 Houst. (Del.) 281, 32 Atl. 325; Monig's Adm'x v. Phillips (Ky.) 29 S. W. 970. And see 1 Stim. Am. St. Law, § 2064.

98 Gray v. Worst, 129 Mo. 122, 31 S. W. 585; Munday v. O'neil (Neb.) 63 N. W. 32; Hubbard v. Berry, 10 Ind. App. 594, 38 N. E. 77.

99 Bevans v. Briscoe, 4 Har. & J. (Md.) 139. But see Samson v. Rose, 65 N. Y. 411. They cannot be claimed by a mortgagee of the lessee. Gregg v. Boyd, 69 Hun, 588, 23 N. Y. Supp. 918. And one holding an estate for years as lessee of a tenant for life may claim emblements. Dorsett v. Gray, 98 Ind. 273; Bevans v. Briscoe, 4 Har. & J. (Md.) 139; Marshall, J., in Miller v. Shackleford, 4 Dana (Ky.) 277.

100 Thorndike v. Burrage, 111 Mass. 531; Nave v. Berry, 22 Ala. 382; Fen-ton v. Montgomery, 19 Mo. App. 156; Brooks v. Rogers, 101 Ala. Ill, 13 South. 386.

101 Cook v. Transportation Co., 1 Denio (N. Y.) 91; Wood v. Griffin, 46 N. H. 230; Donald v. Elliott (Cir. Ct.) 32 N. Y. Supp. 821.

102 Mason v. Fenn, 13 111. 525; Moore v. Wood, 12 Abb. Prac. (N. Y.) 393; Bircher v. Parker, 40 Mo. 118; Chandler v. Oldham, 55 Mo. App. 139; and ante, p. 19. Cf. Davidson v. Manufacturing Co., 99 Mich. 501, 58 N. W. 475; Pendill v. Maas, 97 Mich. 215, 56 N. W. 597; Wright v. Maedonnell, 88 Tex. 140, 30 S. W. 907; Goedeke v. Baker (Tex. Civ. App.) 28 S. W. 1039.

103 Wolf v. Holton (Mich.) 62 N. W. 174; Gray v. Johnson, 14 N. H. 414; Pope v. Harkins, 16 Ala. 321; Hamilton v. Pittock, 158 Pa. St 457, 27 Atl.

104 See note 104 on following page.

Heirs or assignees of the lessor,105 but the lessee can controvert the fact of an assignment.106 So, against the heir, he may show that the reversion was devised to a third person.107 Against the lessor, he may show that the latter has parted with his interest since making the lease,108 for the lessee may have purchased the reversion from the lessor,109 or have paid the rent to the lessor's assignee.110 But he cannot assert an outstanding title which he has bought in,111 nor can he accept a lease from a stranger.112 How1079; Sexton v. Carley, 147 111. 269, 35 N. E. 411; Knowles v. Murphy (Cal.) 40 Pac. Ill; Mckissick v. Ashby, 98 Cal. 422, 33 Pac. 729; Delaney v. Fox, 2 C. B. (N. S.) 70S; Voss v. King, 38 W. Va. 607, 18 S. B. 762; Dixon v. Stewart, 113 N. C. 410, 18 S. E. 325; Haekett v. Marmet Co., 3 C. C. A. 76, 52 Fed. 268. But see Lakin v. Dolly, 53 Fed. 333; Chicago & A. R. Co. v. Keegan, 152 111. 413, 39 N. E. 33; Welder v. Mccomb (Tex. Civ. App.) 30 S. W. 822; Mckinnis v. Mortgage Co., 55 Kan. 259, 39 Pac. 1018; Suddarth v. Robertson, 118 Mo. 286, 24 S. W. 151. The rule has been extended to adjoining lands gained by the tenant by disseisin. Doe v. Jones, 15 Mees. & W. 580; Doe v. Rees, 6 Car. & P. 610; Andrews v. Hailes, 2 El. & Bl. 349. The old common-law rule that a disclaimer of the landlord's title would cause a forfeiture Is no longer the law. Fusselman v. Worthington, 14 111. 135; Newman v. Rutter, 8 Watts (Pa.) 51; Greeno v. Munson, 9 Vt. 37; Jackson v. Vincent, 4 Wend. (N. Y.) 633. But see Newman v. Rutter, 8 Watts (Pa.) 51. Refusal to pay rent will not cause a forfeiture. Doe v. Wells, 10 Adol. & E. 427; Kiernan v. Terry, 26 Or. 494, 38 Pac. 671.

104 Rose v. Davis, 11 Cal. 133; Russell v. Erwin's Adm'r, 38 Ala. 44. 50; Derrick v. Luddy, 64 Vt. 462, 24 Atl. 1050; Mclennan v. Grant, 8 Wash. 603, 36 Pac. 682. Cf. Swan v. Busby, 5 Tex. Civ. App. 63, 24 S. W. 303.

105 Blantin v. Whitaker, 11 Humph. (Tenn.) 313; Russell v. Allard, 18 N. H. 225; State v. Votaw, 13 Mont. 403, 34 Pac. 315.

106 Despard v. Walbrldge, 15 N. Y. 377; Beall v. Davenport, 48 Ga. 165.

107 Despurd v. Walbrldge, 15 N. Y. 377. And see Lane v. Young, 66 Hun, 563, 21 N. Y. Supp. 838.

108 Wolf v. Johnson, 30 Miss. 513; Horner v. Leeds, 25 N. J. Law, 106; Robinson v. Mining Co., 55 Mo. App. 662; Winn v. Strickland, 34 Fla. 610, 16 South. 606; Robertson v. Biddell, 32 Fla. 304, 13 South. 358; West Shore Mills Co. v. Edwards, 24 Or. 475, 33 Pac. 987.

109 Elliott v. Smith, 23 Pa. St. 131; George v. Putney, 4 Cush. (Mass.) 355; Camley v. Stanfield, 10 Tex. 546.

110 Stedman v. Gassett, 18 Vt. 346; Welch v. Adams, 1 Mete. (Mass.) 494; Magill v. Hinsdale, 6 Conn. 464.

111 Sharpe v. Kelley, 5 Denio (N. Y.) 431; Drane y. Gregory's Heirs, 3 B.

112 See note 112 on following page.

Ever, if there is an eviction under a paramount title, the tenant may take a new lease from the holder of such title, and it is not necessary that he be actually expelled from the premises, to justify him in so doing. It is sufficient if the right to evict is asserted by one entitled to the possession, and the tenant in good faith accepts a new lease to avoid eviction.113