Belgrade (Serv. Belgrad, white city; anc. Singidunum), the capital of Servia, with a convenient port on the right bank of the Danube, at its junction with the Save, 44 m. S. E. of Peterwardein; pop. in 1866, 25,089. The citadel, formerly occupied by a Turkish garrison, is on a small strip of land between the two rivers, behind which is the city. Its parts are: the Turkish quarter, which slopes to the Danube, and, though no longer inhabited by Moslems, and partly in ruins, stiil presents an oriental appearance; and the Servian quarter, which borders the Save, with a quay and fine houses in modern style. Belgrade is gradually becoming modernized, churches are superseding mosques, and new buildings are constructed, chiefly in the German fashion. It produces arms, carpets, silk goods, cutlery, and saddles. It is the entrepot of commerce between Turkey and the Austro-IIungarian empire, and the seat of the highest authorities of the principality. Its situation gives it military importance, but the fortifications are now rapidly decaying. - Belgrade was long an object of contention between the Christians and the Turks. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the latter in 1456, when John Hunyady defended it against Mohammed II., but was taken by Solyman the Magnificent in 1521, and held till 1688, when it was taken by the elector of Bavaria. Two years later it was retaken by the Turks. In 1717 it was besieged by Prince Eugene, who was in his turn surrounded by a vastly superior Turkish army.

Alter a prodigious defeat of the latter, the city surrendered. In 1739 the Turks came into possession of it by treaty, retaining it till 1789, when it was again taken by the Austrians under Laudon, who, however, relinquished it to the Turks in 1791. It was partly ruined during the Servian insurrection in 1813. In 1862 a difficulty between the Turks and Servians caused the commander of the citadel to open lire upon the city. In 1863 all the Turkish inhabitants of the city were forced to emigrate. In 1867 the sultan was prevailed upon to withdraw the garrison, and, though reserving the right of sovereignty, to transfer the citadel to Servia. Since then Belgrade has been making rapid progress in every respect.

Belgrade.

Belgrade.