Bertrand Clausel, count, a French soldier, born at Mirepoix, Dec. 12, 1772, died near Toulouse, April 21, 1842. He was a nephew of the revolutionist Jean Baptiste Clausel, entered the army in 1791 as sub-lieutenant, became in 1798 chief of Grouchy's staff in the so-called army of England, and accompanied Grouchy to Italy, when he prevailed upon Charles Emanuel IV. to abdicate, the latter presenting him with Douw's celebrated picture of the "Dropsical Woman," valued at 1,500,000 francs, in token of his regard for the manner in which he had acquitted himself of a difficult diplomatic task. Clausel presented the picture to the gallery of the Louvre. In 1801 he served in Santo Domingo, after which he was general of division. In 1806 he was employed in Italy, in 1808 in Dalmatia, and in 1809 he took possession of the Illyrian provinccs. In 1812 he distinguished himself in Spain at the disastrous battle of Salamanca, in which he was wounded, and won the name of the unfortunate hero of the Ara-piles, the total destruction of the French army having been averted by his skilful retreat after he had succeeded Marmont as commander-in-chief. In 1813, on the defeat of Joseph Bonaparte at Vitoria, he enabled Soult to protect the French frontier by impeding the progress of the English army.
After Napoleon's abdication at Fontainehleau he was appointed inspector general of infantry by Louis XVIII.; but he was among the first to join the emperor after his return from Elba. He was made a senator, and appointed commander of the army of the western Pyrenees, and forced the duchess of Angouleme to leave Bordeaux. After the restoration he was sentenced to death, but escaped to the United States, where he resided several years as a planter at Mobile, and where he wrote his Expose justicatif. Being amnestied in 1820, he returned to France, and in 1827 was elected to the chamber of deputies. In 1830 he was for a short time commander of the French army in Algeria, in 1831 was made a marshal, and in 1835 governor general of Algeria. An unfortunate expedition against Constantine was seized upon by his enemies as a pretext for effecting his recall; but on visiting Algeria in 1838-'9 he was warmly welcomed.