Bessaraba, a family that took an active part in the politics of eastern Europe from the 13th century to the early part of the 18th. It gave several waywodes to Wallachia, and ruled for a considerable time over Bessarabia. Rudolph the Black founded the principality of Wallachia during the invasion of Batu Khan, and built the towns of Argish, Tergovist, and Bucharest. He died in 1265. Mirce or Mirxa I., waywode from 1382 to 1418, fought against the Bulgarians and the Turks, and distinguished himself at the battle of Kosovo; he was obliged to sign the treaty of 1393, which made him a vassal of Bajazet I. Michael II., the Brave, .waywode in 1592, united under his rule Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania. He was assassinated in 1601. Matthew Brancovan, who made an unsuccessful attempt to recover the independence of his country against the Turks, died in 1654. Constantine II. Brancovan, waywode in 1688, served and betrayed in turn the Austrians, Russians, and Turks, He was arrested by order of the Turkish government, taken to Constantinople, and executed with his four sons in 1714. With the death of this prince the Bessaraba dynasty was extinguished.