Bucharest, Or Bnkarest(Wallachian, Buhu-resht, " the city of pleasure "), the capital of Roumania and of the principality of Wallachia, in lat. 44° 25' K, Ion. 26° 5' E., on the Dim-bovitza, about 30 m. from its confluence with the Danube; pop. in 1867, 141,754, of whom about 15,000 were Germans. The city, which is without walls, covers an area of 4 by 3 m., a space sufficient for a much larger population. The streets are generally narrow, but there are large public places and squares. The principal streets have recently been paved and lighted. The houses are mostly of wood, a single story in height, but often spacious, and ornamented with balconies and surrounded by gardens. There are about 130 churches, among which are the metropolitan Greek church;. the church of Rimnik, with a convent, which is the seat of the bishop of Rimnik; a Catholic church, with a Franciscan convent; a Lutheran church, founded in 1757, but since 1821 belonging to the Hungarian evangelic communion; an Armenian church; and five synagogues for German and Spanish Jews. There are also 20 convents attached to the churches, mostly of the Greek rite.
The city has a university, three gymnasia, a central school for females, 13 elementary schools, and many private seminaries; several hospitals, a lying-in house, a great orphan establishment founded in 1862 by the princess Helena, an opera house, and four theatres for French, German, and Roumanian plays. There are also a corso, a fine promenade, a great bazaar, and many coffee houses. Bucharest is the residence during a part of the year of the magistrates and great landholders of the principality, and is noted for its gayety. Although oriental in external appearance, in other respects it is assuming more and more the aspect of a European city. French literature is the favorite study, and the French language is spoken by the upper classes. Bucharest is the chief commercial emporium of Roumania, being connected by railway with Giurgevo and Galatz on the Danube, and with Jassy and Czernowitz, and carries on an active trade in grain, wool, honey, wax, wine, cattle, and hides. In the environs are extensive slaughter houses, where excellent tallow and smoked meat are produced.
The merchants are mostly Greeks, Armenians, and Jews; the artisans and tradesmen Germans.
The manufacturing industry is inconsiderable, the principal productions being Turkish fabrics of gold and silver cloth, silver ware, carpets, linens, iron work, saddlery, furs, beads, necklaces, pipes, and tobacco. - Bucharest was founded by Radul the Black of Transylvania, who conquered Wallachia toward the close of the 13th century. At the end of the 16th century it fell into the hands of the Turks, who burnt it. In 1769 it was captured by the Russians, and in 1789 by the Austrians. By the treaty concluded here, May. 28, 1812, the sovereignty of Wallachia was confirmed to Turkey, but under the protectorate of Russia. In 1821 a revolt broke out among the Greek population, in connection with the rising under Ypsilanti, but order was soon reestablished by the Turks. In 1828 the Russians took possession of the town, but in 1829 the treaty of peace of Adrianople brought it under the rule of the hospodar of Wallachia, in subordination to the supreme authority of Turkey. The town was desolated by a great fire, April 4, 1847. In June, 1848, a rebellion broke out against Prince Bibesco. Turkish forces occupied the town in September, and Russian troops in October of the same year, and were stationed here until May, 1851. Russian troops again held it from July, 1853, to August, 1854, from which time Austrian forces were quartered there until March, 1857. The international congress for the adjustment of the affairs of the Danubian principalities, in accordance with the regulations of the peace conference of Paris, was held at Bucharest in 1858. The union of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, granted by the sultan, Nov. 12, 1861, was proclaimed at Bucharest, Dec. 23; the first prince being Col. Cuza, who had been chosen hospodar of both principalities in 1859. In 1866 a revolutionary movement took place in Bucharest, which forced Cuza to abdicate. (See Roumania).