Buchner. I. Georg, a German poet, born at Goddelau, near Darmstadt, Oct. 17, 1813, died in Zurich, Feb. 19, 1837. He was obliged to leave the university of Giessen on account of his participation in the political disturbances of 1834, and resumed his studies at Strasburg. In 1836 he took his degree as doctor of philosophy at Zurich, and for a few months previous to his death lectured on comparative anatomy. His principal poetical work is Ban-ton's Tod (Frankfort, 1835). He also translated several of Victor Hugo's dramas. His posthumous writings were published in 1850. II. Frie-drich Karl Christian Lonis, a German philosopher, brother of the preceding, born at Darmstadt, March 29, 1824. He studied at Darmstadt, Strasburg, Giessen (where he took his doctor's degree in 1848), Wurzburg (under Virchow), and Vienna. He practised as a physician in his native place, and in 1854 became private teacher and assistant physician in the clinical school of Tubingen, which post he lost by the publication of Kraft und Stoff (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1855; 10th ed., 1869), in which he deals with the forces and phenomena of nature upon the principle that nothing beyond material forces is known to us.

An English translation by T. Frederick Collingwood, under the title " Force and Matter," first published in 1855, has since passed through 12 editions. He afterward resumed his medical practice at Darmstadt. Among his other works are: Natur und Geist (1857; 2d ed., 1864); Pkysiologiscke Bilder (Leipsic, 1861); Aus Natur und Wissenschaft (1862), analyzing the system of Darwin, Schopenhauer, and others; Das Alter des Mensckengeschleckts (1864), a German version of Lyell's " Antiquity of Man; " Seeks Vorle-sungen uber die Darwin'sche Theorie (1868); and Die Stellung des Mencken in der Natur, in der Vergangenkeit, Oegenwart und Zuleunft (3 parts, Leipsic, 1869-'70), published simultaneously in German, English, French, and Italian (English by "W. S. Dallas, " Man in the Past, Present, and Future," 1872). The cardinal points of Buclmer's philosophy are: the eternity of matter, the indestructibility of force, the universal co-existence of light and life, and the infinity of forms of being, both in time and space.

In 1872-'3 he delivered lectures in the United States. III. Alexander, brother of the preceding, born at Darmstadt, Oct. 25, 1837. In 1852 he became private teacher at the university of Zurich, and since 1857 has been professor at Valenciennes and Caen, France. Among his works in German are: Gesckickte der engliscken Bickikunst seit dem 13. Jakrkun-dert (2 vols., Darmstadt, 1855), and the novels Chatterton and Lord Byron's letzte Liebe (Leipsic, 1862-'3); and in French, a translation of Jean Paul Richter's poetry, prepared jointly with Charles Leon Dumont (2 vols., Paris, 1862), and Les comedies de Skahespeare (Caen, 1864). IV. Lnise, sister of the preceding, born June 12, 1822. She has written poetry and novels, attended the Leipsic woman's rights convention in 1867, lectured on history in 1868, acted in 1869 as president of the Berlin woman's rights association, and established at Darmstadt, with the assistance of the princess Alice of Hesse, a finishing school for poor girls. Her principal work, Bie Frauen und ikr Beruf (Frankfort, 1855), has passed through several editions, and has been translated into English, Russian, and Dutch. In 1869 appeared her Praktische Versuche zur Losung der Frau-enfrage, and in 1870 she assisted in editing the Berlin monthly periodical, Ber Frauenanwalt.