Billiton, an island of the Malay archipelago, separated by the Carimata or Billiton passage from Borneo, and by Caspar strait from Banca. Its highest peak, near its N. W. point, which is 2,300 ft. high, is in lat. 3° 13' S., lon. 108° 7' E.; area, about 2,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1889 estimated at 22,000. It is noted, like the neighboring island of Banca, which it resembles in geological formation, for its production of grain tin from alluvial deposits. Iron possessing strong magnetic properties is found in abundance; and the peculiar white iron, called pamor, used in damasking the Bornean Dyak sword blades, is found here in small quantities, Billiton and Celebes being the only countries where it is found. Iron has been worked since an early period by the native Sikas; but the mining of tin did not commence till 1850. The mines are worked by Chinese colonies. The soil is generally sterile, and a large portion of the rice for the consumption of the miners is brought from Java and Bali. Odoriferous woods are exported to some extent. The aborigines, a rude race called Sikas, subsist chiefly by fishing, and are accused of being prone to piracy.

The island is a dependency of Holland.