Bischoff. I. Christoph Heinrich Ernst, a German physician, born in Hanover, Sept. 14, 1781, died in Bonn, March 5, 1861. He was physician of the general staff of the army in the campaigns of 1813-15, and from 1819 to 1861 he was professor of medical science at the university of Bonn. A second edition of his principal work, Die Lehre von den chemischen Hcilmitteln, was published in Bonn in 1838-'40 (4 vols.). II. Theodor Ludwig Wil-helm, a German anatomist and physiologist, son of the preceding, born in Hanover, Oct. 28, 1807. He studied in Dusseldorf, Bonn, and Heidelberg, received his doctor's diploma from the university of Bonn in 1832, and became assistant in the midwifery department of that of Berlin. He continued his studies of anatomy and physiology under Ehrenberg and Johann Muller, in 1836 became professor of comparative and pathological anatomy at Bonn, in 1843 of physiology, and in 1844: of anatomy at Giessen, where he founded a physiological institute and an anatomical museum; and since 1855 he has been professor at the university of Munich. In the trial of Count Gorlitz in 1850 he demonstrated the impossibility of spontaneous combustion.
His most important contribution to embryology is Der Beweis der von der Begattung unabhangigen periodi-schen Reifung und Loslosung der Eier der Saugethiere und der Menschen (Giessen, 1844). His other works include Entwickelungsge-schlchte des Kanincheneies (1843), which received an academical prize, des Hundeeies (1844), des Meerschweinchens (1852), and des Rehes (1854). His intercourse with Liebig led to his publication of Der Harnstoff als Mass des Stoffwechsels (1853); and in conjunction with his then assistant, Dr. Voit, Die Gesetze der Ernahrung des Fleischfressers (1859). Among his most recent works are Die Gross-hirnwindungen des Menschen mit Beriicksich-tigung Hirer Entwichelung bei dem Fotus und ihrer Anordnung bei den Affen (1866; new ed., 1868), and Ueber die Verschiedenheit in der Schadelbildung des Gorilla, Chimpanse, und Orang-Utang (1867).