Pistoja, Or Pistoia (Anc. Pistoria or Pis-torium), a fortified city of Italy, in Tuscany, on the left bank of the Ombrone, 21 m. N. W. of Florence; pop. about 13,000. It is situated on the railway from Bologna to Florence, and is connected by another with Lucca and Pisa. On approaching the city from the north, the Bologna railway passes over the heights of the Apennines, presenting an extensive view of the surrounding country. The hilly region is traversed by long tunnels. The town contains fine palaces, and retains many of its ancient churches, which are generally remarkable for their architecture and works of art. The ornaments of the high altar in the cathedral, stolen by Vanni Fucci, were in 1466' replaced by a sumptuous altar of silver and of other exquisite material at which artists worked for about 150 years. The baptistery opposite the cathedral is an octagon, although called San Giovanni Rotondo. It dates from the 14th century, and is built of black and white marble in alternate layers. One of the most interesting of the other churches 'is that of Sanf Andrea, believed to have been the original cathedral. Iron, wool, silk, and leather are manufactured, and there are considerable works for making cannon and other firearms.
Peculiar rock crystals called diamanti di Pistoja are found here, and extensively worked. - In the middle ages the town of Pistoja and its environs formed an independent republic. About 1306 it became subject to Florence.