Podolia, formerly a province of Poland, and now a government of Russia, bordering on Volhynia, Kiev, Kherson, Bessarabia, and Austrian Galicia; area, 16,224 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,933,188. Kamenetz, or Kamieniec, the capital, is the only town of importance. An offset of the Carpathian mountains enters Podolia from Galicia and traverses it in a S. E. direction, but in no part exceeds 500 ft. above the sea. The surface in other directions is flat, with a general slope S. E. The principal rivers are the Dniester and Bog; the former constitutes the S. W. boundary, and the latter rises on the N. frontier and flows S. E. There are no large lakes, but small ones are numerous in the western part. The most valuable minerals are saltpetre, limestone, and alabaster. The climate is mild, and the soil particularly fertile. Grain, potatoes, hemp, flax, and tobacco are raised in abundance; and vines and mulberries succeed well. Large numbers of horses and cattle are reared. The inhabitants belong chiefly to the Greek church, but there are considerable numbers of Roman Catholics (12 per cent.) and Jews (11 per cent.), and some Protestants and Mohammedans. There are few schools. - Podolia became a province of Russia by the second partition of Poland (1793).