I. A Foolah Monarchy Of Central Africa

A Foolah Monarchy Of Central Africa, in Soodan, E. of the Niger and N. of the Benoowe, and largely identical with the territories of Houssa except in its western provinces. Inclusive of the tributary state of Adamawa or Fumbina on the southeast, it extends from about lat. 6° 30' to 14° N., and from lon. 5° to 15° E., and is bounded N. by the Sahara, N. E. and E. by Bornoo and Baghirmi, S. by unexplored regions, and W. by Gando. Its estimated area, including Adamawa, is about 170,000 sq. m., and it forms a portion of the extensive region conquered by the Foolahs, who, although they have been the dominant race since about 1800, constitute but a minority of the entire population, which is estimated by Behm at 12,000,000, though other authorities make it much smaller. The surface of the country is very uneven. The higher portions are dry and generally barren, but the valleys are extremely fertile. The climate of the northern portion is salubrious, except in the valleys during the rainy season. The productions are iron of very good quality, cotton, rice, tobacco, and sorghum. Sheep, cattle, horses, asses, and camels are raised.

The sultan, a descendant of the Foolah chief Othman, resided at Wurno, 15 m. from the city of Sack-atoo, when Barth visited the country in 1853. His income at that time was reckoned at £10,000 in shell money, with an equal amount annually in slaves and cloth. Sackatoo has been a somewhat noted field of African exploration, having been visited by Clapperton, Lander, Richardson, and Barth. (See Adamawa, Foolahs, and Houssa.) II. A city and former capital of the above described country, situated on a long ridge sloping toward the Sackatoo or Rima river, a tributary of the Niger, in lat. 12° 59' N., lon. 5° 12' E.; pop. more than 20,000. Its name, according to Clapperton, signifies "a halting place." It is laid out in the form of a square, each side of which is about 1 1/2 m. long, and is surrounded by a wall upward of 12 ft. high. Eight gates are indicated on Barth's map, two on each side of the city. An important market is held here, at which an extensive traffic is carried on in slaves, horses, cattle, leather, iron, and articles of food. The principal industry is the manufacture of leather goods, including bridles, bags, cushions, and many other articles, which are celebrated in central Africa for their excellent quality and fine workmanship.

Sackatoo has been rendered particularly prominent in the record of African travel by the death of the British explorer Clapperton in its vicinity in 1827.