Saint Lucian, an early Christian theologian, born in Samosata about the middle of the 3d century, died in Nicomedia about 310. Having lost both his parents when 12 years old, he distributed his inheritance to the poor, and removed to Edessa, where he was baptized, and became the pupil of Macarius, a Christian famed for his Biblical learning. Having been admitted to orders, he went to Antioch, and there opened a theological school, attended by numerous students. He was excommunicated for heresy by three successive bishops of Antioch, and remained without the pale of the church for several years. He was in fact the founder of Arianism, and even the great leader who subsequently gave name to that form of doctrine did not disdain to avow himself his disciple, as is evident from a letter addressed by him to Eusebius of Nicomedia, in which he calls that prelate "fellow Lucianist," Lucian finally submitted to the authority of the church, and attained a higher reputation for learning and piety than ever. In the persecution under Maximin, having been arrested in Antioch, he was transported by land to Nicomedia, and put to the torture, soon after which he died in prison. He was the author of two short treatises on the Christian faith, and of some letters.

All of the letters have perished, except one fragment, preserved in the "Alexandrian Chronicle." His greatest work was a revision of the Septuagint, which was generally used in the eastern churches.