A Central Government Of European Russia, bordering on Yaroslav, Kostroma, Nizhegorod, Tambov, Riazan, Moscow, and Tver; area, 18,862 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,1,259,923. It consists chiefly of an undulating plain, watered by the Oka, its affluent the Kliasma, and many other rivers, and diversified by forests, heaths, and morasses. There are valuable iron mines. The soil is sterile, andtho climate, though healthful, is subject to extremes of heat and cold. Various sorts of grain are raised, as well as hemp, flax, and fruits, but agriculture is of less importance than the manufactures. There are more than 400 establishments, manufacturing cotton, leather, yarn, linen, cloth, silk, iron ware, firearms, glass, hosiery, etc. Ivanovo is called the Russian Manchester. The village of Kholui is the headquarters for painters of saints for the village churches and peasantry. Other important centres of industry are Pistiaki, Shuyah, Pereslavl, and Alexandrov. Suzdal was in the 11th and 12th centuries the capital of a Russian principality, and Murom is next in importance to the capital.
A City, capital of the government, in the district of Suzdal, on the Kliasma, 120 m. E. N. E. of Moscow; pop. in 1867, 15,478. The walls of the kremlin are in decay, and only the cathedral and the church of Maria retain vestiges of the splendor which distinguished this city during its metropolitan era, as the residence of grand dukes from the middle of the 12th till early in the 14th century. It has more than 25 churches, a priests' seminary, a gymnasium, and other schools, and about 20 large manufactories. Trade and industry have greatly increased through the railway traffic with Moscow, Nizhni-Novgorod, and other parts of the empire.