Calaveras, a N. central county of California, watered by Mokelumne, Calaveras, and Stanislaus rivers; area, 936 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,895, of whom 1,441 were Chinese. The Sierra Nevada is on the E. border. Gold mining is extensively pursued; there is also a copper mine at Copperopolis. The famous big tree grove is in this county. The Stockton and Copperopolis railroad has its terminus in the county. There are 30 quartz mills for the production of gold, with 438 stamps and 5 arastras. The chief productions in 1870 were 8,341 bushels of wheat, 37,395 of barley, 6,213 tons of hay, 129,025 lbs. of wool, and 99,860 gallons of wine. There were 1,781 horses, 1,995 milch cows, 4,744 other cattle, 35,214 sheep, and 8,173 swine. Capital, San Andreas.

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Calaveras, a river of California, rises among the hills at the foot of the Sierra Nevada, in Calaveras county, and after a nearly W. course joins the San Joaquin on the border of Sacramento and San Joaquin counties.