Campanile (Ital., from cam-pana, a bell), a bell tower, either attached to a church or an independent edifice. The most remarkable specimens are those at Cremona, Florence, Pisa, Bologna, Ravenna, and Seville. The tower at Cremona is 396 ft. high, 498 steps leading to the summit. It was begun in 1283, and the bells were cast in 1578. In the third story is a very large astronomical clock, built in 1594. The one at Florence was commenced by Giotto in 1334; after his death the tower was continued by Taddeo. Gaddi. It is 276 ft. high, and divided into four stories, of which the first and fourth are higher than either of the other two. On the basement story are two ranges of tablets in relief, designed by Giotto, and executed partly by him, and the remainder by Andrea Pisano and Luca della Robbia. Above these are 16 large statues, four on each side of the tower. The cost of this campanile was very great, about 1,000 florins for each braccio, which is 2 ft. square. The leaning tower of Pisa was begun in 1174 by Bonan-nus of Pisa and William of Innspruck. It is 179 ft. high, cylindrical in form, and 50 ft. in diameter. The summit is reached by 330 steps. The fact which gives it the name by which it is so well known is that it leans about 13 ft. from the perpendicular.

This fault was manifest before its completion, and was guarded against by extra braces, and an adaptation of the stone in the highest portion. The seven bells on the top, the largest of which weighs 12,000 lbs., are so placed as to counteract by their gravity the leaning of the tower. The Garisenda in Bologna is about 150 ft. high, and leans 8 ft. 6 in. The Asinelli in the same place is 293 ft. to the base of the lantern, or including that, 321 ft., and leans 3 ft. 6 in. The Seville cathedral has a campanile 350 ft. high. It was originally only 250 ft., the rich filigree belfry, 100 ft. high, having been added in 1568. This tower is called La Giralda, from a brazen figure in the top, which weighs a ton and a half, yet turns with the wind.

Giotto's Campanile.

Giotto's Campanile.