Carl Ritter, a German geographer, born in Quedlinburg, Aug. 7, 1779, died in Berlin, Sept. 28, 1859. He completed his studies at Halle, and in 1798 became tutor in the Beth-mann-Hollweg family at Frankfort, and accompanied his pupils to the academy of Geneva, and to various countries. He was professor of history at the gymnasium of Frankfort in 1819-20, and subsequently of geography at the university and military academy of Berlin. He created the science of general comparative geography. His most celebrated work is Die Erdhunde im Verhältnisse zur Natur und Ge-schichte des Menschen. At first it appeared in two volumes (Berlin, 1817-'18), but in the second edition the first volume (1822 et seq.) relates exclusively to Africa, and 18 volumes (1832-59) to Asia. W. L. Gage has translated some of Hitter's work into English, under the titles "Comparative Geography" (Edinburgh, 1865) and "The Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula" (4 vols., 1866). Hitter also published Europa, ein geo-graphisch-historisch-statistisches Gemälde (2 vols., Frankfort, 1807); Die Stupas (Berlin, 1838); and Einleitung und Abhandlungen zu einer mehr wissenschaftlichen Behandlung der Erdkunde (1852). After his death were published his Geschichte der Erdhunde und der Entdeckungen (1861), Allgemeine Erdhunde (1862), and Europa (1863). Among his biographers are Kramer in German (Halle, 1864) and Gage in English (New York, 1867).