New York, a city of the state of New York, coextensive with the county of the same name, the commercial metropolis of the United States, and the most populous city in the western hemisphere, situated at the mouth of the Hudson river, about 145 m. below Albany, 18 m. from the Atlantic ocean, 190 m. in a direct line S. W. of Boston, 205 m. N. E. of Washington, and 715 m. E. of Chicago; lat. of the city hall, 40° 42' 43" N., Ion. 74° 0' 3" W. The main body of the city is situated on Manhattan island; besides which it includes Randall's, Ward's, and Blackwell's islands in the East river; Governor's, Bedloe's, and Ellis islands in the bay, occupied by the United States government; and a portion of the mainland N. of Manhattan island, and separated from it by Spuyten Duyvel creek and Harlem river. It is bounded N. by the city of Yonkers; E. by the Bronx river, which separates it from the towns of East Chester and West Chester, Westchester co., and by the East river, separating it from Long island; S. by the bay; and W. by the Hudson or North river, which separates it from New Jersey. Its extreme length N. from the Battery is 16m.; greatest width, from the mouth of Bronx river W. to the Hudson, 4¼ m.; area, nearly 41½- sq. m. or 26,500 acres, of which 19 sq. m. or 12,100 acres are on the mainland.
Manhattan island is 13½ m. long, and varies in breadth from a few hundred yards at the Battery to 2¼ m. at 14th street, diminishing again to less than 1 m. above 130th street, and having an area of nearly 22 sq. m. or 14,000 acres. The East river islands comprise about 300 acres, and those in the bay 100 more. Manhattan island is bounded N. by Spuyten Duyvel creek and Harlem river, which separate it from the mainland of the state, E. by the East river, S. by the bay, and W. by the Hudson river. The island was originally very rough, a rocky ridge running from the S. point northward, and branching into several spurs, which united after 4 or 5 m., culminating in Washington heights, 238 ft. above tide water, and a bold promontory of 130 ft. at the extreme N. point. The S. portion of the island and the shores in some places were alluvial sand beds, while marshes and ponds also occurred. But the original character of the surface has disappeared in the lower portion, and is disappearing in the upper, before the constant grading and filling for the construction of new or the improvement of old streets.
One of the largest bodies of water was the " Collect pond," nearly 2 m. in circumference and 50 ft. deep, which covered the site of the "Tombs" and adjacent territory, and was connected with marshes on the Hudson by a rivulet on the line of Canal street, which takes its name from this circumstance. The lower part of the island has been considerably widened by filling in the rivers on either side. Several localities in the upper portion are popularly known by different names. Yorkville and Harlem are on the E. side, the former in the vicinity of 86th street, and the latter of 125th street. On the W. side are Blooming-dale and Manhattanville, opposite Yorkville and Harlem respectively. Above Manhattanville and in the vicinity of 150th street is Car-mansville, about 1½ m. further up Fort Washington or Washington Heights, and at the N. YW. extremity of the island Inwood. The mainland portion of the city, formerly constituting the towns of Morrisania, West Farms, and Kingsbridge, Westchester co., was annexed by the act of May 23, 1873, which went into effect on Jan. 1, 1874. The S. portion, comprising Morrisania and a part of West Farms, tonus the 23d ward of the city, the rest of West Farms with Kingsbridge constituting the 24th ward.
The 23d ward contains several villages, with various popular designations, among which are Mott Haven and North New York, immediately across Harlem bridge; Port Morris, on the Fast river; and Melrose, Woodstock, Morrisania, Highbridgeville, and Claremont, further N. In the 24th ward are Tremont, Mount Hope, Mount Eden, Fairmount, West Farms, Belmont, Fordham, and Williamsbridge, between the Harlem and Bronx rivers; Kings-bridgeville and Spuyten Duyvel, separated from the X. extremity of Manhattan island by Spuyten Duyvel creek; Mosholu, N. of these; and Riverdale and Mount St. Vincent, on the Hudson. The surface of the new wards is diversified, the greater portion of the land being high and rolling, except in the south, where it is low, and along the shores marshy. The district is traversed by several small sluggish streams, having a S. course, the principal of which are Tibbett's brook, emptying into Spuyten Duyvel creek; Cromwell's creek, discharging into Harlem river at Macomb's Dam bridge; and Mill brook and Leggett's creek, in the southeast. Between the streams the land rises for the most part to from 100 to 280 ft. above tide water, the highest point being on the Riverdale ridge between Tibbett's brook and the Hudson. These ridges are well improved and occupied by country residences.
The former town of Morrisania is thickly settled, and is regularly laid out with avenues running N. and S., and streets crossing them at right angles numbered in continuation of those on Manhattan island. It is divided into two nearly equal parts by 3d avenue, continued across Harlem bridge. The rest of the new district is not regularly laid out, though the S. and W. portions of the 24th ward are well provided with streets and avenues, each village having its own svstem. This new part of the city is to be regulated under the direction of the park commissioners, and the work is now in progress (1875). The two portions of the city are connected by four wagon and two railroad bridges across Harlem river and Spuyten Duyvel creek. Harlem bridge, at 3d avenue and 130th street, is of iron; Macomb's Dam bridge, near 7th avenue and 154th street, and Farmer's and King's bridges, near the N. extremity of the island, are of wood. One of the railroad bridges crosses Spuyten Duyvel creek at its entrance into the Hudson, and is used by one branch of the Hudson River railroad; the other crosses Harlem river a little N. of Harlem bridge, and is used by the other railroad lines that enter the city.
A suspension bridge across the upper part of the Harlem, and a tunnel under it, at 7th avenue, are proposed. - On Manhattan island, the older portion of the city below 14th street (2½, m. from the Battery) is for the most part somewhat irregularly laid out. The plan of the upper portion embraces avenues running N. to the boundary of the island, and streets crossing them at right angles from river to river. The avenues are numbered from the east to 12th avenue; E. of 1st avenue in the widest part of the city are avenues A, B, C, and D. Above 21st street, between 3d and 4th avenues, is Lexington avenue, and above 23d street, between 4th and 5th avenues, Madison avenue; 6th and 7th avenues are intercepted by Central park. The avenues are 100 ft. wide, except A and C, which are 80 ft.; Lexington and Madison, 75 ft.; and B and D, GO ft. Fourth avenue above 34th street is 140 ft. wide, and between 34th and 40th streets (here called Park avenue) it is divided in the centre by a row of beautiful little parks, surrounding the openings of the railroad tunnel. The streets are 60 ft. wide, except 15 of them, which are 100 ft., and are numbered consecutively N. to 225th street at Spuyten Duyvel creek (1st street being 1¾ m. from the Battery); 20 blocks, including the streets, average a mile.
The numbers on the avenues run N.; the street numbers run E. and W. from 5th avenue. Between 5th and 6th avenues they range from 1 toward 100 W. (14th street for instance), and between 5th and 4th avenues from 1 toward 100 E. (14th street); crossing 6th or 4th avenue, the numbers commence at 100, and as each avenue is crossed toward the east or west a new hundred is commenced, the number of a building thus indicating the block in which it is situated. The city is compactly built to Central park, about 5 m, from the Battery, and on the E. side for the most part to Harlem, 3½ m. further. The W. side is sparsely occupied by cottages and shanties, with many market gardens, to Manhattanville, where and at Carmansville are compact villages. At Fort Washington and above it are many country residences. Broadway, the great central thoroughfare, is 80 ft. wide, and upon it are most of the principal hotels, banks, insurance offices, and great retail stores. It runs N. from the Battery, bending toward the west above 10th street, and, after crossing 5th, 6th, and 7th avenues, terminates at 59th street and 8th avenue. On the E. side the principal thoroughfare is the Bowery, a wide street, with its continuation 3d avenue; and on the W. side, Hudson street and 8th avenue.
Fifth avenue contains many handsome churches, but is chiefly noted for the magnificence of its residences, to which it is almost exclusively devoted. The most favorite drives outside of Central park are the Boulevard, St. Nicholas avenue, and 6th and 7th avenues above the park. The Boulevard commences at 59th street and 8th avenue, and terminates at 155th street, following for the most part the line of the old Bloomingdale road, the continuation of Broadway, and coinciding above 107th street with 11th avenue; it is 150 ft. wide, and below 128th street is divided in the centre by a series of little parks. St. Nicholas avenue, 100 ft. wide, runs diagonally along the former Harlem lane from the upper side of Central park at 6th avenue and 110th street to 155th street, whence its continuation is the Kingsbridge road. Wall street, less than half a mile long, running from the lower part of Broadway to the East river, is the money centre of the country. It contains the custom house, United States sub-treasury and assay office, and many of the principal banks and banking houses.
In Broad street near Wall are the stock exchange and gold room. - Many of the buildings in the lower portion of the city and along Broadway below 34th street extend from street to street, or to the centre of the block, covering the entire ground space, from five to seven stories high, besides two stories below the surface, with well lighted vaults reaching nearly to the middle of the street. The most common materials here are granite, marble, and other varieties of stone, with iron in many recent structures. Brick is still much used in the cheaper class of dwellings and workshops. The finest residences are of brown stone, four stories high, 5th and Madison avenues and the adjacent streets being lined with stately edifices of this class. The mansion of A. T. Stewart, at the corner of 5th avenue and 34th street, of white marble, three stories high besides basement and Mansard roof, and containing a fine gallery of paintings, is the most splendid residence in the city. Many of the banks, insurance buildings, and other business structures are of palatial size and magnificence. The Drexel building, on the corner of Wall and Broad streets, is seven stories high, built of white marble in the renaissance style.
The Bennett building, in Nassau street between Fulton and Ann, is of iron and seven stories high. The publishing house of Harper and brothers is a prominent structure with an iron front in Pearl street. In Broadway, on the corner of Cedar street, is the building of the Equitable life insurance company, having a frontage of 87 ft., a depth of 200, and a height of 137. Above this, on the corner of Liberty street, is the six-story building of the American bank note company, surmounted by a tower containing a clock; and on the corner of Fulton street, the new "Evening Post" building. Further up and adjoining each other, between Fulton and Ann streets, are the Park bank and the "Herald" building, both of marble. On the other side of Broadway, at the corner of Dey street, is the new building of the Western Union telegraph company, ten stories high (including three in the roof), with a clock tower; the two lower stories are of granite, the others of brick trimmed with granite. The height of the main wall is 140 ft. from the ground, and of the platform at the top of the tower 230 ft.
In Printing House square, E. of the City Hall park, the "Times" and "World" buildings (occupying the former site of the Brick church), the new granite building of the Staats-Zei-tung, with statues of Gutenberg and Franklin above the portal, and the new "Tribune" building (corner of Spruce street), of brick and granite, nine stories high with a lofty tower, are particularly noticeable. The New York life insurance company's building, on the corner of Broadway and Leonard street, is of white marble in the Ionic style; and opposite is the magnificent building of the Globe mutual life insurance company. A little above this is the Ninth national bank, also a superb structure. The retail store of A. T. Stewart and co. is of iron, five stories high, and occupies the entire block between 9th and 10th streets and Broadway and 4th avenue. The Methodist publishing and mission building, on the corner of Broad way and 11th street, is also of iron, five stories high with a spacious basement. On the corner of Broadway and 14th street is the six-story iron building of the Domestic sewing machine company, and on the corner of Broadway and 20th street Lord and Taylor's store, which has a frontage of 110 ft., a depth of 128, and a height of 122. There are many other business structures scarcely less worthy of mention. - Among the public buildings is the city hall, in the park, 216 by 105 ft., and three stories high; it is a handsome edifice of the Italian style.
The front and ends are of white marble, and the rear of brown stone. It was erected from 1803 to 1812, at a cost of more than $500,000, and is occupied by the mayor, common council, and other public officers. The "governor's room" in the second story contains the writing desk on which Washington penned his first message to congress, the chairs used by the first congress, the chair in which Washington was inaugurated first president, and a gallery of paintings embracing portraits of the mayors of the city, state governors, and leading federal officers and revolutionary chieftains, mostly by eminent artists. It has also a very fine portrait of Columbus. The building is surmounted by a cupola containing a four-dial clock, which is illuminated at night by gas. In the rear of the city hall and fronting on Chambers street is the new court house, which was commenced in 1861, and has been occupied since 1867, but is not' completed. It is of Corinthian architecture, three stories high, 250 ft. long by 150 ft. wide, and the crown of the dome is to be 210 ft. above the sidewalk. The walls are of Massachusetts white marble; the beams, staircases, etc are of iron; while black walnut and choice Georgia pine are employed in finishing the interior. The halls are covered with marble tiling.
The main entrance on Chambers street is reached by a flight of 30 broad steps, which are ornamented with marble columns. E. of the court house, in the N. E. corner of the park, are two substantial brown-stone buildings, the larger occupied by courts and offices, and the smaller as an engine and court house. S. of these, E. of the city hall, is the hall of records, a massive stone edifice, once a prison, but now occupied by the registry of deeds. The old post office building (formerly the Middle Dutch church) is in Nassau street. The new building for the post office and United States courts occupies the S. extremity of the City Hall park. It is of Doric and renaissance architecture, with several Louvre domes, and has a front of 279 ft. toward the park and of 144- ft. toward the south, with two equal facades of 262½ ft. on Broadway and Park row. The walls are of Dix island granite, four stories high, besides the Mansard roof. Its cost is between $6,000,000 and $7,000,000. The sub-treasury, formerly the custom house, occupies the site of the old Federal hall on the corner of Wall and Nassau streets, and extends through to Pine street.
It is of white marble, entirely fire-proof, 200 ft. by 90, and 80 ft. high, with Doric porticoes of eight columns on Wall and Pine streets, and a granite roof. The rotunda is 60 ft. in diameter, and the dome is supported by 16 Corinthian columns. Its cost was $1,175,000. The custom house, formerly the merchants' exchange, also in Wall street, on the corner of William street, is 200 by about 160 ft., and 77 ft. high. It is of Quin-cy granite, with a portico having 12 front, 4 middle, and 2 rear columns, each of granite, 38 ft. high and 4½ ft. in diameter. The rotunda is 80 ft. high, and the dome is supported on eight pilasters of fine Italian variegated marble. The cost of the building and ground was $1,800,000. It is inadequate and inconvenient for its present use, and the erection of a new custom house has been strongly urged. The police headquarters is in Mulberry street, between Bleecker and Houston, running through to Mott street. It is built of white marble, and is 70 ft. wide by 187 deep, and five stories high. The "Tombs" or city prison, constructed of granite in the Egyptian style, occupies the block bounded by Centre, Elm, Franklin, and Leonard streets, and is 200 by 253 ft. In front are police court rooms. In the area within executions take place.
The Grand Central depot, in 42d street, between 4th and Madison avenues, is built of brick, stone, and iron, and cost nearly $2,250,000. It is 240 ft. on 42d street by 692 ft. toward Madison avenue, and is surmounted by several Louvre donies. It covers 66½ city lots, and, besides containing waiting and baggage rooms and offices, admits 150 cars. It is the largest and finest depot in the country, and is used by most passenger trains of the New York Central and Hudson River railroad, and by the New York and Harlem and the New York and New Haven railroads. The freight depot of the Hudson River railroad, constructed of brick, granite, and iron, and three stories high, occupies the entire square (formerly St. John's park) bounded by Hudson, Beach, Varick, and Laight streets. On the Hudson street front is a bronze statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt, surrounded by emblematic designs, also in bronze. Odd Fellows' hall, on the corner of Grand and Centre streets, is a large, substantially built, brown-stone building, surmounted by a dome. It contains a series of highly ornamented lodge rooms, richly furnished, and in different styles of architecture, Egyptian, Grecian, Elizabethan, etc.
The masonic temple, of granite, five stories high, on the corner of 23d street and 6th avenue, is 100 by 140 ft., with a dome 50 ft. square rising 155 ft. above the pavement. The grand lodge hall, 84 by 90 ft. and 30 ft. high, will seat 1,200 persons. - The oldest church edifice, until it was torn down in 1875, was the North Dutch, in William street, between Fulton and Ann, erected in 1769. Trinity, in Broadway opposite Wall street, is in the Gothic style, built of brown stone, 102 ft. long, 80 broad and 00 high, with a spire 284 ft. high. It has rich stained windows and a good chime of bells.
New Post Office.
Interior of Grand Central Depot.
The first edifice was destroyed by fire in 1776, and a new one was erected in 1788; the present edifice was commenced in 1839 and consecrated in 1846. It is open every day. The spire commands a magnificent view. St. Paul's, also in Broadway, is 151 by 73 ft., and has a spire 203 ft. high; the front and rear are of brown stone, and the sides of gray stone colored to match; the pediment contains a white marble statue of St. Paul, and below is the monument of (Jen. Richard Montgomery. St. Mark's, in Stuyvesant street, contains in a vault the remains of Gov. Stuyvesant. St. George's, in Stuyvesant square, is 170 by 94ft., with double spires; it is in the Byzantine style, and is one of the most capacious churches in the city. Grace church, in Broadway near 10th street, is of white freestone, and the interior is exceedingly elaborate with carved work and stained glass. Trinity chapel, in 25th street, 180 by 54 ft., has an interior of Caen stone, with a blue ceiling, rich stained windows, tiled floor, and movable seats.
All the above named churches are Episcopal. St. Peter's Catholic church, in Barclay street, is a massive granite building, with an Ionic portico and six granite columns, with a statue of St. Peter. St. Matthew's Lutheran church (originally the first Baptist church), in Broome street, corner of Elizabeth, is of blue stone with battlements of brown stone in the Gothic style, 99 by 75 ft. The Reformed (Dutch) church in Lafayette place, corner of 4th street, is a massive plain building, 110 by 75 ft., with a conical spire. The Washington square Reformed (Dutch) church is a Gothic building of rough granite, with square towers. The Roman Catholic church of the Holy Redeemer, in 3d street, is very large and costly, and richly decorated inside with marble columns and a magnificent altar. The first Presbyterian church, in 5th avenue corner of 11th street, is 119 by 80 ft., and has a spire 160 ft. high. The Presbyterian church in 10th street and University place, of reddish stone, is a Gothic building, 116 by 65 ft., with a spire of 184 ft. The Madison square Presbyterian church is another elegant building. St. Paul's M. E. church, in 4th avenue, is Romanesque, of white marble, 146 by 77 ft.; the spire is 210 ft. high.
Calvary Episcopal church, in 4th avenue and 21st street, is a large and handsome edifice of browm stone, with double towers. On the corner below is the Unitarian church of All Souls, of red brick and cream-colored stone in alternate layers, with variegated marble door columns. The free Episcopal church of the Holy Communion, in 6th avenue and 20th street, is of sandstone, cruciform in plan, 104 by 66 ft., with a turret 70 ft. high. The Congregational church (Broadway Tabernacle) in 34th street and 6th avenue is a line Gothic edifice, with elaborate ornamentation. The Reformed (Dutch) church in 5th avenue, on the corner of 29th street, is an elegant white marble building, with a tall spire of the same material. The fourth Universalist church, in 5th avenue on the corner of 45th street, is in the Gothic style. The main building is 100 by 80 ft., and 90 ft. high. The front is 95 ft., and the towers are 185ft. The "Brick" church (Presbyterian), in 5th avenue on the corner of 37th street, is a spacious brick edifice, with a lofty spire. The first Baptist church, in Park avenue on the corner of 39th street, is a capacious and handsome edifice.
Other noteworthy church edifices are the Reformed (Dutch) church on the corner of 5th avenue and 48th street; St. Thomas's (Episcopal), on the corner of 5th avenue and 53d street; the Fifth avenue Presbyterian church, on the corner of 55th street;. the Madison avenue Reformed (Dutch) church, on the corner of 57th street, with a spire 188 ft. high; the Presbyterian memorial church, in Madison avenue, corner of 53d street; St. Bartholomew's (Episcopal), in Madison avenue, corner of 44th street; the church of the Holy Trinity (Episcopal), in Madison avenue, corner of 42d street; the church of the Covenant (Presbyterian), on the corner of Park avenue and 35th street; and the Unitarian church of the Messiah, in 34th street, on the corner of Park avenue. The Jewish temple Emanuel, in 5th avenue on the corner of 43d street, is the finest specimen of Saracenic architecture in America; the interior is magnificently decorated in the oriental style. The largest church edifice in the city, and one of the largest and finest on the continent, is St. Patrick's cathedral (Catholic), in 5th avenue between 51st and 52d streets, commenced in 1858 and still in progress.
It is constructed of white marble in the decorated Gothic style, and is 332 ft. long, with a general breadth of 132, and at the transept of 174 ft. At the front are to be two spires, each 328 ft, high, flanking a central gable 156 ft. high. - There are 30 public parks and triangular spaces, with few exceptions adorned with trees, flowers, and grass plots, and mostly enclosed with substantial iron fences. The Battery, at the S. extremity of the city, looking out upon the bay, so called from having been the site of an early fortification, was at one time the fashionable resort of the citizens, and was surrounded by the residences of the wealthy. It subsequently fell into neglect, but within a few years it has been enlarged, protected by a substantial sea wall, and beautifully laid out. It embraces 21 acres. The Bowling Green, so called from its use prior to the revolution, is just above the Battery at the foot of Broadway, and comprises half an acre. The City Hall park, fronting on Broadway, half a mile above the Battery, has an area of 8¼ acres, of which more than 2 acres are covered by buildings.
In Printing House square, E. of the park, is a statue of Franklin. The principal other parks, besides Central and Mount Morris square, are Washington square (8 acres), between W. 4th street and Waverley place and Wooster and Macdougal streets, used as the city cemetery until 18:52; Tompkins square (10½.V acres), between avenue A and avenue B and 7th and 10th streets, used as a parade ground; Union square CM, acres), between 14th and 17th streets and 4th avenue and Broadway; Stuyvesant park (4¼ acres), between loth and 17th streets, and divided by 2d avenue into two distinct parks; Madison square (6½ acres), between 23d and 20th streets and Madison and 5th avenues; and Reservoir square (4¾ acres), E. of 0th avenue, between 40th and 42d streets, and separated from 5th avenue by the distrib-uting reservoir. In Union square are a statue of Lincoln and an equestrian statue of Washington; and near Madison square, at the intersection of Broadway and 5th avenue, is a monument commemorating the achievements of Gen. Worth in the Mexican war. Gramercy park (l½ acre), between 20th and 21st streets and 3d and 4th avenues, is a private ground, belonging to the surrounding property owners.
Central park, the great park of the city and one of the largest and finest in the world, was laid out in 1858. It is situated between 59th and 110th streets and 5th and 8th avenues, and is 2½ m. long by ½ m. wide, embracing 843 acres, to which has recently been added Manhattan square (24 acres), which joins it on the west, lying between 8th and 9th avenues and 77th and 81st streets. Between 79th and 90th streets a large portion of the park is occupied by the two Cro-ton reservoirs, the smaller one comprising 35 and the larger 107 acres. It has 18 entrances, 4 at each end and 5 on each side, and four streets (05th, 79th, 85th, and 97th) cross it, to afford opportunity for traffic, passing under the park walks and drives. The original surface was exceedingly rough and unattractive, consisting chiefly of rock and marsh. Art has overcome the natural defects, and the park now, with its fine trees, its beautiful flowers and shrubbery, its walks and drives, and numerous other attractions, is a delightful resort. It contains three artificial lakes, bridges, arches, and other architectural ornaments, buildings for various purposes, statuary, fountains, etc.
The old arsenal, a three-story stone building, near the S. E. corner of the park, contains the collections of the "American Museum of Natural History" and the meteorological observatory. In the same building and the surrounding cages is the menagerie of living animals, reptiles, and birds, presented or loaned to the city, comprising many rare specimens. A new building for the museum of natural history is (1875) nearly completed in Manhattan square; and another is in progress in the E. part of the park, near 82d street and 5th avenue, for the metropolitan museum of art, now in 14th street. These are to be erected by the park commissioners at the public cost. (See Park.) Mount Morris square is situated on the line of 5th avenue between 120th and 124th streets, and embraces 20 acres. In the centre rises a rocky eminence to the height of 101 ft. above the sea and 80 ft. above the surrounding plain, commanding magnificent views. The level portion has been handsomely laid out, and walks have been made to the summit of the hill.
Morningside park, embracing an irregular area of 47½7/0 acres E. of 10th avenue, between 110th and 123d streets; High Bridge park (23.1/3. acres), at the approach to High bridge; and Riverside park (177.86 acres), along the bank of the Hudson between 72d and 129th streets, are not yet laid out. Fleetwood park in the 23d ward, and Jerome park in the 24th, are favorite race courses. The Bowling Green, City Hall park, Washington square, Union square, Stuy. vesant park, Gramercy park, Madison square, and some others contain fountains. The public parks are under the control of four commissioners, of whom all except the president serve without pay.. The only cemetery now in use on Manhattan island is that of Trinity church, between 153d and 155th streets and 10th avenue and Hudson river. It comprises 25 acres tastefully laid out and well kept, and contains many fine tombs and monuments. Woodlawn cemetery is in the 24th ward, on the bank of the Bronx river near the N. boundary of the city. It is situated on a wooded ridge, comprises more than 300 acres, and was laid out in 1865. The grounds have been finely improved.
The principal other cemeteries in use are the New York Bay cemetery, on the W. shore of the bay, 2½. m. below Jersey City, and Greenwood, Cypress Hills, Evergreens, and Calvary, on Long island. (See Brooklyn, vol. iii., p. 319.) Trinity churchyard contains a monument to the patriots who died in prison during the revolution, and St. Paul's one in memory of Thomas Addis Emmet. The cemetery in 2d street between 1st and 2d avenues also contains a number of monuments.. The climate of New York, tempered by its proximity to the ocean, is generally mild, though changeable; there is considerable hot weather in summer, and the cold in winter is occasionally severe. The meteorological observatory in Central park, organized in 1869, is provided with self-recording instruments invented by Daniel Draper, the director, which register continuously the movements of the thermometer and barometer, the direction, force, and velocity of the wind, and the rainfall. The average monthly temperature and fall of rain and snow for the six years ending with 1874 have been as follows:
Reformed (Dutch) Church, 5th avenue and 4Sth street.
Roman Catholic Cathedral.
The maximum temperature during the period was 98° above zero, and the minimum 2° below zero. The average number of rainy days per year was 112 1/3; of snowy days, 19. The average duration of rain storms per year was 29d. 6h. 32m.; of snow storms, 5d. 23h. 20m. - The growth of the city has been extremely rapid, the population according to different colonial, state, and federal censuses having been as follows:
The figures for 1870 include 13,072 colored persons, 12 Chinese, and 9 Indians. The following facts are taken from the census of 1870:
Number attending school during the year.
Persons 10 years old and upward unable to read.
Number of families.
Persons to a family.
Number of dwellings.
Persons to a dwelling.
Of the natives, 484,109 were born in New York 8,061 in New Jersey, 5,995 in Massachusetts, 5,140 in Connecticut, 5,099 in Pennsylvania, 2,073 in Virginia and West Virginia, 2,028 in Maryland, 1,235 in Ohio, and 1,224 in Maine: and there were living in the city persons born in every other state and in several of the territories." The foreigners embrace 234,594 natives of the British isles (including 201909 Irish, 24,44:2 English, 7,502 Scotch, and 584 Welsh), 151,216 of Germany, 8,265 of France. 4,419 of British America, 2,794 of Italy, 2,737 of Austria (exclusive of Hungary and Bohemia), 2,612 of Scandinavia (including 1,558 Swedes, 682 Danes, and 372 Norwegians), 2,393 of Poland, 2,178 of Switzerland, 1,487 of Bohemia, 1,294 of Cuba, 1,237 of Holland. 1,151 of Russia, 521 of Hungary, 489 of the West indies (exclusive of Cuba), 453 of Spain, 325 of Belgium, 211 of South America, and 717 of about 20 other countries. There were 457,117 male and 485,175 female inhabitants; 250,353 (122,626 males and 127,727 females) between the ages of 5 and 18.; 213,937 males between 18 and 45; 249,91)0 males 21 years old and upward, of whom 188,276 were citizens of the United States and 61,714 unnaturalized foreigners.
Of those attending school, 141,677 were native and 13,926 foreign born, 77,867 males and 77,736 females. There were 62,238 persons 10 years old and upward unable to write, of whom 8,447 were native and 53.791 foreign born, 18,905 males, and 43,333 females; 3,894 between 10 and 15 years of age, 4.423 between 15 and 21, and 53,921 (15,-711 males and 38,210 females) 21 and upward. Of the 350,556 persons 10 years old and upward returned as engaged in all occupations, 264.385 were males and 86,171 females, and 8,456 were between 10 and 15 years of age. There were employed in agriculture, 1,401; in professional and personal services, 115,259, including 2,549 barbers and hairdressers, 1,535 boarding and lodging house keepers, 715 clergymen, 49,440 domestic servants, 4,832 hotel and restaurant keepers and employees, 316 journalists, 28,451 laborers, 5,604 blunderers and laundresses, 1,283 lawyers, 1,278 livery stable keepers and hostlers, 4.222 government officials and employees, 1,741 physicians and surgeons, and 3,511 teachers; in trade and transportation, 88,611, including 23,872 traders and dealers, 4,744 hucksters, peddlers, and commercial travellers, 27,590 clerks, salesmen, and accountants, 2,625 engaged in banking and brokerage of money and stocks. 730 in insurance, 924 officials and employees of express companies, 2,003 of railroad companies, 917 of street railroad companies. 298 of telegraph companies, 9,813 carmen, draymen, teamsters, etc, and 4,463 sailors, steamboatmen, etc.; in manufactures 145,285 including 3,855 bakers, 3,533 blacksmiths, 2,276 bookbinders and finishers, 6,960 boot and shoe makers, 6,586 masons and stone- cutters, 4,870 butchers, 5,071 cabinet makers and upholsterers, 10,427 carpenters and joiners, 5,550 cigar makers, etc, 1,101 confectioners, 1,606 coopers, 1,477 cotton and woollen mill operatives, 1,744 hat and cap makers, 2,296 iron and steel workers, 3,787 machinists, 9,747 milliners, dress and mantua makers, 5,824 painters and varnishers, 1,432 plasterers, 2,584 plumbers and gas fitters, 5,134 printers, 1,353 ship riggers, carpenters, etc, 18,564 tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses, and 1,562 tinners.
New York averages more than twice as many persons as Philadelphia to a dwelling, and 4#76 more than Fall River, Mass., which conies next to it in this respect among the cities of the Union. The peculiar shape of Manhattan island and the difficulty of transit between its extremities have tended to crowd the population into tenement houses in the lower portion, some parts of which rival the most crowded quarters of any other civilized city. The four most thickly inhabited districts of New York and London compare as follows:
Number of inhabitants to the acre.
Number of inhabitants to the acre.
There are about 24,000 tenement houses (containing three or more families living independently). The average transient population has been estimated at 30,000. Since the census the annexation of Morrisania (pop. in 1870, 19,609), West Farms (9,372), and Kingsbridge (about 2.500) has added 31,481 inhabitants, making the population in 1870 within the present limits of the city 973,773. If we apply the ratio of increase that prevailed between 1860 and 1870, the present population (1875) will be about 1,050,000. These figures, confined to the corporate limits of the city, do not give an adequate idea of New York as a business centre. Thousands of people doing business here reside beyond the city limits, coming and going every morning and evening, while Brooklyn, Jersey City, and other neighboring communities are directly dependent upon and practically parts of New York. The country within a radius of 20 m. from the city hall (embracing the S. portion of Westchester co., Kings and the greater part of Queens co., on Long island, Staten island, and Union, Hudson, Essex, and a portion of Passaic and Bergen cos., N. J.) would add, according to the census of 1870, about 925,000 inhabitants (375,000 from New Jersey and 550,000 from New York), and would raise the present population of the metropolis to more than 2,000,000, of whom 1,800,000 reside within 10 m. of the city hall.
The circle thus described would include some not properly in the category, but would exclude probably an equal number that should be included. - The hotels of New York are among the largest and finest in the world. Chief among them are the Brevoort, Everett, Gilsey, and Hoffman houses, and the Brunswick, Clarendon, Fifth Avenue, Grand, Grand Central, Metropolitan, New York, St. Cloud, St. Denis, St. James, St. Nicholas, Union Square, Westminster, Westmoreland, and Windsor hotels; and of more than 75 other large hotels, several are not much inferior to those named. The Astor house, a massive five-story granite building in Broadway opposite the new post office, the front occupying an entire block, was long a leading hotel, accommodating about 600 guests. It was built by John Jacob Astor, and was opened in 1836. It is now (1875) undergoing alterations for the purpose of adapting the two lower stories to business purposes. The first story was always occupied by stores. The St. Nicholas, opened in 1854, is six stories high, fronting about 275 ft. on Broadway and 200 on Spring street, built of white marble and brown freestone, and has 600 rooms with accommodations for 1,000 guests. It is luxuriously furnished throughout.
The Metropolitan fronts 278 ft. on Broadway, with a wing on Prince street 200 by 25 ft. The main building is about 60 ft. deep, six stories high, all of brown freestone. This also is elegantly furnished. The Grand Central hotel is in Broadway between Amity and Bleecker streets, extending through to Mercer street. It is constructed of brick and marble, is eight stories high, and covers 14 full lots. It is magnificently furnished. The building has a frontage of 175 ft., a depth of 200 ft,, and is 127 ft. high to the cornice, which is surmounted by a Mansard roof. One of the most expensive and luxurious is the Fifth Avenue hotel, at the junction of Broadway, 5th avenue, and 23d street, opposite Madison square. It is of white marble, six stories high, fronting on three streets, and having room for nearly 1,000 guests. The Windsor hotel, the most recent, is a large and elegant brick structure, seven stories high, the front occupying the entire block on 5th avenue between 46th and 47th streets. In the magnificence of its appointments it is unsurpassed.
The Buckingham hotel, in 50th street at the corner of 5th avenue, of brick trimmed with brown stone and seven stories high, is to be opened in the summer of 1875. Some of the hotels are conducted on the European plan, guests hiring rooms, and procuring meals at the restaurant of the hotel or elsewhere; others are kept on the American or full-board plan. Nowhere is the habit of eating away from home so general as in New York, owing to the great distance between residences and places of business; and this habit has made eating houses, lunch rooms, oyster saloons, bar rooms, etc, a prominent feature of the town. They are everywhere, open lay and night, and thronged by all classes, according to their quality. The most fashionable restaurant is that of Dclmonico in 5th avenue and 14th street. - Horse cars traverse the principal avenues, and there are several lines running across town from river to river. Lines of omnibuses also run to and from the principal Brooklyn ferries along Broadway and 5th avenue and some other streets. These means of conveyance, however, but inadequately accommodate citizens residing in the upper part of the city. Various projects of more rapid transit, both by underground and elevated railways, have been discussed, but the problem is still unsolved.
At the close of 1874 there were 16 horse railroad companies in operation, and one line (the New York Elevated railroad) run by steam, having an aggregate paid-in capital of $15,107,670; funded and floating debt, $11,093,057 55; cost of road and equipments, $24,816,820 97; length of road laid, 132.93 m.; number of cars, 1,403; number of horses, 10,688; number of passengers carried during the year, 151,925,632; cost of operating road and for repairs, £6,683,139 42; earnings, $8,449,825 64; number of persons killed, 26; number injured, 68. The eight principal lines, with the number of passengers carried by each, are: Third Avenue, 26,588,-000; Broadway and Seventh Avenue (University Place), 19,065,584; Eighth Avenue, 16,-100,354; Dry Dock, East Broadway, and Battery, 15,850,345; Sixth Avenue, 15,050,426; Central Park, North and East River, 14,276,-767; Second Avenue, 14,032,275; Fourth Avenue, 9,720,697. The last named line, opened in 1832, is a branch of the New York and Harlem railroad. It was the first street horse railroad ever constructed, and was not imitated till 1852, when the Sixth Avenue railroad was opened. One of the 17 lines runs from Harlem bridge to Fordham and West Farms; the others are on Manhattan island.
The Elevated railroad runs along Greenwich street and 9th avenue from near the Battery to 34th street. The track is supported by iron posts about 16 ft, high, and the cars are drawn by dummy engines. The fare on the horse cars is commonly five cents and on the omnibuses ten cents, There are 15 steam ferries across East river, viz.: 12 to Brooklyn, 2 to Hunter's Point, and 1 to Astoria; 3 across the bay to Staten island; and 8 across North river, viz.: 5 to Jersey City, 2 to Hoboken, and 1 to Weehawken. These run every few minutes during the day, and some of them all night. Boats also ply to other neighboring points for the accommodation of passengers. An immense suspension bridge is in course of construction across the East river to Brooklyn. (See Bridge, and Brooklyn.) New York has railroad communication with the east by means of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford line, and with the north and west by the New York and Harlem and the New York Central and Hudson River lines. The freight trains and some local passenger trains of the last named come in at the depot in 30th street and 9th avenue, whence the cars are drawn by dummy engines to the freight depot in St. John's park.
Convenient and well arranged cattle yards have been opened by this line, extending from 60th to 63d street, and from 11th avenue to the Hudson river. Other trains on the lines named arrive at the Grand Central depot, whence the freight cars of all except the Hudson River line are drawn by horses to the freight depot in Centre street, passing through the tunnel under 4th avenue from 40th to 33d street. Above the Grand Central depot the work of sinking the tracks is now (1875) in progress, so that the cars for the most part to Harlem river will pass through a tunnel under 4th avenue. Half the cost of this work is borne by the city, and half by the New York and Harlem railroad company. By ferry to Jersey City and Hoboken New York communicates with the Pennsylvania, Central of New Jersey, New Jersey Midland, Northern New Jersey, Erie, and Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western railroads for the south and west. The Morris canal terminates at Jersey City. The ferries to Hunter's Point and Brooklyn connect with the various railroads of Long island. - The harbor of New York is one of the finest in the world.
The bar is at Sandy Hook, 18 m. from the city, and has two ship channels, from 21 to 32 ft. at low, and 27 to 39 ft. at high tide, admitting vessels of the heaviest draught, the Great Eastern having passed without danger or difficulty. The lower bay is a safe anchorage, of triangular form, from 9 to 12 m. on each side, the N. E. angle opening into the upper or New York bay, through the Narrows, a deep channel between Long and Staten islands, about 1½ m. long by 1 m. wide. The upper bay is an irregular oval, about 8 by 5 m., opening northward into the Hudson river, eastward through the East river into Long Island sound, and westward into Newark bay. The rivers immediately around the city are deep, so that the heaviest ships can approach any of the wharves, while the bottom affords good anchorage, and the tidal currents keep the channels usually free from ice. The average rise and fall of the tide is 4.3 ft. The lower bay contains 88 sq. m. available for anchorage; the upper bay, 14 sq. m.; and the Hudson and East rivers, 13½ sq. m. Vessels and steamers of light draught now pass to and from Long Island sound through the East river, but the obstructions at Hell Gate render navigation by large vessels dangerous.
The operations in progress for the removal of these obstructions, under the auspices of the I nit d States government, are expected to render the city accessible from the sound by seagoing vessels of the largest size. (See Blasting.) The Harlem river, it is believed, may be improved at a reasonable cost, so as to admit small vessels. The fortifications consist of an unfinished fort at Sandy Hook and several works at the Narrows, in the bay, and at the entrance of East river into the sound. Fort Tompkins on the hill and Fort Wadsworth at the water's edge, with several batteries, are on the W. or Staten island side of the Narrows, while on the E. or Long island side are Fort Hamilton and an exterior battery. Fort Lafayette, on a reef near the E. shore, noted as a place of detention for political prisoners during the civil war, is now useless. In the bay there are Fort Columbus, Castle Williams, and barbette batteries on Governor's island, Fort Wood on Bedloe's island, and Fort Gibson on Ellis island. Fort Schuyler is on Throgg's neck, on the N. side of the entrance to the sound; and on Willet's point, on the S. side, there is another fortification.
The headquarters of the military division of the Atlantic are in W. Houston street on the corner of Greene. There is a navy yard at Brooklyn. The harbor is well provided with lights and beacons. A light ship is stationed off Sandy Hook, and on that point itself are several lighthouses. A prominent light is that on the Nevisink Highlands, S. of Sandy Hook. There are also lights on the E. shore of Staten island and on either side of the Narrows. At the entrance of the sound there is a lighthouse on Throgg's neck and two in the East river, one on North Brother island and the other on the N. point of Blaekwells island. - The shape and situation of Manhattan island are peculiarly favorable to the accommodation of shipping. It has 24¾ m. of available water front, viz.: 13 m. on Hudson river, 9¼ m. on East river, and 2½ m. on Harlem river. Commerce is now mostly carried on below Grand street on East river and 11th street on Hudson river. There are about 70 piers on the former river, and about 80 on the latter. A plan for the improvement of the water front, below 61st street on Hudson river and below Grand street on the East river, has been adopted.
A wall of beton and masonry or masonry alone is to be built so far outside of the present bulkhead as to afford room for a river street 250 ft. wide along the Hudson, and for the most part 200 ft. wide along East river below 31st street, above which the contemplated width is 175 ft. From this wall piers 500 or 600 ft. long are to be projected into the rivers. This plan will give on Hudson river, between the Battery and Gist street, a river-wall line of 25,743 ft. and a pier length of 37,520 ft., with a pier area of 3,325,600 sq. ft.; and on East river, between the Battery and 51st street, a river-wall line of 27,095 ft. and a pier length of 28,000 ft., with a pier area of l,780,000 sq. ft. The total wharf line (piers and river walls) between W. 61st and E. 51st street would therefore be about 37 m., and between W. 11th street and Grand street on East river, 21.43 in. The piers are to be built mostly of preserved wood. The plan is being carried out as rapidly as practicable. The control of the water front is vested in three commissioners of docks. On the East river front facilities are afforded by dry docks and otherwise for repairing vessels of the largest class. New York has communication with the principal coastwise and transatlantic ports by numerous lines of steamers.
Besides the Hudson river and other local boats, there are more than 20 lines to various ports on the Atlantic and gulf coasts, owning 75 steamers, with an aggregate of 75,000 tons. To the West Indies and South America six lines despatch 25 steamers with an aggregate tonnage of 75,000. These, include the Pacific Mail line, running via the isthmus of Panama to San Francisco, and a line to Rio de Janeiro. There are 12 lines of ocean steamers to British ports, with 105 ships of 310,4(10 tons, and 7 lines to continental ports, with 69 ships of 205,(114 tons; total transatlantic; lines, 18, with 174 ships of 516,074 tons. European steamers leave regularly on four days in the week: Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. The principal lines run to Antwerp, Bremen, Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Hamburg, Havre, Liverpool (several), London, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Rotterdam, and Stettin, one or more of them touching at Bergen (Norway), Brest, Cherbourg, Copenhagen, Cork, Plymouth, Queenstown, and Southampton. - New York is preeminently a commercial city, ranking among the first in the world.
More, than half the foreign commerce; of the United States is carried on through the customs district of which it is the port, and about two thirds of the duties are, here collected, the whole, amount for the year ending June.30, 1874, being $100,522,284 63, of which $109,549,797 79 was collected in the New York district. This district, besides the city, embraces the greater part of Long island, including Brooklyn; Sta-ten island; the New Jersey shore N. of Staten island, including Jersey City; and the shores of Hudson river. The following table exhibits the growth of the foreign commerce of the district, and its percentage of that of the whole United States:
Exports of foreign products.
Total foregin commerce.
The fiscal years end on Sept. 30 prior to 1843, after which they end on June 30. The values given in the table are in gold, with the exception of the domestic exports, which from 1802 arc mostly in currency. The imports for the nine months ending March 31, 1875, were $275,154,929; exports, $246,399,551. The following tables of imports and domestic, exports for the year ending June.'50, 1874, embrace the principal countries and articles:
Central American states...........
Danish West, Indies.............
French West Indies.............
Dominion Of Canada............
British West Indies.............
British East Indies..............
British possessions in Africa
British possessions in Australia...
Dutch West Indies..............
Dutch East Indies
Other Spanish possessions
Sweden and Norway
United States of Colombia
All other places
*These figures relate to the entire state, but not far from 95 per cent, of the values represented belong to this port.
Sugar (1,000,252,669 lbs).
Dress goods (58,390,219 sq. yds.)..
Cloths and cassimeres
Carpets (2,510,097 sq. yds.)........
Coffee (172,595,005 lbs).
Dress abd piece goods
Raw (343, 670 lbs).
Hosiery, shirts, and drawers......
Bleached and unbleached (19,592,-
634 sq. yds).
Printed, painted, or colored (l4,-
500,06) Sq. yds).
Gold and silver bullion and coin................
Iron and steel manufactures:
Steel railroad bars (224,287,614 lbs).
Pig iron (106,756,827 lbs.).........
Tea (39,931.653 lbs.)...........................
Hides and skins, not furs......................
In plates (988,210 cwt.) ..........
In bars, blocks, or pigs (85,659 cwt).
Fruits and nuts
Tobacco and manufactures of:
Leaf tobacco (8,559,065 lbs.).......
Cigars (746.3799 lbs.)..............
Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines.........
Leather (8,546,529 lbs.)........................
Wines, spirits, and cordials
Glass and glassware
Soda and salts of (133,795,145 lbs.)..............
Wool (21,601,625 lbs).
Melado and sirup of sugar cane (s6,S06,943 lbs.).
Flax seed (2,084,475 bushels)...................
Molasses (13,729,643 galls).
Gloves of kid. etc. (448,719 doz. pairs)........
Earthen, Stone, and china ware
Rags of cotton or linen (65,042,194 lbs).
Furs and fur skins....................
Hemp (16,640 tons)....................
Books, pamphlets, engravings, etc.........
Watches and watch movements and materials..
Straw and palm-leaf manufactures..
Buttons and button materials partly fitted..
Wood and manufactures of.......
Human and manufactures of......
Other and manufactures of....
Gums (9,895,429 lbs.).
Opium and extracts of (250,604 lbs.).
Law (8.008 tons)
Barley (1,067.01s bushels)
Lead (27,622,256 lbs.)..
Paintings, chromo-lithographs, photographs and statuary .............
Barks medicinal (4.730.540 lbs )
Paper and manufactures of
Rice (29,864,744 lbs).
Beer and other malt liquors (995 033 galls
Jewelry and manufactures of gold and silver....
Bread and breadstuff's:
Wheat (41,482,167 bush).
Wheat flour (2,098,036 bbls )
Indian corn (18,696,175 bush )
14 059 455
Rye (1,844.589 bush).
Indian corn meal (201,991 bbls.).
Bread and biscuit (8,186,436 lbs.)..
Bacon and hams (238,602,635 lbs.).
Lard (160,870, 982 lbs.)...........
Chesse (88,315,565 lbs.
Pork (42,482,749 lbs.).............
Beef (22,443,121 lbs.)............
Butter (3,620,053 lbs.)............
Gold and silver bullion and coin
Raw (237,855,558 lbs.)............
Mineral, illuminating (129,213,255 galls).
Mineral, crude (13,367,003 galls.).
Naphthas (7,893,742 galls )........
Sperm and whale (834,496 galls.)..
Leaf (160.258,360 lbs.)............
Iron and steel manufactures:
Other manufactures of
Tallow (67,207,231 lbs.).............
Leather (11,960,991 lbs.)............
Furs and fur skins
Oil cake (122,378,065 lbs.)...........
Hides and skins, not furs...........
Drugs, chemicals, and medicines
Sewing machines and parts of......
Rosin and turpentine (322.042 bbls.).
Hemp and manufactures of
Hemp and manufactures of
Clocks and parts of
The quantity and value of tea imported since 1857 are given below:
Quantity, lbs. "
Previous to 1855 about one half the imports consisted of dry goods, but since that time the proportion of general merchandise has steadily increased, and dry goods now form less than one third of the total. The value of foreign dry goods imported into New York since 1849 has been as follows:
The relative proportion of the different classes of dry goods for the last three years are shown in the following table:
VALUE OF IMPORTS.
The movements of shipping in the foreign trade of the district for the year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows:
The following were the entrances and clearances in the coastwise trade for the same year:
The number and tonnage of each class of vessels belonging in the district on June 30, 1874, and the same particulars for those built during the year ending on that date, are shown in the following table:
Of the first total 847, tonnage 580,424, were registered; 5,225, tonnage 731,643, enrolled; and 558 (under 20 tons), tonnage 0,456, licensed. The number of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in the district on June 30, 1873, was 7,071, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,353,147, viz.: sailing vessels, 2,793, tonnage 596,789; steamers, 771, tonnage 349,313; barges, 525, tonnage 106,407; canal boats, 2,982, tonnage 300,638. The number of vessels built in the district during the year ending on that date was 601, with an aggregate tonnage of 71,545. - About two thirds of the immigrants to the United States land at New York. The number landing at this port during the last ten years, compared with the entire immigration, has been as follows:
The whole number of aliens landing at New York since 1847 is 5,438,544. In that year a state board of emigration was constituted, which has in charge the interests of immigrants. The general landing depot is in Castle Garden at the Battery. This structure was originally a detached fort surrounded by water, erected by the federal government in 1807 and called Castle Clinton. It was ceded to the city in 1822, and was subsequently used as a place of amusement until leased by the commissioners of emigration in 1855. It was in this building that Jenny Lind made her first appearance in America. The commissioners have several institutions on Ward's island for the accommodation of sick and needy immigrants, viz.: the Verplanck state hospital, a lunatic asylum, houses of refuge, a nursery'or home for children, etc. They generally contain about 1,000 inmates. (See Emigration, vol. vi., p. 573.) The quarantine establishment is situated on artificial islands constructed for the purpose on the West bank, a shoal off the E. shore of Staten island. The health officer of the port resides at the "boarding station," on Staten island.
The West Bank hospital, completed in 1869 at a cost of more than $500,-000, is a one-story edifice, divided into eight wards, each 89 ft. long and 24 wide, and each capable of accommodating 50 patients. It is lighted with gas and connected with the city by telegraph. There is also a building for the detention of persons exposed to disease while on passage in infected vessels, and a warehouse for the storage of infected goods. These institutions are under the control of a state board of quarantine commissioners. - Only partial statistics of the internal and coasting trade are obtainable. The former is carried on by means of the Hudson river and the Erie and other canals, as well as by rail. The completion of the Erie canal in 1825 made New York the maritime outlet for the surplus produce of the great west. Previous to that time western produce went down the Susquehanna to Baltimore or the Schuylkill to Philadelphia; and except in the region tributary to the Hudson river and Long Island sound, New York had no domestic commerce.
The five following tables relating to the principal articles of domestic produce are from the annual report of the produce exchange for 1873-'4:
RECEIPTS FOR NINE CALENDAR YEARS.
Corn meal, bbls
Corn meal, sacks......
Total grrain (reducing flour and meal), bush.
Beef bbls, and tcs
Cut meals bills and tcs.
Lard, bbls. and tcs....
Dressed bogs, No.....
Oil cake, pkgs........
Crude turpentine, bbls.
Spirits turpentine, bbls.
EXPORTS TO FOREIGN PORTS FOR THE SAME PERIOD.
Corn meal, bbls......
Total grain (reducing Hour and meal), bush.
Beef, bbls. and tcs.....
31 507 800
† Cheese, lbs..........
Crude turpentine, bbls.
Spirits turpentine, bbls.
* Including malt.
† From 1866 to 1870, inclusive, the exports are from May 1 to April 80.
RECEIPTS OF LITE STOCK SINCE 1860.
Corn meal, bbls
Corn meal, sacks
Beef, bbls, and tcs
Lard bbls and tcs
Cut meats, pkgs
Dressed hogs, No
Live hogs. no
Spirits turopentine, bbls
Crude turpentine, bbls
Oil cake, pkgs.............
Total estimated value ...............................
There are other articles which would swell the aggregate value to more than $300,000,000. These include buckwheat flour, fish, apples and other fruits, vegetables, cattle, sheep, horses, hay, hops, cotton, tobacco, oils, coal, wood, and numerous articles of minor importance. Cotton is brought here from all parts of the south for shipment. Immense quantities of coal are required to supply the European steamers as well as for domestic use.
* About 70 dozen to a barrel.
Corn meal, bbls............
Barley malt, bush..........
Clover seed, tags..........
Beeg, bbls. and tcs
Oil cake, lbs
Crude turpentine, bbls.....
Spirits " " ....
Total estimated value
There are in New York and Brooklyn 63 stationary grain warehouses, including stores, with a storage capacity of 11,450,000 bushels, and 33 floating elevators, with a transfer capacity of both in the aggregate of 195,000 bushels per hour. The operations in Spanish and leaf tobacco for the last five years were:
Taken for consumption.
Stock on hand at beginning of year.
The receipts of wool and the deliveries of naval stores for consumption since 1867 have been:
NAVAL STORES, BBLS.
From domestic ports and interrior
From foreign ports.
The following table exhibits the quantity of coffee and of domestic and foreign sugar and molasses taken from the port for consumption fur 20 years:
The value of foreign dry goods thrown upon the market in 1872 was $132,330,806; in 1873, $ll5,488,346; in 1874, $108,898,694. The importers and jobbers of New York supply directly or indirectly a large portion of the demand of the country for foreign goods and many articles of domestic manufacture, and their agents are found in every section of the Union. Its retail stores are unsurpassed for size and magnificence by those of any other city. The chamber of commerce, an influential body of leading merchants and business men, organized in 1708 and incorporated by royal charter in 1770, holds monthly meetings to consider questions affecting the interests of trade and commerce generally. It publishes annual reports, from which a part of the commercial statistics of this article are derived. The legislative act of April 24, 1874, created a tribunal of arbitration for the settlement of mercantile or commercial disputes between members of the chamber, or other persons who may voluntarily submit to its jurisdiction. The arbitrator is appointed by the governor with the consent of the senate during good behavior; his decisions are final, and a judgment may be entered thereon with the same force and effect as a judgment of the supreme court.
The produce exchange, cotton exchange, and other similar organizations are important bodies. - On Oct. 2, 1874, there were 48 national banks in the city, and their condition was as follows:
Loans and discounts
U. S. bonds on hand...........................
Other stocks and bonds........................
Due from other national banks.................
Due from other banks and bankers.............
Real estate, furniture, and fixtuics.............
Cheeks and other cash items...................
Exchanges for clearing house
Bills of other national banks...................
Bills of state banks
U. S. certificates of deposit.....................
5 per cent, redemption fund with U. S, treasurer.
Additional amount with U. S. treasurer.........
National bank notes outstanding
State bank notes outstanding..................
U. S. deposits.................................
Deposits of U.S. disbursing officers
Due to national banks
Due to other banks and bankers
Notes and bills rediscounted
The number of state banks of deposit and discount on Jan. 1, 1875, was 26, and their condition was as follows:
Loans and discounts, less due from directors and brokers
Due from banks
Due from directors
Due from brokers
Stocks, promissory notes, and IT. S. certificates of indebtedness ............................
Bonds and mortgases..........................
Bills of solvent banks and U. S. demand and legal-tender notes .......................
Loss and expense account.....................
Assets, not included under either of the above heads ......................................
Notes in circulation ....................
Due banks .......................
Due individuals and corporations other than banks and depositors ........................
Due treasurer of the state of New York ...................
Due depositors on demand.....................
Amount due, not included under either of the above heads ........................
The clearing house, organized in 1853 to facilitate the transaction of business and the settlement of accounts between its members, comprised 59 banks at the close of 1874. Its transactions during the year were as follows: exchanges, $22,223,212,644; balances, $1,024,-709,941. A gold exchange was introduced into the clearing-house transactions in 1872, the business of which in 1874 was as follows: exchanges, $2,226,832,248; balances, $332,-395,085. There were 44 savings banks on Jan. 1, 1875: aggregate resources, $195,335,-164; number of accounts open, 494,086; amount due depositors, $180,010,703. The three having the largest amounts of deposits are: Bowery savings bank, $27,169,481; bank for savings, $20,582,990; seamen's bank for savings, $13,822,402. There are 10 trust companies: aggregate resources July 1, 1874, $55,-489,822; paid-in capital, $11,318,000; deposits in trust, $22,050,068; general deposits, $14,-801,720. The number of fire insurance companies on Jan. 1, 1875, was 54, and of fire and marine companies, 17: aggregate assets, $41,-961,107; liabilities, except scrip, and capital, $10,487,652; scrip, $694,621; capital stock paid in, $20,104,020; fire risks outstanding, $1,906,696,231; marine and inland risks outstanding, $2,074,314. There were 9 marine insurance companies: aggregate assets, $25,- 035,786; liabilities, except scrip and capital, $7,444,444; scrip, $11,974,655; joint stock capital, $1,662,080; marine and inland risks outstanding, $166,835,990; fire risks outstanding, $8,725,514. The condition of the life insurance companies, 20 in number, was as follows: aggregate assets, $189,813,950; liabilities, except capital, $163,249,701; capital stock, $3,555,500; number of policies outstanding, 356,944; amount of same, $973,115,417. The United States assay office was established in 1854. Its operations to the close of 1874 were as follows: gold deposits, $286,113,919; silver deposits, $32,320,330; silver parted from gold, $2,094,265; fine silver bars manufactured, $18,349,245; fine gold bars manufactured, $222,302,258; gold transmitted to Philadelphia mint for coinage, $145,700,196; silver transmitted, $19,271,990. The deposits of bullion in 1874 were $12,415,944; gold and silver bars manufactured, $9,802,326; bullion transmitted to mint, $5,083,148. - The manufactures of New York, though secondary in importance to its commercial and mercantile interests, are varied arid extensive.
In the value of products, according to the census of 1870, it is the first city in the Union, though surpassed by Philadelphia in the value of materials used, amount of capital invested, and number of establishments and hands employed. The whole number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 7,624, employing 1,261 steam engines of 28,716 horse power, and 16 water wheels of 863 horse power; number of hands employed, 129,577, of whom 91,305 were males above 16, 32,281 females above 15, and 5,991 youth; amount of capital invested, $129,-952,262; wages paid during the year, $63,824,-040; value of materials used, $178,696,939; of products, $332,951,520. The statistics of the principal branches are as follows:
No. of establishments.
No. of bands employed.
Value of materials.
Value of products
Artificial flowers....... ................................
Bags, other than paper......................................
Belting and hose (leather)...................................
Billiard and bagatelle tables.................................
Boots and shoes
Brass founding and finishing
Brass, rolled and sheet... .............................
Bread and other bakery products
Brooms and wisp brushes.................................
Carpets, other than rag
Carriages and wagons
Chromos and lithographs
" women's ........
Coffee and spices, ground
Collars and cuffs, paper.....................................
Drugs and chemicals ..........
Eeathers. cleaned dressed etc .......
Flcuring mill products
Fruits, canned and preserved
No. of establishment-.
No. of hands employed.
Value of materials.
Value of products.
Furniture, not specified
Gas and lamp fixtures
Gold leaf and foil
Grease and tallow
Hats and caps
Hoop skirts and corsets
India-rubber and elastic goods
Irom, forged and rolled
" bolts, nuts, &c
nails and spikes, cut, etc...............................
" railing, wrought
" morocco, tanned, &c
Machinery, not specified
" engines and boilers
Marble and stone work
Masonry, brick and stone
Mineral and soda waters
Molasses and sugar, refined
Musical instruments, not specified
" " organs
" " pianos
" pther than printing
Printing of cloths..........................................
Printing, not specified
Saddlery and harness.......................................
Sash, doors, and blinds.....................................
Ship building and repairing.................................
Sioap and candles..........................................
Straw goods ............................
Tin, copper, and sheer-iron ware
Tobacco and cigars
other than cigars, and snuff...................
Umbrellas and canes
In the district annexed since the census there are some important establishments, the most noteworthy of which are the extensive breweries in Morrisania. The value of manufactures in 1860 was $159,107,369. - Under the charter of 1873, the city is governed by a mayor and a hoard of 22 aldermen, with various hoards of commissioners. It is di-divided into 24 wards and 557 election districts, forms the first judicial district of the state, and. with the exception of the 23d and 24th wards (which elect with Westchester co. until a new apportionment is made), sends 5 senators and 21 assemblymen to the state legislature, and 7 members to congress. The mayor is elected by the qualified voters for a term of two years, and receives an annual salary of $12,000. The aldermen are chosen annually, and receive a salary of $4,000 each, except the president of the board, who receives $5,000. Six are elected by the voters of the city at large (no one being permitted to vote for more than four candidates), and three from each of the four lower senate districts (no one being permitted to vote for more than two). The upper senate district with the 23d and 24th wards elects four aldermen (no one being permitted to vote for more than three). The commissioners and heads of departments are appointed by the mayor with the consent of the board of aldermen.
They receive salaries varying from $3,000 to $15,000 a year, and their terms of office vary from three to six years. The principal officers of the finance department are the comptroller and chamberlain or treasurer; the latter receives a salary of $30,000, out of which he pays clerk hire and office expenses. The department of taxes and assessments is under the direction of three commissioners. The mayor, comptroller, president of the board of aldermen, and president of the department of taxes and assessments constitute the board of apportionment, which fixes the amount to be raised by taxation. The president of the department of taxes and assessments and two others, appointed by the mayor and removable at pleasure, are commissioners of accounts, whose duty it is to examine the accounts and expenditures of the various departments. The commissioner of public works has charge of the public buildings, streets, sewers, water, gas, etc. The superintendent of buildings is charged with the duty of seeing that the laws and ordinances respecting the construction of buildings are complied with. The principal officers of the law department are the corporation counsel, corporation attorney, and public administrator.
The board of health consists of the president of the board of police, the health officer of the port (a state official), and two commissioners. Three commissioners of excise grant licenses for the sale of intoxicating liquors. The courts of general jurisdiction in civil matters are the supreme court for the first district, with five justices (salary $17,500), and the superior court and court of common pleas with six judges each (salary $15,000). The justices and judges are elected for a term of 14 years. The surrogate, recorder, and city judge (salary $15,000 each) are elected for six years. The superior criminal courts are the oyer and terminer, held by a justice of the supreme court, and the general sessions, held by the recorder or city judge (after Jan. 1,1876, to consist of three judges, term 14 years). The marine court has civil jurisdiction to the amount of $1,000, and consists of six judges (salary $10,000) elected for six years. ' For the purposes of district courts, which have civil jurisdiction to the amount of $250, the city is divided into 10 judicial districts, in each of which a justice (salary $8,000) is elected for a term of six years.
There are 11 police justices (salary $8,000), appointed by the mayor with the consent of the board of aldermen for a term of 10 years, each of whom has power to hold a police court in either of the six police court districts.
Two police justices hold the court of special sessions, with power to try cases of misdemeanor. The sheriff, county clerk, district attorney, and register are the principal other officers. The county government in most respects is identical with that of the city, the aldermen acting as supervisors. The United States courts for the southern district of New York are held in the city. For police purposes it is divided into 32 precincts, with one sub-precinct. The river and harbor police constitute one of these precincts, employing a steamer and several small boats in patrolling the waters adjacent to the city. The force consists of a superintendent, 4 inspectors, 35 captains, 140 sergeants, 78 doormen (attached to the station houses), and 2,260 patrolmen. Included in these numbers are the sanitary squad, 64 men; court squad, 42; mounted squad, 13; and detective force, 30. There are in addition 20 surgeons, a superintendent of telegraphs and four telegraph operators at the central office, and a chief clerk and 21 clerks. The police department is under the control of four commissioners. Attached to it is the bureau of street cleaning. The central office is connected with the different stations by lines of telegraph.
The value of lost property restored to owners by the department in 1874 exceeded $1,200,000; number of lodgings furnished in the station houses, about 230,000, of which three fourths were to persons classed as "habituals;" number of lost children restored to their parents, more than 4,000. The number of prisoners arraigned before the police courts during the year ending Oct. 31, 1874, was 84,821 (60,213 males and 24,608 females), of whom 35,561 were discharged, 49,251 held for trial, and 9 cases were pending at the date of the report. Of those held, 32,906 were males and 16,345 females; 40,827 were disposed of by the magistrates, and 8,424 were sent to the general and special sessions for trial; 10,671 were born in the United States, 18,089 in Ireland, 3,927 in Germany, 1,753 in other foreign countries, and the nativity of 14,811 was not given. The number arraigned for different classes of offences, with the disposition of cases, was as follows:
Held for trial
Held for trial..................
Fined or bailed
Held for trial..................
Children sent to reformatories
The fines collected through the police courts and court of special sessions amounted to $71,-287 25. The paid fire department, organized in 1865, is one of the best equipped and most efficient in the world. The city is divided into ten divisions, in each of which a battalion is organized consisting of several companies. The force consists of a chief and 748 officers and men, organized into 42 steam engine companies, 18 hook and ladder companies, and 4 chemical engine companies. The chemical engines carry their own supply of extinguishing fluid. Steam engines used by the department are drawn by horses, except live, which are propelled by the steam they generate. There are four boats equipped for extinguishing fires on the water front, of which two belong to the department of charities and correction and one to the police department. The central office in Mercer street is connected with the different engine houses by telegraph wires, and there are 548 street boxes, from which an alarm of tire may be transmitted instantaneously. The telegraph force consists of a superintendent, a chief operator, and six assistants. The lire department is under the control of three commissioners.
The bureau of combustibles connected with it is charged with the duty of regulating and licensing the storage and sale of dangerous combustible material. The business of the fire marshal is to investigate the causes of tires and to secure the arrest and punishment of incendiaries. The following table gives the number of fires and the loss in each year since 1866:
No. of fires.
No. of fires.
New York is supplied with pure water from Croton river, a small stream in Westchester co., by an aqueduct completed in 1842. A dam was thrown across the river, raising the water 40 ft. and forming Croton lake. The aqueduct proper is constructed of stone, brick, and cement, arched above and below, is about 7½ ft. wide and 8½ high, with an inclination of 13 in. to the mile, and has a capacity of 115,000,-000 gallons daily. The water is carried across the Harlem river in cast-iron pipes on a bridge of granite (known as the High bridge), 1,460 ft. long, which is supported by 14 piers, the crown of the highest arch being 116 ft. above high-water mark. High bridge terminates on Manhattan island at 174th street, forms a wide footway, and affords magnificent views. The receiving reservoir in Central park contains 150,000,000 gallons, and the retaining reservoir just above it 1,030,000,000 gallons. The distributing reservoir covers more than four acres on Murray lull, between 40th and 42d streets, fronting on 5th avenue, and holds 20,000,000 gallons. It is divided into two parts, is 45 ft. above the pavements and 115 ft, above tide water, and affords a tine view from the walks that surround it. The length of the aqueduct from Croton lake to the distributing reservoir is 40½ m.
A "high service" reservoir holding 11,000,000 gallons, and a tower to support a tank holding 55,000 gallons, have been constructed in Highbridge park, for supplying the more elevated portions of the city. The water to fill the reservoir and tank is pumped from the aqueduct by powerful engines. The storage reservoir at Boyd's Corners, Putnam co., completed in 1873, will hold 3,000,000,000 gallons. The cost of the works for supplying the city with water to the close of 1874 was $25,000,000. A water tax is imposed upon the buildings supplied, which in 1874 amounted to $1,361,857 43, and from 1842 to the close of 1874 to $24,717,017 50. Measures are in progress for supplying the new wards with Croton water. The number of miles of water pipes laid on Manhattan island in May, 1873, was 370.6; the number of fire hydrants was 3,136. There were laid out on the map of the island 448 m. of streets, roads, and avenues, of which 378 m. were legally opened, 303 m. regulated and graded, and 253 m. paved. For drainage purposes there were 2S8.54 m. of sewers, 6.02 m. of underground drains, 14.72 m. of culverts, and 3,854 receiving basins. The number of public gas lamps was 18,910; miles of gas mains, 543f. The island is supplied with gas by six companies, and the new wards by two companies.
Several free floating baths are maintained in summer by the city for the accommodation of the poorer citizens. The number of plans and specifications for new buildings filed in 1874 was nearly 1,300, estimated to cost about $15,800,000; number of plans submitted for alteration of old buildings, about 1,400; estimated cost, more than $3,000,000. - The death rate in 1872 was 32.6 per 1,000; in 1873, 29.08; in 1874, 27.59. The number of deaths in the last year was 28,597, of which 9,700 occurred from zymotic, 6,000 from constitutional, 9,900 from local, and 1,766 from developmental diseases, and 1,231 from violence. The chief causes were: smallpox, 466; measles, 317; scarlatina, 895; diphtheria, 1,672; croup, 583; whooping cough, 482; dysentery and diarrhoea, 3,591; cerebro-spinal fever, 151; typhus and typhoid fever, 291; inanition, 301; intemperance, 223; hydrocephalus, 616; consumption, 4,038; tabes mesenterica and marasmus, 579; convulsions, 675; meningitis, 557; bronchitis, 1,039; pneumonia, 2,386; Bright's disease, 814; premature births, 544; accidents and negligence, 996; homicides, 56; suicides, 174. The number of births registered was 25,663; of marriages, 8,397. The actual number of births is at least 35,000 per year, and of marriages probably about 10,500. The num ber of licenses granted by the board of excise from May 1, 1S74, to January, 1875, was 3,827; license fees received, $263,702 61. The whole number of liquor and lager-beer saloons is estimated at 8,000. - There are 12 public markets now in use, most of which are insignificant in appearance.
They are under the administration of the finance department, and are placed in charge of a superintendent of markets. Stalls are assigned to marketmen upon the payment of fees. Washington market, occupying the block bounded by Greenwich, West, Fulton, and Vesey streets, is the largest, including West Washington market, which is separated from it by West street. On the E. side of South street, opposite Fulton market, which occupies the block bounded by South, Front, Beekman, and Fulton streets, is the great fish depotof the city. Manhattan market, erected by a company in 1871, occupies the block bounded by 34th and 85th streets and 11th and 12th avenues. It is of iron, stone, and Philadelphia brick, and is 800 ft. long, 200 ft. deep, and 80 ft. high in the interior. Only a small portion of it is in use. - The assessed value of property in 1805 was $25,045,867. The subsequent valuation and taxation at intervals of five years to 1865 were as follows:
The valuation of real and personal estate, the rate of taxation, and the amount of taxation for state and city purposes, for the last six years, are as follows:
Valuation of real estate.
Valuation of personal estate.
Rate of tax on $100.
Tax paid to state for common schools.
Total taxation for slate purposes.
Tax for purposes of the city and county.
In addition to the amounts paid to the state from taxation, there were paid also in the years 1870, 1871, and 1874, the following amounts derived from stocks, viz.: in 1870, for redemption of state debt, $2,070,000; in 1871, for the same, $1,972,602 36; in 1874, for state canal fund deficiency, $3,899,494 86. The amounts payable to the state for taxes in 1875 are fixed, as shown above; but the valuations, rate of tax, and total amount of taxes to be levied in that year are only approximate. The real value of property in the city is estimated in the United States census of 1870 at $3,484,-268,700. The appropriations for the expenses of the city government during 1875 amount to $36,956,472 23. The principal items are as follows: state taxes, $6,630,940 14; common schools for the state, $1,381,445 86; interest on city debt, $9,300,000; payment of stocks and bonds falling due, etc, $1,454,763 33; Fourth avenue improvement, $1,598,767 50; taxable charities (under acts of legislature), $825,905; police department, $3,387,325, including $3,147,400 for salaries of commissioners and force; fire department, $1,316,-000, including $897,600 for salaries of commissioner and force; public schools $3,480,-000, including $2,686,500 for salaries; salaries of subordinates of departments, etc. (except police, fire, docks, and schools), $1,462,-186; salaries of mayor, aldermen, chamberlain, and heads of departments (excepting commissioners of police, fire, and docks), $229,500; salaries of judiciary, $897,345; supplies for department of charities and correction, including $90,000 for outdoor poor, $841,000; cleaning streets, $800,000; lamps and gas, $750,000; maintenance and government of parks and places (exclusive of salaries), about $284,000; sheriffs', coroners', jurors', and witnesses' fees, $162,000; election expenses, $169,-000; college of the city of.
New York, $150,-000; contingencies of departments, $147,750; construction, repairs, supplies, and cleaning public offices, $142,500; printing, stationery, and blank books, $137,500; repairing and maintaining Croton aqueduct, $120,000; school moneys to corporate schools, $103,000; repaving and repairs to stone pavements, $100,000; judgments, $100,000; repairing and renewal of pipes, etc, $80,000; rents, $75,000; repairing and cleaning sewers, $75,000; assessments and taxes on corporation property, $50,000; keeping in order wooden and concrete pavements, $50,000. The city debt on Dec. 31, 1874, was as follows: funded debt, $118,-241,557 24; temporary debt, $23,562,200 76; total debt, $141,803,758; net debt (less sinking fund, $26,615,778), $115,187,980. There were also $208,011 in cash and $710,106 in bonds and mortgages applicable in reduction of the debt. In addition to the above amounts, there is a floating debt which hag been variously estimated at from $10,000,000 to $20,000,000. Many of the claims constituting this debt are in litigation. The city with Staten island forms the first military division of the state, and has several well drilled regiments of militia. - The New York post office is by far the most important in the country.
Besides the general office, there are on Manhattan island 14 stations, designated by the letters of the alphabet, and 895 street letter boxes. The number of employees is 1,044, viz.: officers in charge of divisions and bureaus, 13; superintendents of stations, 14; clerks, 636; carriera 381 The following are the average quarterly statistics: receipts, $093,759 45; expenditures, $288,229 86; city letters and postal cards delivered, 8,213,004; mail letters and postal ranis delivered, 19,840,734; foreign let-ters received, 1,927,586; foreign letters sent, 2,092 383; domestic mail letters despatched, 25,300,000; newspapers received for delivery and despatch, 27,453,800; registered letters received for delivery, 95,000; registered letters and postage stamp packages forwarded, 125,000; domestic money orders issued, 8,559, amounting to $193,913 32; domestic money orders paid, 174,291, amounting to $1,768,668 26; amount of foreign money orders issued, $592,-5o2 30. In the 23d and 24th wards there are 8 branch offices, under the jurisdiction of the general city post office. - Three commissioners of public charities and correction have charge of paupers and criminals. The institutions under their care, in point of extent and excellence, compare favorably with any in the world.
They are situated partly in the city proper, but chiefly on the islands in the East river and on Hart's island. The buildings are substantial and spacious, and the principal ones on Black-well's island are of granite quarried there by the convicts. In the city are Bellevue hospital, the reception hospitals in the City Hall park (closed) and in 99th street near 10th avenue, the city prison, four district prisons connected with the police courts, the free labor bureau and intelligence office in Clinton place, and the outdoor poor department in the central office of the commissioners, a handsome building on the corner of 3d avenue and 11th street. Bellevue hospital is at the foot of E. 26th street, and contains 35 wards, with accommodations for about 1,200 patients. The buildings, erected at different times, with various changes and additions, now form a continuous line of 350 ft., four stories high, the central one being crowned with a lofty observatory. The grounds, several acres in extent, are finely cultivated. In connection with the hospital a building has been erected for the morgue, in which the bodies of the unknown dead are exhibited for identification.
The bureau of medical and surgical relief for the outdoor poor affords aid to applicants who do not require continuous treatment in the hospital. Provision is also made for attendance upon the sick poor at their homes by dividing the city into 11 medical districts and assigning a resident physician to each. The ambulance corps affords prompt relief in case of casualties, the telegraph speedily summoning an ambulance with a competent surgeon. The outdoor poor department affords temporary aid to deserving applicants. The city is divided into 11 districts, for each of which a visitor is appointed, whose duty it is to investigate the circumstances of applicants and report to the superintendent of outdoor poor. the free labor bureau has proved of great value in procuring situations for those out of work, the prisons are for the detention of those charged with crimes and offences pending the disposition of their cases by the courts, and in the city prison persons under sentence of death are confined until execution. The county jail in Ludlow street is used for the detention and incarceration of persons arrested upon civil process, and also for the detention of persons charged with crimes and offences under United States law; it is under the control of the sheriff.
The institutions on Black-well's island (all under the care of the commissioners) are the almshouse, epileptic and paralytic hospital, charity, smallpox, and typhus fever hospitals, hospital for incurables, convalescent hospital, penitentiary, workhouse, lunatic asylum (for females), and blind asylum. Admission to the almshouse is restricted to the old and infirm destitute, two wards, constituting the blind asylum, being set apart for the blind. The penitentiary is for the confinement of prisoners convicted of misdemeanors, while the workhouse receives those committed for vagrancy and for drunkenness and disorderly conduct. In winter also able-bodied persons who solicit charity are frequently sent to the workhouse. On Ward's island are the inebriate asylum, the soldiers' retreat, and the insane asylum (for males). The soldiers' retreat is a home for invalid soldiers of the late war who served in regiments raised in the city. On Randall's island are the nursery, the infant hospital, and the idiot asylum. These form the juvenile branch of the almshouse. The nursery receives children over four years old whom their parents have abandoned or whom they are unable to support.
The children are apprenticed or placed in families for adoption at the expiration of three months, if not reclaimed by their parents, and no child is retained after he has completed his 10th year. There is a hospital connected with the institution. Provision is made for the instruction of the inmates by the board of education. In the infant hospital provision is made for foundlings, orphans, and children attended by indigent mothers; here they are cared for until old enough to be transferred to the nursery, unless adopted or reclaimed by their parents. The idiot asylum has two classes of inmates, the hopelessly imbecile, and those capable of improvement; for the latter a special school is provided. (See Idiocy, vol. ix., p. 175.) On Hart's island are the industrial school and the city cemetery for the interment of the pauper and unknown dead; the island comprises about 100 acres, and is situated in Long Island sound, 15 m. from the city hall and 1 m. from the mainland. All except three acres was purchased by the city in 1868. The industrial school is designed for the reformation of vicious boys, who receive instruction and are trained to subordination and labor.
There is also under the control of the commissioners of charities and correction a nautical school, conducted on board the school ship Mercury, to which boys are transferred from the industrial school; they receive practice and instruction to fit them for service in the merchant marine or navy. The following table is taken from the latest annual report of the department (for 1871):
Number of inmates during the year.
Reception hospital (City Hall park)..
Typhus fever hospt'l
Epileptic and paralytic hospital.....
Patients treated at home by department physicians..
Patients treated at bureau for out door sick .....
Number of inmates during the year.
Relieved by superintendent of outdoor poor
Free labor bureau (employment obtained for) .............
The number receiving medical treatment in hospitals or otherwise was 44,672; number of poor relieved in almshouse, asylums, or otherwise, 30,954; number in schools, 1,738; in prisons and reformatories, 75,016. The number of bodies received at the morgue was 214, of which 127 were recognized; number of interments in the city cemetery, 3,502. The current expenses of the various institutions amounted to $1,063,990, viz.: charitable, $820,788; correctional, $243,202. The amount expended in relief to outdoor poor was $42,776 50 in money and about $22,500 in coal. The number of inmates in the various institutions on Nov. 15, 1874, was as follows:
No. of inmates
Second district prison.
Third district prison..
Fourth district prison.
Fifth district prison...
Reception hospital (park) .............
Reception hospital (99th street)........
Typhus fever hospital.
No. of inmates
Epileptic and paralytic hospital............
Besides, the city institutions, there are numerous important and well directed charities managed by associations or corporations, some of which receive aid from the city or state. Among them are 21 associations for the relief of the poor; 25 hospitals, of which 15 have commodious buildings; 30 dispensaries, furnishing medicine and medical aid; 13 orphan asylums; more than 50 daily industrial schools, with an average attendance of from 7,000 to 10,000; and more than 100 asylums, homes, lodging houses, and institutions of various kinds. The organized local charitable societies and institutions receive and disburse about $2,500,000 a year. The New York association for improving the condition of the poor was organized in 1843. Its operations embrace the entire island of Manhattan, which is divided into 371 districts, for each of which a visitor is appointed, these being assisted by an advisory committee of five for each ward. Relief is granted only through the visitor of the district. Articles of food and clothing only are given, and efforts are made to encourage in the recipients industry and virtuous habits.
In 1874 the number of families relieved was 24,091, comprising 89,845 persons, at a cost of $96,431. The whole number of families relieved from the organization of the association was 226,446, comprising 952,868 persons, at a cost of $1,468,071. The children's aid society (office in E. 4th street) was formed in 1853, to "improve the condition of the poor and destitute children of the city," particularly the newsboys, bootblacks, and other street children. It has established lodging houses, furnished with reading rooms, music, and meals, and industrial schools, in which the children are instructed in the rudiments of learning and in useful occupations. The homeless, after some instruction, are provided with good situations in the west. There are five lodging houses, of which the most noteworthy are the newsboys' lodging house on the corner of Duane and New Chambers streets, and the girls' lodging house in St. Mark's place. The number of industrial schools supported in 1874 was 34 (21 day and 13 night schools); number of pupils enrolled, 10,288 (5,335 boys and 4,953 girls); average attendance, 3,556. The number provided with homes and employment in that year was 3,985; entire number since the organization of the society, 36,363. The American female guardian society and home for the friendless furnishes a temporary asylum for friendless children and destitute young women.
The aim of the society is to procure homes for the children, who seldom remain many months in the institution. It supports 11 industrial schools in various parts of the city, with an average attendance of about 1,200 children, and expends annually about $70,000 in carrying on its operations. The home is a three-story brick building on E. 30th street, with accommodations for about 150 inmates, erected in 1848. In 29th street, immediately opposite the home and connected with it by a bridge, is a four-story brick edifice in the Romanesque style, erected in 1856, containing the chapel, the school for the inmates of the home, an industrial school, and the offices of the society. The society itself was organized more than 40 years ago. The society for the reformation of juvenile delinquents was incorporated in 1824. The house of refuge under its control is situated on the S. portion of Randall's island, and has 30 acres of land connected with it. The buildings are of brick in the Italian style, the two principal structures presenting a graceful facade nearly 1,000 ft. long. They contain 886 dormitories, school rooms, hospital departments, dining halls, etc, offices, and a chapel capable of seating 1,000 persons. In the rear are the workshops, each 30 by 150 ft. and three stories high.
The society receives for instruction, discipline, and reformation youth who are brought before the courts for petty offences. The boys and girls are kept in separate buildings, and the older of the latter who have been guilty of social crime are carefully separated from the more youthful. They are required to work from six to eight hours a day, and to study from four to live hours. The period of detention depends upon their conduct, and upon their discharge situations are procured for the deserving. The number of inmates received to the close of 1872 was 14,675. The number in the institution during 187-4 was 1,367; remaining at the close of the year, 789 (677 boys and 112 girls). The Bloomingdale asylum for the insane, in 117th street, between 10th and 11th avenues, was opened in 1821. The grounds embrace 45 acres, partly devoted to gardening and containing a great variety of trees and ornamental shrubbery. The asylum buildings, three in number, are capable of accommodating about 170 patients, and are always full. Patients are received from any part of the state, and are required to pay from $8 to $30 a week according to their circumstances.
About 300 acres of land have recently been purchased at White Plains, Westchester co., with a view of removing the institution to that place at some future day. The Bloomingdale asylum is a branch of the New York hospital, and is chiefly managed by a committee of its board of governors. The hospital was chartered in 1771, and for many years the buildings in Broadway, between Duane and Worth streets, were open for the care of the sick and injured. The site was leased in 1869, and the following year the institution was closed. It has a fine library and pathological cabinet at No. 8 W. 16th street, open for consultation and examination without charge. A new hospital is soon to be erected in loth street, in the rear of the library. The woman's hospital of the state of New York was opened in 1855 for the purpose of putting in practice the discoveries of Dr. J. M. Sims (made public in 1852) in the treatment of the diseases of women. The building now occupied, on 4th avenue and 50th street, was opened in 1867. It is a handsome structure, the basement being of polished stone and the four additional stories of brick, with angles and pilasters ornamented with finely wrought ver-miculated blocks.
It contains 75 beds, and cost with furniture $200,000. The upper floor is devoted to charity patients, the others to pay patients. The New York asylum for lyini--in women, in Marion street, was erected in 1830, though the society which established it was organized in 1822. It is entirely free. Only virtuous, indigent women are admitted, but physicians are appointed by the society to attend such as apply and are not admitted. Since the opening of the asylum about 4,000 inmates have been received, and more than 13,000 outdoor patients have been treated. The New York institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb was incorporated in 1816. It was originally situated in 50th street, but was removed in 1856 to Washington Heights, 9 m. N. of the city hall, where it has 28 acres of land overlooking the Hudson. The buildings, which are the largest and finest of the kind in the world, cover about two acres, and are of brick, with basement, copings, and trimmings of granite. The front walls, which are panelled, are faced with yellow Milwaukee brick. The main edifice, which contains the offices, library, etc, is flanked by two wings, one devoted to the male and the other to the female pupils.
Another building contains the chapel, dining room, etc, and a brick structure has recently been erected for the accommodation of the mechanical department. More than 500 pupils can be accommodated, and about 2,300 have been educated since the opening of the institution. The library contains 2,860 volumes, some of which are rare books on deaf-mute instruction. Deaf mutes are received at the charge of the state or counties, and also as pay pupils. The institution for the improved instruction of deaf mutes, in 7th avenue near 44th street, was organized in 1867. It has received some aid from the state, and in 1870 a grant of land on the W. side of Lexington avenue, between 67th and 68th streets, was made to it by the city, where buildings are to be erected. Instruction is imparted by the method of articulation. The New York institution for the blind was incorporated in 1831, and the school was opened at No. 47 Mercer street the next year. The present site was purchased a few years subsequently, and comprises a plot 200 by 800 ft. fronting on 9th avenue between 33d and 34th streets. The building is of marble, three stories high with Mansard roof, presenting a facade of 175 ft. with a north and a south wing of 125 ft. each.
Indigent blind from the city and from Long and Staten islands are educated at the expense of the state, and pay pupils are also received at $300 a year. About 94 per cent, of those instructed have been state pupils. The number under instruction in 1874 was 193; remaining at the close of the year, 173. The New York juvenile asylum was incorporated in 1851. The buildings now occupied are on a plot of 25 acres, in 176th street, near the High bridge, and consist of a central five-story structure, skirted by two wings of four stories each, with rear extensions and appropriate outbuildings. They are of stone quarried on the premises, find were opened in 1856. A three-story brick edifice, 42 by 108 ft., has recently been erected to accommodate the class rooms, gymnasium, swimming bath, and industrial department. The grounds occupy a lofty eminence, and are laid out in gardens and shaded walks, drives, and play grounds. The libraries contain about 2,000 volumes. The inmates are between 5 and 14 years old, and consist of truant and disobedient children placed in the institution by their parents for discipline or committed by the magistrates for reformation, and of the friendless and neglected committed as vagrants. They are required to work a portion of the day, and also receive literary instruction.
But few remain more than six months, the plan of the institution contemplating the early return of the inmates to their parents, or their indenture to families in the west. The number of children received to the close of 1874 was 17,772. There is a house of reception in W. 13th street, with accommodations for 130 children, and the greater part are retained here a few weeks before being admitted to the asylum. The New York orphan asylum, on the bank of the Hudson between 73d and 74th streets, is a fine Gothic building 120 by 60 ft., with two spacious wings and about nine acres of land. The society was organized in 180G by ladies, and is supported by private donations. It has purchased 37 acres of land at Hastings on the Hudson, and contemplates moving the asylum thither. The Leake and Watts orphan house, near 112th street and 10th avenue, is a large and handsome edifice, delightfully situated in a plot of 120 acres. It has a permanent income, and supports an average of about 120 orphans. The colored orphan asylum was incorporated in 1838. The present beautiful building, occupying a fine plot of ground at 143d street and 10th avenue, was completed in 1868. It is of brick, three stories high with basement, with a frontage of 234 ft. and a depth of 125 ft., surmounted by three unique octagonal towers, and has accommodations for more than 300 children.
The colored home was organized about 1840. The grounds on 1st avenue, between 64th and 65th streets, were purchased in 1848. The buildings form a hollow square, with a fine flower garden in the centre. The institution consists of four departments, the home for the aged and indigent, the hospital, the nursery, and the lying-in department, and annually cares for about 1,000 persons. The union home and school for the maintenance and instruction of the children of volunteer soldiers and sailors, incorporated in 1862, is finely situated at 151st street and the Boulevard. The Five Points mission in Park street, and the Five Points house of industry in Worth street, have been instrumental in reforming that locality (so called from the converging of three streets), which 25 years ago was the worst in the city, crowded with the degraded and crim-nal. The mission was established in 1850, and the building was opened in 1853. It supports a day school, with an average attendance of from 400 to 500, a Sunday school, and a free library and reading room. The scholars are clothed by the society, and receive a daily lunch. More than 2,000 children have been placed in good homes, and many thousand adults have been furnished with situations.
The house of industry had its origin soon after the establishment of the mission, and was designed to furnish employment to women desirous of escaping from an abandoned life. It was incorporated in 1854. The buildings now occupied were partly erected in 1856 and partly in 1870. The school rooms have accommodations for 500 scholars, and the dormitories for more than 300 beds. Meals are furnished to the poor, and other forms of charity administered in the neighborhood. The New York Catholic protectory, incorporated in 1863, receives children of Roman Catholic parents committed by the magistrates for reformation. It is situated at West Chester just across the city line, and has extensive grounds and fine buildings. The number of inmates on Sept. 30, 1874, was 1,842; whole number in the institution during the year ending on that date, 2,877; entire number since its opening, 8,771. The Howard mission and home for little wanderers, in New Bowery, in the midst of one of the most wretched quarters of the city, was established in 1861. It supports day and Sunday schools, and a home for needy children, and distributes food, clothing, and fuel to the deserving poor.
The prison association of New York was organized in 1844, for the purpose of aiding discharged convicts to reform and obtain employment, of befriending persons charged with crime, and of studying the subject of prison discipline. The women's prison association of New York, an outgrowth of this, maintains a home at No. 110 Second avenue. Other institutions, most of which own spacious and handsome buildings, are the Chapin home for the aged and infirm, in E. 66th street; Baptist home for the aged and infirm, in E. 68th street; home for aged Hebrews, in Lexington avenue and 63d street; young women's home, in Washington square; home for women and mission, in Water street; Wilson industrial school, at Avenue A and 8th street; Catholic home for the aged poor, in W. 32d street; Sheltering Arms, for destitute and helpless children, in 129th street and 10th avenue; St. Luke's hospital (Episcopal), in 5th avenue and 54th street; German hospital, in 4th avenue and 77th street; Mt. Sinai hospital (Jewish), in Lexington avenue and 66th street; nursery and child's hospital, with lying-in asylum, in Lexington avenue and 51st street; New York eye and ear infirmary, in 2d avenue and 13th street; institution for the relief of the ruptured and crippled, in Lexington avenue and 42d street; house of rest for consumptives, at Tremont; New York infirmary for women and children, in 2d avenue near 8th street, to be removed to Livingston place; New York ophthalmic hospital, in 23d street and 3d avenue; New York ophthalmic and aural hospital, in E. 12th street; Manhattan eye and ear hospital, in E. 34th street; old ladies' home of the Methodist Episcopal church, in W. 42d street near 8th avenue; home for incurables, at West Farms; Presbyterian home for aged women, in E. 73d street; St. Francis's hospital (Roman Catholic), in 5th street; Episcopal orphan home and asylum, in E. 49th street; Roman Catholic orphan asylums, in Prince street and 5th and Madison avenues; asylum of the New York Magdalen benevolent society, in 5th avenue and 88th street; half orphan asylum, in W. 10th street; house of mercy, for the reformation of fallen women, in 86th street near the Hudson; Hebrew orphan asylum, in 77th street and 3d avenue; orphan asylum of St. Vincent de Paul (Roman Catholic), in 39th street near 7th avenue; Catholic foundling asylum, in 68th street near Lexington avenue; Roosevelt hospital, in 59th street and 10th avenue; Presbyterian hospital, in 70th street and Madison avenue; home for aged and infirm deaf mutes, in E. 13th street; home for the blind, in W. 14th street; asylum for female deaf mutes (Roman Catholic), at Fordham; association for the relief of respectable aged indigent females, in E. 20th street; St. Luke's home for indigent Christian females, in Madison avenue and 89th street; St. Vincent's hospital (Roman Catholic), in 11th street and 7th avenue; St. John's guild, in Varick street; seamen's fund and retreat, with a hospital for seamen on Staten island, and connected with it an asylum for destitute, sick, and infirm families of seamen; sailors' snug harbor, a retreat for superannuated seamen, also on Staten island; marine society; and ladies' home missionary society.
There are about 25 Roman Catholic convents and associations of a similar class. The most prominent are the convent of the Redempto-rists or congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, in 3d street; the congregation of the missionary priests of St. Paul the Apostle (Paulists), in 9th avenue and 59th street; the mother house of the sisters of charity, at Mt. St. Vincent, on the Hudson, near the border of Yonkers; the convent and academy of the ladies of the Sacred Heart, at Manhattanville; St. Catharine's convent of the sisters of mercy, in E. Houston street, which has a house of mercy (refuge for young females) connected with it, an industrial school in Madison avenue and 81st street, and three academics; and the convent of the sisters of the Good Shepherd, in 90th street near the Fast river, with a house for the reformation of fallen women. - The New York city mission and tract society was established in 1827, and reorganized and incorporated in 1866. It employs 30 missionaries, has six mission stations, ten mission chapels, and live mission Sabbath schools, and distributes considerable aid to the poor.
Since 1835 it has expended $850,000 in regular mis-siomiry work, besides more than $100,000 in building mission stations and chapels, and has distributed 41,295,893 tracts in English and some ten other languages. The total expenditures in 1874 were $49,452. The young men's Christian association was formed in 1852. The elegant building in 23d street and 4th avenue was erected in 1868-'9, at a cost of $345,000, the cost of the lots having been $142,000. It is 87 by 175 ft., and five stories high, with a central and three angular towers, and is constructed chiefly of Ohio freestone and New Jersey. brown stone. This edifice contains a hall capable of seating 1,500 persons, a lecture room with seats for 400, a gymnasium, a bath room, a free reading room supplied with the principal American and foreign newspapers and periodicals, a library, and rooms for evening classes in modern languages, penmanship, bookkeeping, etc. The association has several branches in different parts of the city. The American Bible society, next to the British and foreign the largest in the world, was founded in 1816. It has printed the Bible in 29 languages and dialects, besides assisting in publishing and circulating many of the 185 versions of the British and foreign Bible society.
It employs 500 hands, and carries on every branch of its business in the Bible house, erected by the society in 1853 at a cost including ground of more than $300,000. This edifice is of brick, six stories high, and occupies the entire block bounded by 3d and 4th avenues and Stuyvesant and 9th streets, covering with the area in the centre three fourths of an acre. It contains the offices of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions, the New York association for improving the condition of the poor, the New York city mission and tract society, and many other benevolent and religious organizations. Reading rooms for seamen and working men have been established in various parts of the city by the different missionary organizations. There are numerous temperance societies and lodges of freemasons, odd fellows, and many similar orders. - The public schools are under the general management of the board of education, consisting of 21 commissioners of common schools appointed by the mayor for a term of three years (seven retiring annually). There are also three inspectors of common schools for each of the eight school districts into which the city is divided, appointed by the mayor for three years (one retiring annually), and five trustees for each ward chosen by the board of education for five years (one retiring annually). These officers receive no salary.
The board of education appoints a city superintendent of schools and several assistants for a term of two years, a superintendent of school buildings, an engineer, and other officers. The schools are free to all between the ages of 4 and 21 years. The common schools are divided into primary schools with six grades, and grammar schools with eight grades. Besides the ordinary English branches, drawing is taught in all the grades of the grammar schools, and instruction in French may be given in the two higher grades upon the application of the trustees of the ward. German is taught as a part of the regular course in all the grades of the grammar schools in any ward, when in the opinion of the trustees a sufficient number of parents" or guardians desire it. Instruction in vocal music is given in the primary grades. Evening schools are opened during the autumn and winter for those whose ages or avocations prevent them from attending the day schools. There is also an evening high school for males, in which Latin, modern languages, and the higher English branches are taught. The normal college is intended especially for the training of teachers for the common schools, and only pupils of the female grammar schools who have completed the studies of the first grade are admitted.
The faculty consists of five professors, viz.: of intellectual philosophy, Latin and English, physics and chemistry, French and German, and natural science. Each professor has the requisite number of assistants, and there are also a lady superintendent and teachers of music, drawing, mathematics, history, methods of teaching, calisthenics, and penmanship. The course comprises six grades, occupying three years. A model school is connected with the college. Saturday sessions are held for those employed in the common schools. The separate colored normal school has been discontinued. At the close of 1874 the United States sloop of war St. Mary's was placed at the disposal of the board of education by the government for the establishment of a nautical school. Boys in the public schools who manifest a desire to follow a seafaring life are to be admitted. A number of corporate schools connected with asylums and charitable institutions have, under various acts of the legislature, been entitled to a share of the school moneys, and subject to the supervision of the board of education.
The following table is for the year 1873:
* Including idiot asylum.
Number of schools.
Number of teachers.
Model primary school.......
Saturday normal school___
Colored normal school......
Primary schools and departments .........
Colored schools (5 grammar and 4 primary)...........
Total day schools........
Evening high school.......
Colored evening schools
Total evening schools
Total public schools......
* Included with those of the normal college.
Besides those enumerated there were 192 teachers of special branches. The teachers in the evening schools are nearly all taken from among those of the day schools. The total expenditures during the year named amounted to $3,479,011, of which $2,392,829 35 was for salaries of teachers and janitors, $79,562 20 for salaries of employees of the board of education, superintendents, etc, $44,847 72 for rent of school premises, $181,645 96 for supplies for the schools (books, stationery, &c), $100,261 58 for fuel, $26,558 65 for gas, $96,285 27 for apportionment for corporate schools, $271,589 65 for erecting and furnishing new buildings, and the rest for miscellaneous purposes. The value of school buildings belonging to the city was $5,647,000; of lots, $3,045,000. The number of schools, attendance, etc, in 1874, including the new wards, were as follows:
No. of schools.
No. of male teachers.
No. of female teachers.
No. of pupils enrolled.
No. of school buildings.
Total public schools..
Fifteen of the public school buildings were rented. The evening schools are held in the day school buildings. Many of the buildings are lofty and elegant structures, finely arranged for school purposes. The normal college, at 69th street and 4th avenue, completed in 1873, is unsurpassed in its accommodations and appliances by any similar edifice in the country. It is in the secular Gothic style, with a lofty and massive Victoria tower; is 300 ft. long, 125 ft. wide on 4th avenue, 78 ft. wide in the rear, and 70 ft. high. It contains 30 recitation rooms, three large lecture rooms, a calistheni-nm, a library, six retiring rooms for instructors, president's offices, and a main hall capable of seating 1,600. Each recitation room contains seats for 48, and each lecture room for 144 persons. The entire cost of the building was $350,000, and of the furniture and other appliances about $40,000. The model school in the rear, fronting Lexington avenue, accommodates 900 pupils. The college of the city of New York occupies a handsome edifice at 23d street and Lexington avenue, 125 by 80 ft. and four stories high.
It was organized as the free academy in 1848, empowered to confer degrees in 1854, and incorporated as a college in 1866. It is under the control of a board of trustees, consisting of its president and the members of the board of education ex officiis, and is supported by the city. Students are admitted who have passed the highest grade of the grammar schools. The full course comprises five rears, the first year being introductory. Students may choose between the ancient course, with Latin, Greek, and a modern language, and the modern course, with French, German, and Spanish, or Latin instead of German or Spanish. The other studies are the same in both courses and similar to those of other colleges. In the introductory class there is a commercial course for students intending to remain but one year. The degree of bachelor of arts is conferred upon those who complete the ancient course, and that of bachelor of science upon those who complete the modern course. There are professorships of philosophy; of English, Latin, Greek, French, German, and Spanish language and literature respectively; of history and belles-lettres; of mathematics; of mechanics, astronomy, and engineering; of chemistry and physics; of natural history, physiology, and hygiene; and of descriptive geometry and drawing.
The library contains 22,000 volumes, and the repository 9,500 text books. In 1874-'5 there were 14 professors, 20 other instructors, and 824 students, viz.: introductory class, 479 (collegiate course 238, commercial course 241); freshmen, 145; sophomores, 102; juniors, 63; seniors, 35. Of the 345 students in the collegiate classes, 197 were pursuing the ancient and 148 the modern course. The expenditures in 1874 amounted to $162,116 47, of which $128,815 86 was for salaries of instructors and janitors, and $6,548 31 for hooks and supplies for students. - Of the institutions of learning not connected with the city government, Columbia college (Episcopal), the oldest college in the state, situated on Madison avenue and 50th street, is the most prominent. (See Columbia College.) Connected with it are a school of mines, a law school, and the college of physicians and surgeons. The law school is in Great Jones street and Lafayette place. The college of physicians and surgeons has a valuable physiological museum. It was founded in 1791, chartered in 1807, and became connected with Columbia college in 1860. The building, in 4th avenue and 23d street, is of brick and rather plain in appearance.
The university of the city of New York, a Gothic white freestone structure in Washington square, 180 by 100 ft., four stories high, with octangular five - story turrets at the angles, was founded in 1831. It has a department of arts and a department of science, in which instruction is free. A school of art is connected with the scientific department. There are also law and medical departments; the latter is conducted in E. 26th street, opposite Bellevue hospital. Graduates of the law department as well as of the Columbia college law school are admitted to the New York bar without examination. The number of students in all departments of the university in 1873-'4 was 426, of whom 122 were matriculated students in the departments of arts and science, and 15 were art students. The faculty of instruction consisted of 33 professors, 4 adjunct professors, and 6 assistants, besides the chancellor. St. John's college, at Fordham, has been described in the article FORDHAM. The college of St. Francis Xavier, in W. loth street, has besides the usual curriculum postgraduate, grammar, commercial, and preparatory departments. It was organized in 1847 and chartered as a college in 1861. Manhattan college, near 131st street and the Boulevard, embraces collegiate, commercial, and prepara-" tory courses.
These three are Roman Catholic institutions, Manhattan college being under the direction of the Christian Brothers, and St. John's and St. Francis Xavier of the Jesuits. Rutgers female college occupies a handsome edifice in 5th avenue, opposite the distributing reservoir. It has collegiate, academic, and primary departments. It was established in 1838 and chartered as a college in 1867. St. Louis college (Roman Catholic) occupies a fine building in W. 42d street, and is under the direction of the fathers of mercy. It affords various grades of instruction from the kindergarten to the collegiate. The classics hold a secondary place in its curriculum, special attention being paid to modern languages. There are two extensive theological seminaries in the city. The first, known as the general theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, was established in 1819 at New Haven, Conn., soon after removed to New York, and chartered by the legislature in 1822. It occupies two substantial stone buildings, 50 by 110 ft., in 9th avenue and 20th street.
The Union theological seminary (Presbyterian) was founded in 1836, chartered in 1839, and is open for students from every denomination of Christians; but the applicant must be a member in good standing of an evangelical church, and a graduate from college, or able to pass an examination in the usual college branches. The course of study occupies three years. The edifice, of plain brick, is in University place, near Washington square; it contains a chapel, four lecture rooms, a library, and private rooms for about 80 students. A new site was purchased some years since in the upper part of the island, but the directors, desiring a more central situation, have appointed a committee to secure another, which has not yet reported. Besides those already named, there are six medical colleges, a dental college, and a college of pharmacy, viz.: Bellevue hospital medical college; the homoeopathic medical college of the state of New York, 3d avenue and 28d street; the New York medical college and hospital for women, 2d avenue and 12th street; the woman's medical college of the New York infirmary for women and children; Eclectic medical college, admitting both sexes, 26th street between 2d and 3d avenues, with a medical dispensary; New York free medical college for women, in St. Mark's place, with a free dispensary; New York college of dentistry, in 2d avenue near 23d street, with a museum and an infirmary for the treatment of the indigent; and the college of pharmacy of the city of New York, in the university building.
The New York college of veterinary surgeons, in Lexington avenue, is the only institution in the United States specially devoted to veterinary education. It was incorporated in 1857, but did not go into operation till 1864. It has a hospital connected with it, and a museum containing more than 1,500 valuable specimens. The following table embraces the latest statistics of the different collegiate and professional institutions:
Date of incorporation.
Number of instructors.
Number of students.
Volumes in libraries.
Columbia college (academic departments)
Columbia college (school of mines)
University of the city of New York (departments of arts and science)
St. John's college
College of St. Francis Xavier
Rutgers female college
St. Louis college
General thelogical seminary
Union theological seminary
Columbia college law school
University of the city of New York (law department)
College of physicians and surgeons (medical department of Columbia college)-----
University of the city of New York (medical department)
Bellevue hospital medical college
Homoeopathic medical college of the state of New York
New York medical college and hospital for women
Woman's medical college of the New York infirmary for women and children...
Eclectic medical college
New York free medical college for women
New York college of dentistry
College of pharmacy of the city of New York
New York college of veterinary surgeons
The Catholics have about 30 select schools and academies, with from 2,500 to 3,000 pupils, and 56 parochial schools, with about 28,000 pupils. There are numerous other denominational and private schools. The oldest school in the city is that of the Reformed (Dutch) church, in TV. 29th street, founded in 1633. Trinity school (Episcopal), in 7th avenue, was founded in 1709. The Cooper union for the advancement of science and art (see Cooper, Peter) occupies a fine edifice of six stories, 195 ft. on 4th avenue, 143 on 8th street, 155 on 3d avenue, and 86 on 7th street, costing $650,000. In the basement is a large lecture room 125 ft. by 82, and 21 ft. high, in which many political and other public meetings are held. The building contains a free library; a free reading room, with more than 300 American and foreign newspapers and periodicals; free schools of art, wood engraving, photography, and telegraphy for women; a free night school of art for men; and a free night school of science for both sexes. Free lectures are given by distinguished scientific men in the large hall every Saturday evening during the winter. The professors of science may be consulted without cost by inventors or manufacturers of new processes.
The number of instructors connected with the institution in 1873-'4 was 19; number of pupils admitted to the art school for women, 201; school of wood engraving, 39; school of telegraphy, 120; night school of science, 1,160; night school of art, 1,505. The Cooper union, or Cooper institute as it is commonly called, was opened in 1859, and the amount expended in carrying on its various departments to the beginning of 1874 was $529,894 72, the greater portion of which was raised by renting parts of the building. There are a number of commercial colleges and musical conservatories and schools. - The American institute was incorporated in 1829, and is designed for the promotion of agriculture, commerce, manufactures, science, and the arts. It has a valuable library in the Cooper institute, where its meetings are held. Fairs are held annually in October under its auspices in the capacious building in 3d avenue and 63d street, which attract great numbers of visitors. At the close, premiums and medals are awarded to exhibitors. The American geographical society, also in the Cooper institute, was organized in 1852. It has a valuable library of works devoted to geographical science and a collection of 2,000 maps and charts.
The New York historical society, in 2d avenue and 11th street, founded in 1804, has a library particularly rich in American history, and possesses the Abbott collection of Egyptian antiquities, the Lenox collection of Nineveh sculptures, a tine gallery of paintings, etc. The lyceuM of natural history, in Madison avenue, besides a good library, has a collection of 3,000 specimens of plants. The American museum of natural history, in Central park, was incorporated in 1869. Its collections embrace Indian antiquities, minerals, shells, and stuffed and mounted specimens of animals, birds, fishes, insects, etc. It has a library comprising 1,000 volumes of rare conchological and scientific works. It is open to the public, except on Mondays and Tuesdays, which are reserved for special students and the teachers and pupils of the public schools. The metropolitan museum of art, in W. 14th street, besides a gallery of paintings by the old masters, contains the Cesnola collection of Cypriote antiquities, and collections loaned by wealthy citizens, embracing modern pictures and statuary, pottery and porcelain, arms and armor, mediaeval manuscripts, antique and mediasval curiosities, and various articles of vertu. Admission is free on Mondays; on other days a small fee is: charged.
The national academy of design, founded in 1826, occupies a unique building of gray and white marble and blue stone in 23d street and 4th avenue. It has a collection of paintings, and in spring and summer gives exhibitions of recent works of American artists. It also maintains free schools for advanced students in art. - Booth's the-tre, in 23d street and 6th avenue, is a fine capacious edifice, built of Concord granite in the renaissance style, 149 ft. long and 99 ft. high, including the Mansard roof of 24 ft. The Grand opera house, in 8th avenue and 23d street, is a handsome white marble structure in the Italian order, 113 by 98 ft., and 80 ft. high from base to cornice. The Lyceum theatre, in 14th street near 6th avenue, has a handsome front and portico in the classical style. In all of these general dramatic representations arc given. The other theatres have little architectural attraction, but many of them are capacious and elegantly furnished. The leading comedy theatres are Wallack's, in Broadway and 13th street; the Union Square, near it; and the Fifth Avenue, in 28th street near Broadway. Niblo's theatre, in Broadway near Prince street, has been devoted in recent years chiefly to spectacular pieces.
Miscellaneous dramas are represented at Wood's museum, Broadway near 30th street, the Park theatre, Broadway near 22d street, and the Bowery, in the Bowery near Canal street; German plays in the Stadt and Ger-mania theatres, the former in the Bowery near Canal street, and the latter in 14th street near 3d avenue; varieties in Tony Pastor's opera house, Bowery near Spring street, and Theatre Comique, Metropolitan, Olympic, and Globe theatres, all in Broadway between Broome street and Astor place; and minstrelsy in Bryant's opera house, 23d street near 6th avenue, and San Francisco minstrel hall, Broadway near 29th street. The academy of music, in 14th street and Irving place, is devoted chiefly to grand opera; and Steinway hall, nearly adjoining it, is used for concerts and lectures. The square bounded by 4th and Madison avenues and 26th and 27th streets is occupied by the hippodrome, erected and opened by P. T. Barnum. In the Central Park garden, 7th avenue and 59th street, concerts are nightly given during the summer, to audiences of from 1,000 to 2,500 persons, by Theodore Thomas's orchestra of 50 performers.
In the Bowery are numerous German gardens, the largest and most popular of which is the Atlantic, near Canal street, where from 1,000 to 1,500 Germans nightly listen to orchestral music and drink beer. The Tivoli, in 8th street near 3d avenue, and Terrace garden, in 58th street near 3d avenue, are also places of popular resort, chiefly for Germans. The leading clubs are the Union (founded in 1836), the Travellers' (1865), and the Knickerbocker in 5th avenue, the Army and Navy (1871) in W. 27th street, and the New York at the junction of Broadway, 5th avenue, and 25th street, chiefly social; the Century (1847) in E. 15th street near Union square, the Lotos (1870) in Irving place, the Arcadian (1871) in Union place, literary; the Palette (1869) in E. 22d street, composed of artists; the Union League (1863), occupying a fine building in Madison avenue and 26th street, and the Manhattan (1864) in 5th avenue, political, the former republican and the latter democratic; and the New York Yacht club (1844) and the American Jockey club, in Madison avenue and 27th street, sporting, the latter having a house at Fordham. The Union League club was organized during the civil war, and was active in aiding the federal cause. - The Astor library, in Lafayette place, was founded by a legacy from John Jacob Astor in 1848; it is for study and reference, no books being taken away. (See Astor Library.) The mercantile library in Astor place, and the apprentices' library in Broadway, both established in 1820, and the society library in University place, organizedin 1754, are lending libraries, and have reading rooms supplied with the principal American and foreign magazines and newspapers.
The privileges of the mercantile library are obtained by the payment of small annual dues. The society library occupies a building 70 by 100 ft. It belongs to shareholders, but others are entitled to its privileges upon the payment of periodical dues. The apprentices' library belongs to the "General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New York." It is free to apprentices; other persons are required to pay small annual dues. The principal law libraries are that of the New York law institute in Chambers street, accessible to members of the bar on payment of an initiation fee and annual dues, and that of the "Association of the Bar of the City of New York " in W. 27th street, incorporated in 1871. The city library in the city hall, free to all, is a collection consisting chiefly of the city documents and the laws and ordinances of other cities. The Mott memorial free medical and surgical library, in Madison avenue, was founded by the widow of Dr. Valentine Mott, and comprises his medical library of 2,000 volumes, 800 volumes contributed by Dr. Alexander B. Mott, and other donations and purchases.
The other principal libraries of a public character are the eclectic (circulating), in 17th street near Irving place; the printers' free library, in Chambers street; the woman's library, in Bleecker street, belonging to the working women's protective union; that of the "New York Medical Library and Journal Association," in E. 28th street; the Harlem library; and the Washington Heights library. There are also a number of circulating libraries, consisting chiefly of novels. The number of volumes in the various libraries not connected with institutions of learning is as follows:
Acadomy of Design.
Young men's Christian association...
New York hospital..
Lyceum of natural history...........
Medical library and journal association
The Lenox library (free), founded by James Lenox, a wealthy citizen, was chartered in 1870. A splendid building of Lockport limestone has been erected by Mr. Lenox, occupying the entire 5th avenue front between 70th and 71st streets, facing Central park; but the library has not yet been opened. It is to receive the "collection of manuscripts, printed books, engravings and maps, statuary, paintings, drawings, and other works of art" made by the founder, and particularly rich in early American history, Biblical bibliography, and Elizabethan literature. Other donations have been made to the trustees, of which the most important is that of Felix Astoin, comprising about 5,000 French works - The latest statistics of churches are contained in the table below, besides which there are 25 or 30 in the new wards:
Number of organizations.
Number of nissions.
Number of edifices.
Number of sittings.
Value of edifices.
German Evangelical Reformed
Methodist, Welsh Cal-
The miscellaneous churches and missions include one Catholic Apostolic (Irvingite), one Christian Israelite, one Congregational Methodist, one German Swedenborgian, one Greek, one Seventh-day Baptist, and one True Reformed Dutch. There are also four societies of Second Adventists and four of Spiritualists. There are 356 Protestant (evangelical) Sabbath schools, with 88,237 scholars enrolled, and an average attendance of 56,167, and 62 Catholic, Jewish, etc, Sabbath schools, with 27,589 scholars enrolled, and an average attendance of 18,274. - The press of New York in numbers and influence takes the lead in the United States. The number of newspapers and periodicals, according to Powell's " American Newspaper Directory" for 1874, was 398, besides 10 semi-weekly and 20 weekly editions of daily papers, viz.: daily, 28 (including 6 German, 2 French, and 1 Swedish), of which 18 were morning and 10 evening papers; semi-weekly, 7 (1 Italian and 1 Spanish); weekly, 156 (13 German, 2 Spanish, 1 French, and 1 Swedish); tri-monthly, 1 (Spanish); biweekly, 2 (1 German); semi-monthly, 20 (2 German and 2 Spanish); monthly, 168 (3 German, 1 Portuguese, and 1 Spanish); bi-monthly, 1; quarterly, 15 (1 German). The whole number printed in foreign languages was 40, viz.: German, 26; Spanish, 7; French, 3; Swedish, 2; and Italian and Portuguese, 1 each.
There are 7 special Sunday papers and 7 Sunday editions of daily papers. - Henry Hudson discovered Manhattan island in September, 1609, anchoring in New York harbor on the 11th, and sailing up the Hudson on the 12th. The Dutch, in whose service Hudson sailed, despatched vessels in the following years to this region to trade with the Indians for furs, but the first settlement on the island appears to have been made in 1623. In 1624 Cornells Jacobsen May was formally installed as the first director or governor, and was succeeded the next year by William Ver-hulst. In 1626 Peter Minuit arrived as director general, with more ample powers for the organization of a regular government. The same year Fort Amsterdam on the S. point of the island, now the Battery, was commenced. Minuit purchased Manhattan island of the Indians for goods worth $24. Wouter van Twil-ler became governor in 1633, and William Kieft in 1638. In 1644 a fence was built nearly on the line of the present Wall street, and in 1653 the city was enclosed along this line from the East to the North river by a ditch and palisades with breastworks. Peter Stuyvesant, the last of the Dutch governors, arrived in 1647, and ruled for 17 years.
Charles II., having come to the English throne, assumed the Dutch occupancy in North America to be a usurpation, and on March 12, 1664, granted the entire territory to his brother the duke of York. A small fleet arrived in August, and the city surrendered without resistance, Col. Richard Ni-colls assuming the office of governor. The name (New Amsterdam) was changed to New York, and an English form of government was established, which lasted nine years. In July, 1673, the Dutch recaptured the city, named it New Orange, made Anthony Colve governor, and drove out the English. Their triumph was short, for by the peace between England and the states general the city was restored to the British crown, and once more called New York, and the Dutch power was finally ended, Nov. 10, 1674. For the remainder of the 17th century the progress of the city was rapid. The only untoward event of the period was the unsuccessful rebellion of Jacob Leisler in 1689. (See Leislek.) The first Trinity church was built in 1696. In 1702 a malignant epidemic prevailed. The "New York Gazette," the fifth newspaper in the colonies, was begun in 1725, and Zenger's "New York Weekly Journal" in 1733. In 1735 occurred the first great libel suit in the city, regarded as an attack upon the freedom of the press.
It grew out of the claim of Gov. Cosby to half the salary of his acting predecessor. The people took up the quarrel, the " Gazette " supporting Cosby and the "Journal" violently opposing him. Zenger was imprisoned for libel, and Cosby's party strained every nerve bo convict him, but the jury acquitted him. The year 1741 was remarkable for the supposed discovery of a plot on the part of the negroes (slavery having been introduced at an early period) to burn the city and murder the whites, which derived some support from the burning of a part of the public buildings in that year and the breaking out of fires in other places about the same time. Mainly upon the testimony of a single servant girl more than 150 negroes and about 20 whites were imprisoned. About 20 of the negroes were hanged, a smaller number burned at the stake, and more than 75 transported. In 17(55 a congress of delegates from nine colonies met in the city, and adopted a bill of rights, in which they asserted that the sole power of taxation resided in the colonies. In the same year the " Sons of Liberty " were organized to oppose the stamp act. In 1770 a meeting of 3,000 citizens was held, who resolved not to submit to oppression, and a slight collision with the troops occurred.
In 1773 the vigilance committee agreed to resist the landing of tea, and in 1774 a ship thus laden was sent back to England, and 18 chests found in another vessel were thrown overboard. On April 3, 1775, the colonial assembly finally adjourned; on July 25 delegates were elected to the continental congress; and on Aug. 23 congress ordered Capt. Lamb to remove the cannon from the city forts to the Highlands. Resistance was offered from the Asia man-of-war, but 21 pieces, all that were mounted, were secured. On Sept. 15, 1776, by the result of the battle of Long Island, the city fell into the hands of the British, and so remained until the close of the war. On Sept. 21,1776, an extensive fire occurred, all the west side of Broadway from Whitehall to Barclay street being laid in ashes. On Aug. 7, 1778, a fire destroyed 300 buildings around Cruger's wharf, on the East river. The winter of 1780 was very cold; ice covered the bay, and heavy teams and artillery crossed to Staten island. On Nov. 25, 1783, the British finally evacuated the city, and Gen. Washington marched in; the day is still annually celebrated under the name of evacuation day.
During the war the British had nearly destroyed all the churches except the Episcopal, making prisons, riding schools, and stables of them; the college and schools had been closed. The city was the seat of the colonial government until the revolution. From 1784 to 1797 it was the state capital, though two sessions of the legislature were held at Poughkeepsie and three at Albany during the period. From 1785 to 1790 it was the seat of government of the United States. The adoption of the federal constitution was grandly celebrated in 1788; and the inauguration of President Washington took place at the city hall, April 30, 1789. In 1788 a serious riot occurred at the hospital, in consequence of the careless exposure of dissected bodies. The doctors were mobbed, and their houses invaded; some of them fled from the city, and others took refuge in the jail. In 1791 yellow fever carried off 200 victims. The city, now just reaching the lower corner of the present City Hall park, began to extend along the Boston road (Bowery) and Broadway. In 1795 732, and in 1798 2,086 persons died from yellow fever, which returned at intervals till 1805, but with diminishing virulence.
On Sept. 20, 1803, the corner stone of the city hall was laid by Mayor Livingston; the hall was finished in 1812, when the old one in Wall street was sold. In the winter of 1804, 40 stores in Wall, Front, and Water streets were burned. The free school society, the germ of the present board of education, was incorporated in 1805. The streets were now extending across the Canal street marsh, while the collect or swamp where the city prison now stands was being filled up. The spread of population was stimulated by the yellow fever, which drove a third of the people from their dwellings below the park to the woods and fields north of the fresh water. In 1807 Robert Fulton navigated the first steamboat from near New York to Albany. A great fire in Chatham street in 1811 consumed nearly 100 houses. The war of 1812 with Great Britain temporarily checked the city's growth. In 1821 the survey and laying out of the island north of Houston street was completed after 10 years' labor. In the winter of this year the bay was frozen over for the first time in 41 years.
Yellow fever reappeared in 1819, and again in 1822 and 1823 occasioning a great panic; the city south of the park was fenced off and nearly deserted, families, merchants, hanks, and even the city government, removing to Greenwich (now the 9th ward) and upper Broadway. This panic materially improved property north of Canal street, and correspondingly expanded the city. Gas first came into general use in 1825. The city now had 12 wards, and was growing at the rate of 1,000 to 1,500 houses a year - a growth occasioned by the completion of the Erie canal, the first boat from which arrived Nov. 4, 1825. The canal celebration was the grandest affair ever known in the country. In the next decade New York received some severe blows from pestilence, tire, and financial disaster. The cholera appeared in 1832, carrying off 3.513 persons, and again in 1831, taking 971. On Dec. 16, 1835, the most disastrous tire known to the city swept the 1st ward east of Broadway and below Wall street, destroying 648 of the most valuable stores, the merchants' exchange and the South Dutch church, and property valued at more than $18,000,000. With almost miraculous energy the city was rising from these ashes, when the financial explosion of 1837 came, with suspension of specie payments, failures, and bankruptcy throughout the country.
Even this, however, hut momentarily checked the progress of the city. In 1842 the Croton water was introduced. On July 19, 1845, a great fire occurred between Broadway, Exchange place, Broad, and Stone streets, destroying over $5,000,000 worth of property. Several lives were lost in the Astor place riot in May, 1849, growing out of the assumed hostility of two prominent actors. (See Macready.) Cholera came again in the summer of 1849 and carried off 5,071 persons; again in 1855, when 374 died; and lastly in 1866, when it carried off 1,212. The first city railroad (except the Harlem) was built through 6th avenue in 1852, in anticipation of the projected industrial exhibition, which opened with great ceremony (the president of the United States officiating) July 14, 1853, in a magnificent crystal palace in the form of a Greek cross, built of iron and glass, 365½ ft. in diameter each way, with galleries, and a dome 123 ft. high and loo wide, the flooring covering 5¾-aeres. This building was burned in 185s. In 1857 occurred another financial panic.
In the same year the radical change in the control of the police made by the legislature, and the resistance to the act by Mayor Wood, resulted in popular disturbances in June and July. Upon the outbreak of the civil war the citizens of New York responded heartily in behalf of the Union, and during the continuance of the struggle the city furnished 116.382 men (equivalent to 89,183 for three years) to the federal armies, at a net cost of $14,577,214 65. The only serious disturbance during this period was the riot that broke out on Monday, July 13, 1863,. in position to the draft. The mob, composed of the poorer class of the people, held practical possession of the city for several days, and it was not until the 17th that the mayor issued a proclamation declaring the riot suppressed. The offices of the provost marshals where the draft was going on were demolished; stores and dwellings were rifled; many buildings were burned, including the colored orphan asylum, then in 5th avenue; and several negroes, against whom the fury of the mob was particularly directed, were murdered. Collisions took place between the rioters and the troops, who were several times compelled to fire.
The number of persons killed during the riot is estimated at more than 1,000, and the city subsequently paid about $1,500,000 by way of indemnity for losses sustained at the hands of the mob. The draft was resumed in August and completed without resistance. Another riot occurred on July 12, 1871, in which 62 persons were killed, growing out of a procession of Orangemen in commemoration of the battle of the Boyne. Threats having been made by their enemies to break up the procession, the Orangemen were provided with an escort of militia. They were attacked soon after the procession began its march, when the militia fired and dispersed the mob. In the summer of 1871 proofs were furnished that enormous frauds had been perpetrated by the existing officials upon the city treasury, raising the city debt in 2£ years from 850,000,000 to $113,000,000, with outstanding claims to an unknown amount still unadjusted (1875). One of the chief instruments of peculation was the court house, large sums appropriated for its construction finding their way into the pockets of the "ring." The amount ostensibly expended in its erection exceeds $12,000,000. The people were immediately aroused, and assembled in mass meeting in the Cooper institute on Sept. 4, when a committee of 70 members was appointed, to take the necessary measures to ascertain the true state of the treasury, to recover any abstracted moneys, and to secure good government and honest officers.
At the ensuing November election the candidates favorable to the accused parties were defeated by large majorities. The latter were subsequently prosecuted and some of them convicted and sentenced, while others fled the country. Several of the judges were impeached, and resigned or were removed from office. The annexation of a portion of Westchester county in 1873 has already been referred to. - The original charter of New York city, known as the Dongan charter, was granted by James H. in 1686. In 1730 the Montgom-erie charter was granted by George II., and in 1732 it was confirmed by the general assembly of the province. This charter was of the most liberal nature; it made New York practically a free government, established an elective council, and gave unusual privileges to the people. The most important property grants were the exclusive possession and control of the waters to low water mark on all the shores opposite Manhattan island, with the ownership of the ferries for all time, and the proprietorship of all waste and unoccupied lands on the island. The "mayor, aldermen, and commonalty " were made a perpetual corporation. No direct changes were made in this charter for 100 years.
In 1829 the people in city convention prepared, and the legislature adopted, the amended charter of 1830. The next amendments were in 1849, when important changes were made. Other changes were made in 1851 and 1853, and in 1857 the charter was materially changed. It was again amended in 1863, and in 1870 the local government was substantially reorganized. The charter of 1870, amended in 1871, was superseded by the present charter in 1873, and this was itself slightly amended in 1874. All these enactments recognize the Dongan and Montgomerie charters as the source of municipal rights, and upon their provisions rest the vast public and private interests of the city. - See " History of the City of New York," by D. T. Valentine (1853); " History of New York City," by Mary L. Booth (2 vols., 1867); "History of New York City," by William L. Stone (1872); and "New York and its Institutions, 1609-1873: the Bright Side of New York," by the Rev. J. F. Richmond (1873).
* Including one Freewill Baptist.