New Jersey, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 38c 56' and 41° 21' X., and Ion. 73° 54' and 75 33' W.; extreme length 167 m., average breadth 50 m.: area, 8,320 sq. m. It is bounded X. E. by New York; E. by the Hudson river, which separates it from New York, by New York bay, and the Atlantic ocean; S. by the Atlantic and by Delaware bay; and W. by Delaware and Pennsylvania, from which it is separated by the Delaware river. The state is divided into 21 counties, viz.: Atlantic, Bergen, Burlington, Camden, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hudson, Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Ocean, Passaic, Salem, Somerset, Sussex, Union, and Warren. The cities, according to the census of 1870, are: Bridgeton, pop. 6,830; Burlington. 5,817; Camden, 20,045; Elizabeth, 20,832; Harrison, 4,129; Hoboken, 20,297; Jersey City, 82,546; Millville, 6.101; Newark, 105,-059; New Brunswick, 15.05s; Orange, 9,348-Paterson, 33,579; Plainfield, 5,095; Railway', 6,258; Salem, 4,555; and Trenton, the capital, 22.874. The population of the state and its rank in the Union, according to the federal enumeration-, have been:
State Seal of New Jersey.
Of the total population in 1870, which included 16 Indians and 15 Chinese and Japanese, 449,-672 were males and 456,424 females; 717,153 were native born, of whom 575,245 were born in the state, 74,750 in New York, and 32,947 in Pennsylvania; 188,943 were foreigners, including 54,001 born in Germany, 3,130 in France, 26,614 in England, 86,784 in Ireland, and 5,704 in Scotland. The density of the population was 108-91 to the square mile. There were 183,043 families, with an average of 4.95 persons to each, and 155,936 dwellings, with an average of 5.81 to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 34.83 per cent. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 194,109; of persons from 5 to 18 years of age, 262,862; attending school, 158,099. There were 37,057 persons' 10 years old and upward unable to read, and 54,687 who could not write; of the latter, 29,726 were of native and 24,961 of foreign birth; 42,821 were 21 years of age and over, of whom 36,431 were white and 6,390 colored, 17,396 males and 25,425 females. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 3,356, at a cost of $283,341. Of the total number (2,390) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,669 were of native birth, including 301 colored, and 721 were foreigners.
The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 1,040; in prison June 1, 1870, 1,079, of whom 640 (including 157 colored) were natives, and 439 foreigners. There were 317 blind, 231 deaf and dumb, 918 insane, and 436 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (680,687), there were engaged in all occupations 296,036; in agriculture, 63,128, of whom 29,240 were laborers and 32,077 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 83,380, including 1,236 clergymen, 26,242 domestic servants, 232 journalists, 39,820 laborers not specified, 888 lawyers, 1,208 physicians and surgeons, and 2,698 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 46,206; and in manufactures, mechanical and mining industries, 103,322, of whom 3,823 were blacksmiths, 5,349 boot and shoe makers, and 12,569 carpenters and joiners. The number of deaths was 10,586, or 1-17 per cent, of the population. There were 1,822 deaths from consumption, or 58 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; from pneumonia 700, or 15.1 from all causes to one from that disease; from cholera infantum, 783; croup, 215; diphtheria, 177; scarlet fever,. 781; enteric fever, 330; diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis, 552. In 1873 the state authorities reported 0,636 marriages, 20,866 births, and 11,479 deaths, including 1,502 from consumption and 638 from cholera infantum. - New Jersey has a direct coast line of 120 m., exclusive of the coasts on the Raritan and Delaware bays; but including smaller bays, islands, and tide-water creeks, this shore line is much longer.
On the northeast the Hudson river, and New York, Newark, and Raritan bays, afford good harbors. From Sandy Hook to Cape May there is a narrow sandy beach, intersected at a few points by narrow inlets, and, separated from the mainland by long and narrow bays and tide meadows traversed by numerous tidal watercourses, called thoroughfares. These bodies of water form an internal water route, and afford safe harbors for vessels of light draught. They communicate with the ocean through Manasquan, Barnegat, Little Egg harbor, Great Egg harbor, and other inlets. On the Delaware bay there is a belt of tide meadow from 1 to 12 m. wide bordering the water, with no good harbors. The state is well watered by a river system which flows E. into the bays and the Atlantic ocean and W. into the Delaware river and bay. A small portion of the state is drained by the Wallkill, which runs N. E. to the Hudson river. The Hackensack and Passaic rivers empty into the northern end of Newark bay; the Raritan, into Earitan bay; the Nevisink, into Sandy Hook bay; and the Little Egg Harbor or Mullicas river and the Great Egg Harbor river, into the Atlantic. Maurice river, emptying into Delaware bay, is the largest stream of S. Jersey. These are all navigable for distances of 10 to 20 m. from their mouth.
The Delaware receives a number of streams from 10 to 40 m. long, but none of them above Trenton are navigable. - The surface of the state in the N. W. portion is mountainous; in the N. E. and central portions, hilly; in the southern, low and gently undulating. The mountains in the north belong to the Appalachian system, and consist of two main ranges: the Blue or Kittatinny mountain, near the Delaware river, known in New York as the Shawangunk mountain, and the Highland range. These are separated by a valley about 10 m. wide, known as the Kittatinny valley. The Highland range consists of a series of parallel ridges whose heights vary from 1,000 to 1,"450 ft. above tide water. The most prominent of these are the Eamapo, Trowbridge, Wawayanda, Hamburg, Schooley's, Musconetcong, Scott's, and Jenny Jump mountains. The Blue mountain range, the highest in the state, is from 1,400 to 1,800 ft. above the ocean. The N. E. and central portions of the state consist of a great plain, diversified by the trap ridges of the Palisades including First and Second mountains, Sourland mountain, and Rocky hill,.from 300 to 600 ft. high. S. E. of a line connecting Amboy and Trenton the surface is lower and the hills slope more gently. The Nevisink Highlands are the highest, being 375 ft. above the ocean.
Very few other elevations in this part of the state exceed 200 ft. - All of the great geological periods are represented in New Jersey, excepting the carbonif-er6us or coal and the Jurassic. The rock formations cross the state in belts from N. E. to S. W. The oldest of these, known as the azoic or archaic formation, constitutes a broad belt forming the Highlands. On the line between New Jersey and New York it is 23 m. wide, stretching from Sufferns to the Wallkill river; on the Delaware it is only 9 m. in breadth. There is also a small outcrop of the rocks of this formation near Trenton; they extend N. E. from Trenton, along the N. side of the canal, about 6 m., and northward along the Delaware about 2 m. A very limited area of these rocks underlies Jersey City. The rocks of this formation are nearly everywhere stratified, and these strata have a strike of N. E. to S. W., and dip generally at a high angle toward the southeast. They are mainly gneiss, crystalline limestone, mica schist and slate, granite, and syenite. The syenitic gneiss greatly preponderates. No fossils are found in them. Near the surface in the S. W. portion of this belt these rocks are much disintegrated, forming a very superior and enduring soil.
Toward the northeast they are much firmer, and the outcropping ledges show little change or weathering. The granite and gneiss make good building material, and they are quarried in a few places for this purpose. Magnetic iron ore occurs abundantly in this formation, in beds interposed between the gneissic strata, and also as a mineral component of the rocks. There is a large number of productive mines in this belt in Sussex, Passaic, Morris, and Warren counties; their total product in 1873 amounted to 665,000 tons. About one fifth of the production is annually worked up in the blast furnaces at Ringwood, Boonton, Stanhope, Oxford Furnace, and Phil-lipsburg, in the state; but the greater portion goes to the anthracite furnaces of Pennsylvania. In the white, crystalline limestone at Ogdensburg and Franklin, in Sussex co,, there are large beds of zinc ore associated with frank-linite, supplying the extensive zinc works at Newark and Jersey City. Northwest of the azoic formation, and occupying some of the valleys in the Highlands, are the rocks of the Silurian and Devonian epochs. The most extensive of these is the magnesian limestone, a blue sedimentary rock seen in the Kittatinny, German, Musconetcong, Pohatcong, and Wallkill valleys, and to a less extent in a few other localities.
Its stone is largely used for building and in the manufacture of lime. Hematite ore, of which there are about a dozen mines, occurs in it. The lowest member in the Silurian system is the conglomerate and sandstone, which makes up the Bearfort or Bough, Greenpond, and Copperas mountains, and other lower ridges, and the thin belt of gray sandstone found between the gneissic rocks and the magnesian limestone. The latter, known as the Potsdam sandstone, crops out at Franklin and Vernon in Sussex co.. and at Oxford Furnace and other points in Warren co. The third member in this system, ascending, is the Hudson river slate, which has an extensive outcrop in the Kittatinny valley, and forms the E. slope of the Blue or kittatinny mountain. It shows nearly everywhere its tendency to cleavage, and it is quarried at the Delaware Water Gap and at Newton for roofing slate. Some of the thicker and more arenaceous beds are used for flagging stone. In the Blue mountain the gray conglomerate, the equivalent of the Oneida conglomerate, has a wide and unbroken outcrop from the Delaware river to the New York line.
Overlying it, and forming the western and lower slope of the Blue mountain, is the Medina sandstone; the rocks are red sandstones and shales, and a few vegetable forms are occasionally seen in them. West of this, and occupying the narrow valley of the Delaware, are several formations or members of the Silurian and Devonian epochs. Southeast of the Highlands there is a wide belt of red shales and sandstones of the triassic period. This occupies a large part of Bergen, Passaic, Essex, Union, Somerset, Hunterdon, Middlesex, and Mercer counties, and is 30 m. wide on the Delaware river. The rocks are red argillaceous shales and sandstone, with a few limited outcrops of calcareous and silicious conglomerates on the N. W. border, near the azoic rocks. Within the limits of this formation there are several long outcrops of trap rock lying between beds of shale and sandstone, forming the well known Palisades, First and Second mountains, Pickles mountain, Sourland mountain, Pocky hill, and others. Narrow dikes of trap are also known. The sandstone is extensively quarried for building at Pater-son, Little Falls, Newark, Trenton, Centre Bridge, and in other places. Fossil fish have been found in the rocks of this formation at Pompton, Boonton, and near Somerville. Fossil plants are more common.
Copper ores and native copper are common in the altered sandstone near the junction of the trap rocks, occurring irregularly disseminated through the sandtone, and not in veins or beds. Several copper mines were early opened, but none of them are now in operation. The next formation S. E. of the triassic rocks is the plastic clay series belonging to the cretaceous period. In this are the valuable beds of fire clay and pot-ter' clay which are so largely dug in the vicinity of Woodbridge and Amboy, and near Trenton, Fossi wood and leaf prints with a few cretaceous shells are found in this series. This belt follows the Delaware from Trenton S. W. to Salem. 1 he next geological formation on the soutneast is the clay marl, occupying a narrow belt entirely across the state. The beds are mainly astringent clays containing a small percentage of greensand. The next belt S. E. is that of the greensand marl beds, stretching from Sandy Hook to Salem. There are three beds, separated by beds of sand, dipping gently toward the southeast. They are characterized by the mineral glauconite or greensand winch makes up most of their mass. (See Greex-saxd.) Generally there is some carbonate and some phosphate of lime in these beds, and hence the value of this marl as a fertilizer.
Many fossils characterize these beds and help to fix their geological age. The S. E. portion of the state is supposed to belong to the tertiary age. There are beds of calcareous marl near Shiloh, Cumberland co., which are undoubtedly mio-cene, and are very full of shells. Beds of glass sand, which are extensively worked, occur along Maurice river near Millville, at Winslow, Jackson, and other places. The higher grounds in this part of the state are gravelly, and probably belong to the modified drift. Bog ore is found in many places, generally under the peat or mud of wet meadows. The drift period is represented nearly everywhere throughout the state in the superficial beds of sand, gravel, and bowlders. These beds are thicker and the bowlders are larger in the northern than in the southern part of the state. The smoothed, polished, and striated rock surfaces so common on the harder rocks also represent this period. Alluvial beds are found in isolated patches, sometimes of great extent, as in the wet meadows along the Paulinskill, Pequest, and Passaic rivers. Peat bogs are also common, although they are not generally of great area. Under some of these, in the limestone districts of Sussex and Warren counties, there are beds of calcareous or shell marl a few feet thick.
There are extensive tide meadows bordering the tide waters, from 5 to 10 ft. above low-water level, and still in process of formation. Along the Atlantic coast there is a long line of sand beach, which is geologically a long dune, constantly changing in location, extent, and form. These belong to the present or historic period. - New Jersey offers numerous attractions to travellers, among which are the falls of the Passaic at Paterson; the passage of the Delaware through the Blue mountains, called the Delaware Water Gap; the well known bathing places of Cape May, Long Branch, Deal, Squan beach, Atlantic City, and Tuckerton; Schooley's mountain in Morris co., with a mineral spring on its summit; Lake Hopatcong, Greenwood and Budd's lakes, and other points in the northern highlands. The climate varies much in different parts of the state. In the north, where the country is more elevated, it is much colder than toward the south, where the influence of the ocean and a low situation is felt. The annual mean temperature of the southern end of the state is between 53° and 54°; that of the northern end from 48° to 50°. The annual rainfall is about 44 inches; annual mean barometer, 30. Fevers and ague prevail in the neighborhood of the marshes, but upon the seashore and in the hilly regions the climate is remarkably healthy.
The soil is productive, though of varied character. That of the northern part of the state, including the Kittatinny valley, is characterized by its abundant crops of grain and grass, and rich pasturage. The middle portion of the state, which is the most thickly settled, has been enriched by the judicious use of lime, greensand marl, and other fertilizers, and yields abundant farm crops, market garden products, fruit, etc. The southern part of the state has a light soil, and has been but partially cleared. The nearness of New Jersey to the great markets of New York and Philadelphia has stimulated its farmers to improve their soil. The strip bordering on the Delaware from Trenton to Salem is probably the most skilfully cultivated and productive land in the United States. - The vegetation presents no remarkable features, being similar to that of the central states generally. In the north are found the oak, hickory, and other forest trees, and in the south are valuable pine woods, cedar swamps, and a considerable growth of stunted oaks. The central region is the most thoroughly improved part of the state, and forms a vast market garden from which New York and Philadelphia are in large part supplied.
The apples and cider of this locality are famous, and the peaches of the more southerly section are excellent and abundant. Muskmelons, watermelons, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, hay, flax, grass seed, plums, apricots, and cherries are raised; honey, beeswax, and butter are made; and there is also a limited production of barley, tobacco, wine, silk, maple sugar, and hops. Several of the native wild animals, such as the fox, bear, and deer, are still seen in the forests. The total number of farms in 1870 was 30,G52, of which 2,993 contained from 3 to 10 acres, 3,476 from 10 to 20, 7,370 from 20 to 50, 9,415 from 50 to 100, 7,299 from 100 to 500, 15 from 500 to 1,000, and 8 over 1,000. The average size was 98 acres. The land in farms was 1,976,474 acres of improved and 1,013,037 of unimproved, including 718,335 of woodland; the percentage of unimproved land to the total in farms was 33.9. The cash value of farms was $257,523,376; farming implements and machinery, $7,887,991; wages paid during the year, including value of board, $8,314,548; estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $42,725,198; orchard products, $1,295,282; products of market wardens, $2,978,250; forest products, $352,704; value of home manufactures, $144,016; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $6,982,152. The productions were 2,099 bushels of spring and 2,299,334 of winter wheat, 566,775 of rye, 8,745,384 of Indian corn, 4,009,830 of oats, 8,283 of barley, 363,983 of buckwheat, 56,221 of peas and beans, 47,05.439 of Irish and 1,550,784 of sweet potatoes, 26,306 of clover and 72,401 of grass seed, 6,095 of flax seed, 521,975 tons of hay, 40,871 lbs. of tobacco, 336,609 of wool, 8,266,023 of butter, 38,229 of cheese, 19,033 of hops, 234,061 of flax, 60,636 of honey, 2,021 of wax, 5,373,323 gallons of milk sold, 24,970 of wine, and 17,424 of sorghum molasses.
The total value of all live stock was $21,443,463. There were on farms 79,708 horses, 8,853 mules and asses, 133,331 milch cows, 3,830 working oxen, 60,327 other cattle, 120,067 sheep, and 142,563 swine. The staple crops of 1873 were reported as follows:
Yield per acre.
The total value of these crops was $24,310,-580. The number and value of domestic animals in 1874 were reported as follows:
Oxen and other cattle...
It is estimated that more than half of all the cranberries produced in the United States are grown in New Jersey. In 1873 it was reported that 7,000 acres of cultivated and 10,000 of wild land were devoted to cranberries, and that the crop amounted to about 125,000 bushels, worth from $2 50 to $2 75 per bushel. The chief cranberry counties are Ocean, Atlantic, and Burlington. - The abundant water power of New Jersey, and its facilities of communication with the great commercial cities of the Union by railroads, canals, and rivers, have greatly developed its manufactures. In 1860 the amount of capital invested in manufactures was $40,521,048, and the value of products $76,306,104. In 1870 the state ranked seventh in the value of productions, and eighth in the extent of capital invested; next to New York in the production of hats and caps, next to Connecticut in India-rubber goods, next to Pennsylvania in steel, and next to New York and Pennsylvania in refined sugar and molasses. In the manufacture of silk goods and trunks New Jersey ranked above all other states.
Of the total value ($7,755,488) of all the trunks, satchels, and valises manufactured in the United States, $3,793,000 were produced in New Jersey. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census of 1870 was 6,636, using 984 steam engines of:
32,307 horse power, and 1,132 water wheels of 25,832 horse power, and employing 75,552 hands, of whom 58,115 were males above 16, 11,198 females above 15, and 6,230 youth.
The capital invested in manufactures was $79,-606,719; wages paid, $32,648,409; value of materials, $103,415,245; of products, $169,-237,732. The statistics of the leading industries were as follows:
No. of establishments.
Steam engines, horse power.
Water wheels, horse power.
Number of hands.
Value of materials.
Value of products.
Boots and shoes
Bread crackers, and other bakery product;
Carpentering and building................
Carriages and wagons
Cotton goods, not specified
thread, twine, and yarn...........
Flouring and grist mill products..........
Hats and caps
India-rubber and elastic goods...........
Iron, forged and rolled...................
" nails and spikes, cut and wrought...
" pipe wrought
" castings not specified...............
Jewelry, not specified
" morocco, tanned and curried
patent and enamelled...........
Machinery, not specified.................
cotton and woollen...........
" railroad repairing
" Steam engines and boilers
Molasses and sugar, refined..............
Paints, lead and zine
Printing, cotton and woollen goods.......
Saddlery and harness....................
Sash, doors, and blinds
Silk goods, not specified................
" sewing and twist....................
Soap and candles........................
Stone and earthen ware
Tin. cupper, and sheet-iron ware..........
Trunks, valises, and satchels.............
The mining interests of New Jersey are important. The number of establishments in 1870 was 49; capital, $2,501,700; annual productions, $2,554,4:75, including iron ore valued at $2,025,497, slate $17,338, stone $411,640, and zinc $100,000. The products of mines, quarries, and clay banks in 1873 were valued at $5,000,-000. The fisheries in the neighboring waters are a source of great profit, only five other states exceeding it in this respect according to census of 1870. There were 947 hands and $231,231 employed, and the total value of products was $374,912, including oysters valued at $152,350. - New Jersey is divided into six custom- districts, of which the ports of entry are Newark. Perth Amboy, Tuckerton (district of Little Egg Harbor), Great Egg Harbor, Bridge-ton, and Lamberton (district of Burlington). The direct foreign trade is carried on chiefly at Newark, where during the year ending June 30, 1874, the imports amounted to $10,403 and the domestic exports to $8,387, and Perth Amboy, where the imports were $35,458 and the exports $5,747. A portion of the northern part of the state is in the district of New York, and much of the foreign trade passes through Philadelphia. The movement of vessels in the coastwise trade, and the number registered, enrolled, and licensed, were as follows:
Little Epp Harbor.
Great Egg Harbor.
Ship building is carried on in all of these districts, there having been 75 vessels of 8,302 tons built in 1873. - By the free railroad law passed in April, 1873, monopoly is abolished, and railroads may now be built in all parts of the state under a general law. Among the states, only Massachusetts and Connecticut have more railroads in proportion to territory than New Jersey. This state had 186 m. in 1845, 466 in 1855, 864 in 1865, 1,125 in 1870, and 1,267 in 1874. The different lines in operation in 1874, with their termini and lengths, were:
Miles in operation in the state in 1S74.
Bridgeton and Port Morris
Camden and Atlantic
Central of New Jersey.............................
Newark and Elizabeth...............
Newark and New York
Dunkirk, N. Y.............
Newark and Hudson................
New Jersey and New York..........
Northern New Jersey
Nyack, N. Y......
Paterson and Hudson River
Paterson and Newark...............
Paterson and Ramapo...............
Freehold and Jamesburg
Morris and Essex railroad...
Jersey City and Bergen
Leased by Delaware, Lackawanna, and western
Morris and Essex
Newark and Bloomfield___
New Jersey Midland
New Jersey Southern
United Railroad Companies of New Jersey
Camden and Burlington County.......
Mercer and Somerser
Pemberton and Highstown
Cape May and Millville............................
The Morris canal extends from Jersey City to Phillipsburg, 101 m., and has a large business in conveying coal from Pennsylvania to New York. The Delaware and Raritan canal connects Trenton on the Delaware with New Brunswick on the Raritan, 43 m., and has a feeder 22 m. long, from Bull's Island (Delaware river) to Trenton. In 1874 the state contained 62 national banks, with a paid-in capital of $13,908,350 and an outstanding circulation of $11,092,810, being $12 24 per capita, 1.1 per cent, of the wealth of the state, and 79.8 per cent, of the bank capital. - The present constitution of New Jersey was adopted in August, 1844, and came into operation Sept. 2. It secures the right of voting to every white male citizen of the United States 21 years of age, who has resided in the state one year and in the county five months next preceding the election. The general election is held annually on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and all votes are taken by ballot. The legislature consists of a senate of 21 members, one from each county, elected for three years, one third every year, and an assembly of 60 representatives elected annually.
The legislature meets annually on the second Tuesday in January. A majority of each house is sufficient to pass a bill over the governor's veto. The chief executive oth-cers are the governor (salary $5,000), elected by the people for three years; secretary of state (salary $200 and fees), appointed by the governor with the advice of the senate, and ex officio auditor of accounts; treasurer (salary $4,000). elected by the legislature on joint bailor for one year; comptroller (salary $4,000); and the superintendent of schools (salary $.2,000), appointed by the state board of education. Senators and representatives receive during the session of the legislature 83 a day for the first 40 days, and $1 50 a day afterward. The judiciary consists of a court of errors and appeals, court of chancery, supreme court, courts of common pleas, orphans' courts, courts of general quarter sessions of the peace, circuit courts, and courts of oyer and terminer. The court of errors and appeals is composed of the chancellor, the judges, of the supreme court, and six other judges appointed by the governor. It has appellate jurisdiction only, and is the last court of resort. Three terms are held annually in Trenton. The governor, chancellor, and six judges of this court constitute the pardoning power.
The chancellor is appointed by the governor and senate for seven years, and holds a court of chancery three times annually in Trenton; salary $5,500 and fees. There is also a vice chancellor, whose annual salary is $5,000. The court of chancery has jurisdiction over all cases in equity, and exclusive original jurisdiction in divorce cases. The supreme court consists of seven justices, appointed for seven years from each of the seven judicial districts. They hold circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer three times a year in each county, and are ex officiis judges of the court of common pleas, orphans' court, and court of general quarter sessions of the peace of the several counties. They receive salaries of $5,000 each, except the chief justice, who receives $5,200. Three terms of the supreme court are held annually in Trenton. Judges of common pleas, not exceeding three in each county, are also appointed by the legislature for live years, and hold court three times a year in each county. Sheriffs, coroners, and justices of the peace are elected by the people.
Justices of the peace have jurisdiction in certain civil suits where the amount in controversy dors not exceed $100. The property of a woman married after March 25, 1852, which she owns at the time of marriage, continues her separate property, free from the control of her husband or liability for his debts. If over 21 years of ago, she may make a will, which must not however dispose of any interest to which her husband would he entitled by law: at her death. If living with her husband, she cannot convey her property without his concurrence Ihe grounds for divorce are adultery and desertion for three years. Aliens may hold real estate. New Jersey is represented in congress by seven representatives and two senators, and has therefore nine votes in the electoral college. - The state debt was contracted during the war, chiefly for the support of families of volunteers, and amounted in 1874 to about $2,500,000. It is represented by bonds of which about $100,000 fall due annually. The payment of principal and interest is met by tax and the income of the sinking fund.
The amount of money received and disbursed by the state treasury during the year ending Nov. 1, 1874, was as follows:
School fund (including state school tax)
Agricultural college fund.....
State library fund
The chief expenditures from the state fund included, besides smaller items, the following:
Northern New Jersey lunatic asylum
Salaries of judiciary
Salaries of state prison
Salaries and fees
Appropriation to state reform school
Transportation and costs
State industrial school
State house extension
State house expenses
Support of deaf and dumb
Support of blind
According to the federal census, the total assessed value of property in 1860 was $296,-682,492, and in 1870 it was $624,868,971, including $448,832,127 real and $176,036,844 personal estate. The total taxable valuation was returned by the state authorities at $603,-665,497 in 1872, and $612,796,106 in 1873. In 1874 the personal property was valued at $117,-431,284; real estate, $359,357,510; total, $619,-057,903. Upon the total valuation of the state there is levied a general tax of one and a half mill and a school tax of two mills per dollar. Railroad corporations are taxed one quarter of one per cent, on the value of their roads, equipments, etc. New Jersey has heretofore made no provision for the education of its deaf and dumb, blind, or feeble-minded; but about $40,000 is annually expended by the state for their support in the institutions of other states. In 1873 a committee appointed pursuant to an act of the legislature, to inquire into the condition and needs of these defective classes, reported that there were in the state not fewer than 500 deaf and dumb, about 600 blind, and more than 1,000 feeble-minded, and recommended the establishment of a state institution for the education of each class.
There are two institutions for the care of the insane. The lunatic asylum in Trenton was opened in 1848, since which time 4,588 patients have been treated. During the year ending Nov. 1, 1874, 840 were under treatment. Of the 655 in the asylum at the close of the year, 106 were supported by their friends, 21 by the state, and 528 by counties. In 1875 an additional asylum for the insane was nearly completed at Morristown, and is one of the largest institutions of the kind in the United States, having accommodations for about 1,000 patients. (See Morristown.) Prior to 1870, $60,000 was annually appropriated by the legislature for the maintenance of convicts in the state prison at Trenton; but since that time the institution has been a source of income to the state. During the year ending Nov. 1,1874, the earnings were $104,042, including $101,814 from convict labor, and the expenses $58,807, leaving a net gain, not including officers' salaries (about $30,000), of $45,334. The whole number in confinement during the year was 1,025; at the end of the year, 653. The state reform school at Jamesburg was opened in 1867, and on Nov. 1, 1874, had 184 inmates; the total number during the year was 298. They are chiefly employed in making chairs and shoes and in farm labor.
The state industrial school for girls is near Trenton, and in 1874 had 19 inmates. A home for disabled soldiers is supported by the state at Newark, in which 1,365 beneficiaries were cared for in 1874; and a soldiers' children's home at Trenton, which had 150 inmates at the close of 1874. - Prior to April, 1871, New Jersey had no free school system, but its schools were then made free. The tax for school purposes is now assessed and collected by the state instead of the townships, and the funds are apportioned among the different districts according to the school population. Every district is required to maintain a school for at least nine months in the year, or forfeit its share of the apportionment. The permanent school fund amounts to $857,-426. The amount of the income from this fund that is devoted to schools is determined by the legislature, and is now $35,000 annually; the remainder of the income goes to increase the principal. In 1871 the state gave to the free school fund the proceeds of sales and rentals of all riparian lands lying between high and low water marks, and chiefly in and near the harbor of New York on the New Jersey shore.
These lands will add to this fund not less than $5,000,000, and possibly $10,000,000. The sources and amount of the funds for the support of the schools for the year ending Aug. 31, 1874, were: 1. the two-mill state tax, which amounted to $1,225,592; 2, additional state appropriation, including the income of the school fund, $100,000; 3, interest of the surplus revenue, $31,573; 4, township tax, $23,834; 5, district and city tax for teachers' salaries, $311,161; total, $1,691,160, besides $613,238 derived from district and city taxation for building and repairing school houses. The more immediate supervision of the schools is vested in a state superintendent and county superintendents, all of whom are appointed by the state board of education. County superintendents are authorized to hold examinations and grant certificates to teachers. A law forbidding corporal punishment in schools was enacted in 1867. The condition of the public schools for the year ending Aug. 31, 1874, was as follows:
Number of school districts...........
" " buildings....................
" " departments............
Capacity of public schools..............
Number of unsectarian private schools..
" of sectarian private schools............
" of persons between 5 and 18 years old.
" enrolled in public schools (63 per cent.).
Average attendance (52 per cent.)..............
Attendance upon private schools (12 per cent.).
Number not attending school (25 per cent.).....
Average time schools kept open.............9 mos
Number of male teachers in public schools......
Average wages per month...............
Number of female teachers....................
Total amount appropriated for schools ($1,691,160 for maintenance and $613,288 for building and repairing school houses)...............
Valuation of school property
Average annual cost of education per pupil according to school population
Acording to average attendence
In several of the manufacturing cities and towns evening schools are maintained for adults and others unable to attend the day schools. There is an institution for training teachers at Trenton, comprising a normal school and a model school. There are two courses of study in the former, one of two and one of three years. In 1873-'4 there were 12 instructors and 269 pupils in the normal, and 17 instructors and 443 pupils in the model school. The Farn-liam school at Beverly, which is aided by the state, serves as a preparatory institution for the normal school. Since 1871 the state has supported a free library system in the public schools by extending aid to such districts as raise funds for this purpose, and nearly 400 free school libraries have been established and receive annual aid from the state. - New Jersey has four colleges: the college of New Jersey (evangelical Protestant), in Princeton (see Princeton); Ruitgers (Reformed Dutch), in New Brunswick; Seton Hall (Roman Catholic), in South Orange; and Burlington college (Protestant Episcopal), in Burlington. Rutgers college, organized in 1770, has a classical department with a four years' course, and a scientific department with courses in civil engineering and mechanics, in chemistry and agriculture, and a special course in chemistry.
The scientific department of this institution has been designated by the legislature as the state college of agriculture and the mechanic arts, and is therefore entitled to New Jersey's share of the national grant of lands made for this purpose by congress in 1862; and 40 state students are educated in this department free of expense for tuition. An extensive model farm is connected with it. Several funds have been established for the aid of indigent students and to afford prizes for excellence m scholarship. In 1874-'5 there were 14 instructors and 188 students, including 62 m the scientific department. Seton Hall college was founded in 1856 at Madison, and removed to South Orange in 1800. It affords collegiate, ecclesiastical, and commercial courses. In 1873-'4 there were 13 instructors and 129 students in the collegiate department, and 4 instructors and 33 students in the ecclesiastical seminary. Burlington college, organized in 1840, has a collegiate and a preparatory course. In 1874-'5 there were 11 instructors and 59 students.
Instruction in theology is afforded by Drew theological seminary (Methodist), opened in 1867 at Madison, and having in 1874-5 9 instructors, 9 lecturers, 127 students, a library of 12,000 volumes, and productive funds amounting to $250,000; the theological seminary of the Presbyterian church in Princeton, organized in 1812, and having in 1874-'5 7 instructors and 97 students; the German theo-logical school (Presbyterian) at Bloomfield, organized in 1809, and having in 1874-'5 5 instructors and 24 students; and the theological seminary of the Reformed (Dutch) church in America at New Brunswick, organized in 1810, and having in 1874-'5 4 professors and 39 students. The last named is the chief training school in the United States for the ministry of that denomination. It is substantially a theological department of Rutgers college, as the Princeton seminary is of the college of New Jersey. The schools of science, besides that of Rutgers college, are the Stevens institute of technology at Hoboken, one of the leading institutions of the kind in the United States (see Hoboken), and the John C. Green school of science, connected with the college of New Jersey (see Princeton). The state has no medical or law school.
There is a business college in Trenton and one in Newark, and New Brunswick has a conservatory of music. The chief institutions for the superior instruction of females are St. Mary's hall, Burlington; the female college at Bordentown; Ivy hall, Bridgeton; Trinity hall, Beverly; and the seminary and female collegiate institute at Pennington. St. Mary's hall (Prot-estam Episcopal) in 1874 had 28 instructors and 200 students. - According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 1,893 schools of all classes, including 1,531 public, 13 classical, professional, and technical, 278 day and boarding, and 71 parochial and charity. The total number of teachers in all was 3,889, and of pupils, 129,800. The total income was $2,982.250, including $49,000 from endowment, $1,499,550 from taxation and public funds, and $1,433,700 from other sources, including tuition. The total number of libraries in 1870 was 2,413, containing 895,291 volumes; 777 with 859,012 volumes were private, and 1,636 with 535,079 volumes other than private, including 14 circulating libraries with 75,250 volumes.
The most important libraries are those of the college of New Jersey, which has 28,000 volumes; the theological seminary in Princeton, 25,000; Newark library association, 21,000; the theological seminary in New Brunswick, 20,000; and the state library in Trenton. The total number of newspapers and periodicals reported by the census of 1870 was 122, with a circulation of 205,500 copies, and an annual issue of 18,625,740. There were 20 daily, circulation 38,030; 95 weekly, 120,070; and 7 monthly, 40,800. In 1874 there were 20 daily, 3 semi-weekly, 132 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, and 10 monthly; total, 100. The total number of religious organizations was 1,402, having 1,384 edifices with 573,303 sittings, and property valued at $18,347,150. The leading denominations were represented as follows:
New Jerusalem (Swe-denborpian)........
Reformed church in America (late Reformed Dutch)....
Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed) ...........
The precise date of the first settlement of New Jersey is not ascertained. The earliest colony was probably planted at Bergen, between 1617 and 1620, by the Dutch of New Amsterdam, who claimed the whole country as a part of New Netherland. In 1623 a Dutch company under Cornells Jacobson Mey and Adriaen Jorisz built Fort Nassau on the E. shore of the Delaware, a few miles below the present site of Philadelphia. Sir Edmund Ployden obtained a grant of the country on the Delaware from the king of England in 1034, and called it New Albion; and in 1638 a small party of Swedes and Finns purchased land in the same region from the natives, and planted several settlements. The Dutch and Swedes afterward drove out the English colonists, and in 1655 the Dutch under Peter Stuy-vesant, governor of New Netherland, dispossessed the Swedes and sent most of them back to Europe. In 1664 Charles II. of England, disregarding the claims of both parties, granted all the territory between the Delaware and Connecticut rivers to his brother the duke of York, and sent an expedition to take possession of it.
New Amsterdam was first conquered, the New Jersey settlements at once submitted, and under the authority of Nicholls, the commander of the expedition and first governor, a patent was granted to immigrants from Long Island and New England. Eliza-bethtown, Newark, Middletown, and Shrewsbury were now founded. In the mean time, however, the duke of York had sold his claim to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret; they named the tract New Jersey in honor of Sir George, who had been governor of the island of Jersey, and had held it for King Charles in his contest with the parliament. They formed a constitution for the colony, and in 1665 sent out Philip Carteret, brother of Sir George, as governor. He fixed the seat of government at Elizabethtown; but his administration was unpopular, and in 1670 the people revolted and chose James Carteret, an illegitimate son of Sir George, for their governor. Philip Carteret, however, obtained several concessions and promises from the proprietors, which induced the people to submit again to his authority. The first legislative assembly of New Jersey, which had been held under his proclamation in May, 1668, passed a bill of pains and penalties remarkable for its extreme severity, the punishment of death being assigned for no fewer than 12 offences.
In March, 1673, Berkeley sold his interest in the proprietorship to John Fenwick and Edward Byllinge, Quakers. In July of the same year the Dutch recaptured New York, and the surrounding country, including the whole province of New Jersey, at once fell into their hands. New Jersey was called by them Achter Kol. It reverted to Great Britain by the treaty of 1674, and the question now arose whether the title returned to the proprietors or the king. To avoid all difficulty, the king recognized the claim of Carteret, and made a new grant to the duke of York, who also executed a fresh conveyance to Carteret, covering however only a part of the original territory of New Jersey. But before making this conveyance, the duke had included the province in a commission given to Sir Edmund Andros, governor of New York, who refused to recognize the authority as governor of Philip Carteret, arrested all magistrates who would not submit to his own jurisdiction, and finally, on April 30, 1680, carried Carteret himself prisoner to New York. The duke was at last prevailed upon to acknowledge the claims of the proprietors, and in 1681 the government of Andros came to an end.
In the mean time Fenwick and Byllinge, to whom Berkeley had sold his share in the province, conveyed an interest in it to William Penn and two other Quakers, Garven Lawrie and Nicholas Lucas; and Fenwick in 1675 established a Quaker settlement at Salem, near the Delaware. He claimed authority as chief proprietor over all that part of New Jersey S. W. of a line drawn from Little Egg harbor to a point on the Delaware in lat. 41° N.; and the province continued for some years to be divided into East Jersey, subject to Sir George Carteret and his heirs, and West Jersey, under Fenwick and his associates. In February, 1682, the whole territory was purchased by William Penn and 11 other Quakers. The first governor under the new proprietors was Robert Barclay, a Scotchman, and one of the 12 purchasers, under whom the country became an asylum for the oppressed members of his creed, and for a time enjoyed great prosperity. But the number of proprietors, the frequent subdivisions and transfers of shares, and various other difficulties in the way of good government, soon involved the province in trouble; and in 1702 the proprietors surrendered the rights of government to the crown. Queen Anne appointed Lord Cornbury governor of New York and New Jersey, but each continued to have a separate assembly.
In 1708 New Jersey petitioned for a distinct administration, and Lewis Morris was appointed governor. The population was then about 40,000. Until the revolution New Jersey was the scene of no important event, and it was never much exposed to the ravages of the Indians. The last royal governor was William Franklin, the natural son of Benjamin Franklin. A state constitution was adopted in 1776, and throughout the revolution the country was frequently the theatre of war. The battles of Trenton, Princeton, Millstone, Red Bank, and Monmouth were fought on its soil. The first legislature met at Princeton in August, 1776, and chose William Livingston governor. The federal constitution was adopted by a unanimous vote, Dec. 18, 1787. The state capital was established at Trenton in 1790. The present constitution was ratified Aug. 13, 1844. In the summer of 1873 a board of 14 commissioners appointed by the governor agreed upon certain amendments to the constitution. Several of these were approved by the legislature of 1874; but before becoming a part of the constitution they must be approved by the legislature of 1875 and be ratified by the people at a special election held within four months after the dissolution of the legislature.
New Jersey furnished 79,511 troops to the federal army during the civil war, or 55,785 reduced to a three years' standard. The legislature of 1870 refused to ratify the fifteenth amendment to the federal constitution, on the ground that the right to regulate suffrage was vested in the respective states. The first geological survey of New Jersey was made in 1839-'40 under the direction of Prof. Henry D. Rogers. A second survey was begun in 1854 by Dr. William Kitchell, but was discontinued in 1856. The work was resumed in 1864, with Prof. George H. Cook as state geologist, and is still (1875) in progress. The results obtained up to 1868 are given in the "Geology of New Jersey," published in 1868; and annual reports have since been published.