Newton, the name of counties in six of the United States.
A Central County Of Georgia, bounded S. W. by South river, and intersected by Yellow and Ulcofauhachee rivers, all three uniting at its S. extremity to form the Ocmul-gee; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,615, of whom 6,014 were colored. It has an undulating surface and a soil very fertile near the streams. It is intersected by the Georgia railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 38,414 bushels of wheat, 192,587 of Indian corn, 31,974 of oats, 23,455 of sweet potatoes, 5,770 bales of cotton, 5,871 lbs. of wool, 67,455 of butter, 9,887 of honey, and 1,512 gallons of molasses. There were 968 horses, 1,112 mules and asses, 1,936 milch cows, 489 working oxen, 2,293 other cattle, 3,602 sheep, and 7,704 swine; 2 manufactories of cotton yarn, 9 tanneries, and 4 saw mills. Capital, Covington.
A Central County Of Mississippi, drained by the head branches of the Chickasawha river; area, about 625 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,067, of whom 3,386 were colored. It is intersected by the Vicksburg and Meridian railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 2,492 bushels of wheat, 201,704 of Indian corn, 7,205 of oats, 30,262 of sweet potatoes, 3,399 bales of cotton, 5,650 lbs. of wool, 42,030 of butter, and 1,311 gallons of molasses. There were 1,256 horses, 643 mules and asses, 2,737 milch cows, 1,238 working oxen, 3,763 other cattle, 4,205 sheep, and 12,920 swine. Capital, Decatur.
A S. E. County Of Texas, separated from Louisiana by the Sabine river and drained by its branches; area, 964 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,187, of whom 831 were colored. The surface is undulating toward the south and somewhat hilly in the north. The soil of the bottom lands is highly productive, but much of the upland is poor and sandy. Timber is abundant. The chief productions in 1870 were 51,303 bushels of Indian corn, 11,890 of sweet potatoes, 1,001 bales of cotton, and 4,574 gallons of molasses. There were 556 horses, 1,370 milch cows, 6,208 other cattle, 1,456 sheep, and 4,331 swine. Capital, Newton.
A N. W. County Of Arkansas, drained by the Buffalo fork of White river and its head branches; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,374, of whom 9 were colored. It has a diversified surface, much of it still covered with forests, and a generally fertile soil. The chief productions in 1870 were 9,830 bushels of wheat, 169,825 of Indian corn, 13,(545 lbs. of tobacco, 43,292 of butter, 14,019 of honey, and 3,472 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 1,148 horses, 1,232 milch cows, 781 working oxen, 1,549 other cattle, 2,355 sheep, and 14,126 swine. Capital, Jasper. Va A N. W. county of Indiana, bordering on Illinois, bounded N. by the Kankakee river, and intersected in the S. by the Iroquois; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,829. Beaver lake, a considerable body of water, is in the 1ST. part. The surface is level, and in parts swampy. It is traversed by the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 23,802 bushels of wheat, 142,096 of Indian corn, 111,333 of oats, 18,855 of potatoes, 8,456 lbs. of wool, 155,755 of butter, and 14,854 tons of hay. There were 2,814 horses, 2,362 milch cows, 6,987 other cattle, 3,320 sheep, and 4,995 swine.
A S. W. County Of Missouri, bordering on Kansas and the Indian territory, and drained by branches of the Grand or Neosho river; area, about 750 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,821, of whom 350 were colored. It is intersected by the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 67,725 bushels of wheat, 359,945 of Indian corn, 81,045 of oats, 26,982 of Irish and 6,879 of sweet potatoes, 16,480 lbs. of tobacco, 10,387 of wool, 90,824 of butter, and 15,619 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 3,134 horses, 2,496 milch cows, 894 working oxen, 4,072 other cattle, 6,511 sheep, and 16,077 swine; 5 flour mills, 6 saw mills, and 1 manufactory of pig lead. Capital, Neosho.
Newton, a city of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, on a curve of the Charles river, which bounds it N., W., and S., and on the Boston and Albany and the Boston, Hartford, and Erie railroads, 8 m. W. of Boston; pop. in 1840, 3,351; in 1850, 5,258; in 1860, 8,382; in 1870, 12,825; in 1875, estimated at 17,000. The surface is high and undulating, the scenery beautiful, and the situation healthy. The city is divided into six wards, and contains nine post villages, viz.: Auburndale, Chestnut Hill, Newton, Newton Centre, Newton Highlands, Newton Lower Falls, Newton Upper Falls, Newtonville, and West Newton. There are ten railroad stations. Near the centre of the city there is a cemetery, with a diversified surface partly improved, embracing 82 acres. Many of the residents do business in Boston, but considerable manufacturing is carried on in the city, the river furnishing extensive water power at the upper and lower falls. The principal articles produced are braid and cordage, boots and shoes, carriages, print cloths, dye stuffs, emery cloth, glue, hosiery, ornamental goods, photograph frames, ink, paper, shoddy, soap, and rolling mill products. There are a national and a savings bank. The city is lighted with gas and has a fire department.
The valuation of property in 1872 was $24,256,854; in 1874, $28,081,445; city debt at the close of 1874, $387,000. At Newton Centre is the Newton theological institution, founded by the Baptists in 1826. The buildings occupy the summit of a hill commanding a fine view. The regular course is three years. Tuition and room rent are free. In 1873-4 it had 5 resident professors, 1 other instructor, 72 students, and a library of 12,000 volumes. Lasell female seminary, at Auburndale, established in 1851, is beautifully situated, and embraces instruction in the English branches and a four years' classical course. In 1873-4 it had 11 instructors and 42 students. The most important of the other educational institutions is the English and classical school at West Newton, established in 1854. The public schools embrace a high, a training, 8 grammar, and 8 primary schools, and have an average attendance of about 2,000 pupils. There are several libraries: the free library, with 8,500 volumes; the Athenaeum library; the Newton Centre library, 1,500 volumes; and the Lower Falls library, 1,500 volumes.
The city has two weekly newspapers, two asylums for male and female orphans and destitute children, and 25 churches, viz.: 4 Baptist, 7 Congregational, 3 Episcopal, 5 Methodist, 2 Roman Catholic, 1 Swedenborgian, 2 Unitarian, and 1 Universalist. - Newton was settled in 1630, and was incorporated as a town in 1679, being separated from Cambridge. A city charter was granted in 1873.