Cincinnati, the chief city of Ohio, capital of Hamilton county, and in population the eighth city of the United States. It is situated in lat. 39° 6' N., lon. 84° 27' W., on the N. bank of the Ohio, 250 m. direct, or by the river 466 m., S. W. of its head at Pittsburgh, Penn.; 290 m. direct, or 500 m. by river, N. E. of its mouth at Cairo, 111.; and 390 m. W. of Washington. Its site is peculiarly favorable to commerce, comfort, and health. The main city lies on a plateau, through which the Ohio passes from N. E. to S. W. This plain is nearly 12 m. in circumference, and is divided by the river into nearly equal parts. The city is surrounded by hills from 400 to 465 ft. in height, forming one of the most beautiful natural amphitheatres on the continent, from whose hilltops may be seen the splendid panorama of the cities below, and the winding Ohio. No other large city of the United States affords such a variety of position and scenery. Commencing on the east, the hills border the river within 500 yards of its bank for 4 1/2 m.; then recede, form an amphitheatre around the plateau on which the city was first laid out, and return with a bold promontory to the river 3 m. below; thence they follow its windings, within 300 yards of the shore, 1 3/4 m. further, to the western corporation line.
By following ravines between the spurs, practicable roads have been constructed to the summits of these hills. The greater part of the city is built upon two terraces or plateaux, respectively 60 and 112 ft. above the river. The amphitheatre of hills enclosing these plateaux is cut by the ravinelike valley of Deer creek entering from the northeast, and by the broad plain of Mill creek valley, extending from the north through the W. extremity of the plateau portion of the city to the river. The former is a dry torrent bed; the latter a considerable stream, with low banks and a valley within the city from 1 to 1 1/2 m. wide. Through this valley the city has its greatest breadth, 5 1/2 m. The upper plateau, uniting with the higher grounds of Mill creek valley, extends many miles north with very little increase of elevation, thus aftbrding space for future growth. The city stretches along the river about 10 m., from and including the village of Columbia on the east to that of Riverside on the southwest, with an average width of 3 m., and embracing an area of 24 sq. m. The main body of the city, including the business portion and the densest population, borders on the river between the mouth of Deer creek on the east and that of Mill creek on the west, a distance of 2 1/2 m.
North of East Liberty street and Hamilton road, the hillsides from Deer creek to Mill creek are terraced with streets, and generally covered with dwellings to their summits. Mount Adams, overlooking the S. E. corner of the plateau, has streets thickly lined with dwellings on its summit and W. and S. sides. The remainder of the city, including the narrow valleys along the river, above and below the city proper, the village of Cum-minsville next the northern corporation line in Mill creek valley, and the several tableland villages, from Woodburn on the east to Fairmount on the west, is irregularly built. In the N. W. part are native forests and cultivated farms. On the western hills are vineyards and gardens. Between Harrison avenue and the 25th ward (Cumminsville) are many vegetable gardens. The numerous villages annexed to the city since 1868 retain their former names. The most important of these, enumerating from east to west, are Columbia, Walnut Hills, Mount Auburn, and Cummins-ville. The river at this point rises during floods from 50 to 55 ft. above low-water mark.
In 1832 it rose to a height of 62 1/2 ft., and 57 ft. in 1848. Nearly 1,200 acres "of city land, chiefly in Mill creek valley, are subject to inundation by extreme high water; but many acres have been filled above high-water mark and built upon, and further improvement is in rapid progress. Cincinnati is noted for its picturesque surroundings and suburbs. On the opposite bank of the Ohio, on a plateau surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills, are Covington and Newport, Ky., separated by Licking river. The outer highland belt of the city commands distant views of hills in Kentucky and Ohio, and of the valleys of Mill creek, the Licking, and the Ohio. It is beautified by elegant residences in the midst of extensive highly cultivated landscape lawns, whose shrubbery is often the native forest, and is traversed by winding avenues. From the eastern corporation line, through East Walnut Hills and Woodburn to West Walnut Hills, mansions occupy grounds of from 3 to 75 acres. Blue limestone is used in the construction of the finest buildings. West Walnut Hills and Mount Auburn, though in parts quite compactly built, abound in elegant and costly residences, each having from one to five acres of grounds.
The highlands W. of the city, between Fairmount and the river, have beautiful scenery, but owing to difficulty of access they are but partially occupied. Outside the city, 3 m. from the post office, and overlooking Mill creek valley to the west, is the village of Clifton, comprising many beautiful groves and costly residences. Fences and hedges are almost entirely discarded, and the luxuriant lawns extend to the roadside, covered with every variety of trees. Here the finest mansions are of blue limestone. The grounds around them range from 10 to 80 acres in extent. There are here fine specimens of the Anglo-Norman, Gothic, and modern Italian styles of architecture. Avondale lies E. of Clifton and N. of Mount Auburn and Walnut Hills, 3 m. N. E. of the custom house, and contains 800 acres. It has elegant residences with large grounds, and commands views of the surrounding hills; but it is shut out from river prospects. College Hill, the seat of Farmer's college and the Ohio female college, is situated W. of and overlooking Mill creek valley, 7 m. N. of the custom house. on the highest ground in Hamilton county.
Cincinnati proper is rapidly surrendering its dwellings to business, while residences multiply on the hills and in the suburbs. - The increase of the population of Cincinnati has been very rapid. In 1800 it was 750; in 1810, 2,540; 1820, 9,602; 1830, 24,831; 1840, 46,338; 1850, 115,436; 1860, 101,044; 1870, 216,239. Of the population in 1870, 136,627 were of native and 79,612 of foreign birth; 210,335 white, and 5,900 colored. The foreign population embraced 49,448 born in Germany, 18,624 in Ireland, 3,526 in England, 2,093 in France, 995 in Switzerland, 787 in Scotland, and 507 in Wales. There were 53,814 voters. The city contained 24,550 dwellings, with an average of 8.81 persons to each; and 42,937 families, with an average of 5.04 in each. The number of persons engaged in industrial occupations was 77,923, of whom 1,420 were employed in agriculture, 25,000 in professional and personal services, 16,865 in trade and transportation, and 83,972 in manufactures and mining. - The city is regularly laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles. They are generally from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2, m. long, with a width varying from 50 to 100 ft.
West of Central avenue they run N. from the river and E. from Mill creek, while E. of that avenue their direction from the river is slightly W. of N. The streets and avenues are generally paved or macadamized, many of them being adorned with shade trees. The buildings are substantial, and chiefly of brick. A grayish buff freestone for fronts is almost universally used for large business houses and the finest residences in the city proper, though many of the residences on the hills are of wood. The prevailing height of business buildings is live stories, though many are six. Dwellings are generally high and narrow, and seldom have front yards. The chief mercantile quarter covers about 300 acres, and lies between Fifth street and the river, and Broadway and Smith street. Business is not concentrated as in most other cities. Manufactories are scattered through all parts of the city and its suburbs. Pearl street, which contains nearly all the wholesale boot and shoe and dry goods houses, is noted for its splendid row of lofty uniform stone fronts between Vine and Race streets. Fourth street, the fashionable promenade, and the most select retail business street, between Broadway and Central avenue, a mile in extent, is noted for its splendid stone front buildings.
Third street, between Main and Vine, contains the banking, brokerage, and insurance establishments, and the attorneys' offices, and W. of Vine street the large clothing houses. Within a quarter of a mile of the custom house and post office are the chief theatres, newspaper offices, and libraries. In Pike street, in Fourth street from Pike to Broadway, and in Broad-wav between Third and Fifth streets, are the mansions of the "east end;" in Fourth street W. of Smith street, in Dayton street, and in Court street between Freeman and Baymiller streets, those of the "west end.1' The large district N. of the Miami canal, which enters the city from the N. W. and extends S. to Canal street, thence E. to the Ohio river, is known as "Over the Rhine." It is densely populated, almost exclusively by Germans, has numerous beer gardens, saloons, and concert halls, and is thoroughly German in its characteristics. In this vicinity are all the great breweries of Cincinnati. At the foot of Main, Sycamore, and Broadway, along Front street, is the public binding, an open area paved with bowlders, 1,000 ft. long, with a mean width of 425 ft. Above the public landing, for 1 1/2 m., are the marine, railway, and dry docks, and boatyards.
Between Central avenue and the foot of Fifth street are situated the extensive coal wharves and elevators. In the vicinity of the city there are many beautiful drives; one of the most attractive is that from the Brighton house, at the junction of Central avenue and Freeman street, to Spring Grove cemetery, and thence returning to the city by way of Clifton or Avondale. - Cincinnati is well provided with parks and public grounds. Chief among these is Eden park, on a hill in the eastern district, and commanding magnificent views of the city, the valley of the Ohio, and the surrounding country. It contains 210 acres. Lincoln, Washington, Hopkins, and the city parks are in central parts of the city, and contain an aggregate of about 25 acres. Burnet Woods, on the hill N. of the city, purchased in 1872, contains 170 acres, nearly all forest. Spring Grove, one of the most beautiful cemeteries in the west, lies 3 m. N. W. of the city, in the valley of Mill creek, and is approached by an attractive avenue 100 ft. wide. It contains 600 acres, comprising much picturesque wooded land tastefully laid out, and has about 100 onuments, costing from $5,000 to $15,000 each.
The entrance buildings are in the Norman Gothic style, and cost more than $50,000. The chief attractions are the Dexter mausoleum, representing a Gothic chapel, and the soldiers1 monument, cast in Munich, and erected in 1864. It is a bronze statue, with granite pedestal, representing a soldier of the United States standing on guard. The most notable work of art in Cincinnati is the Tyler Davidson fountain, in Fifth street (140 ft. wide), between Vine and Walnut. It stands on a freestone esplanade 60 ft. wide by 400 ft. long. In the centre of a porphyry-rimmed basin 40 ft. in diameter is the quatrefoil Saxon porphyry base supporting the bronze work, whose base is 12 ft. square and 6 ft. high, with infant figures in niches at each corner representing the delights of children in water. Its faces are ornamented with panels containing figures in low relief representing the various uses of water to mankind. From the upper part of the bronze base extend four great basins, one to each side, with perforated rims; two of the basins have jets. From the top of the base or socle rises a column up whose sides vines ascend and branch at the top in palm-like foliage.
Around this column are groups of statuary; and on its summit stands a gigantic female figure with outstretched arms, the water raining down in fine spray from her fingers. Four bronze figures on pedestals around the rim of the basin serve as drinking fountains. There are in all 15 figures. The height of the topmost figure above the street is 45 ft. The work was cast in Munich at the royal bronze foundery, and cost nearly $200,000. It was suggested by Mr. Tyler Davidson, and after his death completed and presented to the city by Mr. Henry Probas-co. It was unveiled Oct. 6, 1871. It plays during warm days from morning till midnight. The suspension bridge from Cincinnati to Covington, designed by John A. Roe-bling, and constructed at a cost of $1,800,000, extends 1,057 ft. between the towers, from centre to centre, and with the approaches is 2,252 ft. long. Two wire cables, each a foot in diameter, pass over stone towers 200 ft. high, each surmounted by two turrets of 30 ft., and sustain the bridge, all iron except the flooring, at a height of 103 ft. above low-water mark. It has a double wagon way between the cables, passing through an arched opening in each tower, and a foot way on the outer side of each cable.
It was opened for use Jan. 1, 1867. About 3,000 ft. further up the river, a wrought-iron railroad pier bridge, 100 ft. above low water, with wagon and foot ways on its sides, crosses the Ohio from Cincinnati to Newport. It has 11 spans, the widest being 405 ft. The distance between the abutments is 1,780 ft. The railway track, with its approaches, is 3,090 ft. long, and the highway track 2,082 ft. - Cincinnati contains many public edifices distinguished for their size and architectural beauty. The United States government building, 150 ft. on Vine street by 80 ft. on Fourth street, is of sawed freestone, three stories high, in the Roman Corinthian style; in Fourth street it has a porch supported by six columns of freestone. It contains the post office, depository, custom house, United States court, and other government offices. The county court house, in Main street, facing Court street, is 175 ft. square and three stories high, nearly fire-proof, of iron, brick, and Dayton stone, in the Roman Corinthian style. The front in Main street has a porch with six Corinthian columns of stone. It contains all the courts, except the police and national, all the county offices, and the law library.
It was built in 1853, at a cost of $500,000. With the county jail, 150 ft. square, in its rear, it occupies an entire square. The city buildings, erected in 1853, are of brick, 205 ft. long by 52 ft. wide. The ground, including the city park of 1 1/4 acre, cost $60,000; the buildings about $27,000. They contain the council chamber, police court, and all the city offices. The city workhouse, completed in 1868, is in Mill creek valley, 3 1/2 m. from the custom house. It is of brick, in Romanesque style, 515 by 55 ft.; cost of buildings, $000,-000; the grounds, 26 acres, cost $50,000. It has cells for 700 prisoners. In its rear are workshops and grounds, enclosed by a high stone wall. Longview asylum for the insane, at Carthage, 10 m. from the city, is of brick, in the Italian style, 612 ft. long and three and four stories high. Its value, with 110 acres of grounds, is $1,000,000. Cincinnati hospital, in Twelfth street, between Central avenue and Plum street, occupies a square of about four acres. It consists of eight distinct buildings, arranged around a central court and connected by corridors.
In the centre, fronting Twelfth street, is the administrative block, four stories high; opposite it, in the rear, are the culinary and laundry buildings; flanking these are six pavilions, three on a side, arranged en echelon and three stories high, built of brick trimmed with freestone, in the modern French style, with Mansard roofs. The hospital was first occupied in January, 1869, and cost, with furnishing, $703,572, exclusive of the ground, which is worth $300,000. It has capacity for 700 patients. The public library building, between Sixth and Seventh streets, occupies a lot 80 ft. wide in Vine street, running back 190 ft. to College street. It comprises two distinct buildings, connected by a corridor two stories high, 33 ft. long by 44 ft. wide. The building fronting on Vine street is 80 by 45 ft., and four stories high; the one in the rear is 80 by 112 ft. An iron arch, 40 ft. wide and 90 ft. long, rests on the brick walls of the clear roof. These walls are supported by 16 wrought-iron columns, from which to the wall, 18 ft. above the ground floor, is the gallery. The buildings are of brick, in the Romanesque style, with a stone front in Vine street.
The main hall will cost $500,000; the entire buildings, with the grounds, about $675,000. They are built from funds raised by taxation by the board of education. Masonic temple, on the N. E. corner of Third and Walnut streets, an imposing freestone front building in the 13yzantine style, is 195 by 100 ft., four stories high, with two towers each 140 ft., and a spire 180 ft. high. The basement, ground, and second stories are used for offices and business purposes; the two upper stories for lodges, etc. It was commenced in 1859, and completed at a cost of ' about $200,000. Pike's opera house, in Fourth street, between Vine and Walnut, is one of the most imposing structures of the kind in the United States. It is five stories high, with a front of 134 and a depth of 170 ft. The front is of fine sandstone, in the Elizabethan style. Mozart hall, corner of Vine and Longworth streets, is a massive stone building, with an auditorium which will seat 3,000 persons. St. Xavier's college, a splendid building in the Romanesque style, on the corner of Seventh and Sycamore streets, is 70 by 125 ft., and four stories high. When extended it will be L-shaped. It is of brick, with profuse ornaments of stone, and a splendid double portico of the same material.
It cost $125,000. The Wes-leyan female college, in Wesley avenue, between Court and Clark streets, erected in 1868, is built of white stone, in a highly attractive style of architecture, and is surrounded by ornamental grounds. It is 180 ft. long, 60 and 90 ft. deep, and four stories above the basement, with a Mansard roof. It has accommodations for 300 day and boarding pupils. The Hughes high school, in Fifth street, is an imposing edifice in the Gothic style, with octagon towers at the corners. The medical college of Ohio is a quaint-looking structure in Sixth street, W. of Vine. The finest church edifice in Cincinnati is St. Peter's (Roman Catholic) cathedral in Plum street. It is of Dayton limestone, in pure Grecian style, 200 ft. long and 80 ft. wide, with a stone spire 224 ft. high. Fronting Plum street it has a portico supported by ten sandstone columns, arranged by fours on three sides, which are approached by flights of full-length steps. The height of the interior, from floor to ceiling, is 55 ft.; 18 stone pillars, 0 on each side, separate the nave from the aisles. The altar, of Carrara marble, was made in Genoa. St. Paul's church (Methodist), in Seventh street, in the English transition style of the 13th century, is of blue limestone, cruciform, 130 by 85 ft.
It has a finely finished interior, and a spire 200 ft. high. It cost (in 1871) $175,000. St. John's (Episcopal) church, in Seventh and Plum streets, built in the Norman style, is of stone and stuccoed brick. It is cruciform, 90 by 105 ft. in extreme dimensions. Its most striking features are its unfinished square towers, rough ashlar gable, and deep and lofty Norman door, facing Seventh street. The first Presbyterian church, in Fourth street, is noted for its huge tower, surmounted by a spire 270 ft. high, terminating with a gilded hand, the finger pointing upward. The two Hebrew temples are fine and large structures. That in Plum street is of brick, profusely ornamented with stone, built in the Moorish style, 120 by 110 ft., and cost $250,000. That in Mound street is also of brick trimmed with stone, Gothic in style, 135 by 60 ft., and gorgeously frescoed inside. - North of the Ohio, Cincinnati has only three natural avenues of approach by railroad: two between the base of the hills and the river E. and W. of the city, and one through Mill creek valley from the north. In 1873 these approaches were occupied by six railroads, three of which had double tracks for a distance of 15 to 25 m. from the city.
These lines were used by the following companies: Atlantic and Great Western; Cincinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton; Cincinnati and Indiana; Cincinnati and Indiananolis Junction: Cincinnati. Richmond, and Chicago; Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland; Cincinnati and Muskingum Valley; Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianopolis; Dayton and Michigan; Harrison Branch; Little Miami; Marietta and Cincinnati; and Ohio and Mississippi. Terminating at Covington are the Kentucky Central, and the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington railroads. The daily arrivals and departures on these roads are 124 passenger and 150 freight trains. These railroads enter four depots, all near the river, one in the eastern, one in the central, and two in the western part of the city proper. The eastern and western depots are connected by a track through the city for restricted use in the transfer of freight. The Miami canal connects with Toledo on Lake Erie. Telegraphic communication is afforded by the Western Union company, with 40 lines, the Pacific and Atlantic with six, and the Atlantic and Pacific with two. There are eight lines of river packets running regularly between Cincinnati and various points on the Ohio, Cumberland, Mississippi, Arkansas, White, and Red rivers.
There are 14 lines of omnibuses and stages running from the city to distances of from 5 to 30 m. into the country; and 14 lines of street railroad, with 45 m. of track, traversing the city in various directions. An inclined railway for passengers by a plane about 800 ft. in length, operated by steam, makes an ascent of 275 ft. from the bottom to the top of one of the northern hills. Three other incline railways, to ascend the hills at other points, are projected. Besides the two bridges above mentioned, there is communication by 3 ferries with Kentucky. - The central position of Cincinnati in relation to extensive producing regions and to leading channels of commerce, by water and by rail, renders it one of the most important commercial centres of the west. The commercial growth of the city is exhibited in the following statement of the aggregate imports and exports for the years ending respectively Aug. 31:
Tyler Davidson Fountain.
The number and tonnage of steamers and barges plying between Cincinnati and other points, during the years specified, are as follows:
The value of the chief articles represented in this trade, for the two years ending Aug. 31, was:
Ale, beer, porter
Boots and shoes
Iron and steel.
Pork and bacon.
About three fourths of the transportation of exports from Cincinnati is by railroads and canals, one twelfth by river up the Ohio, and one sixth by river down the Ohio and Mississippi and on their tributaries. Boats in 1873 averaged 330 tons capacity, against 250 tons in 1855. Vessels carrying 1,500 tons run to this port. The employment of tow boats, with barges for carrying all classes of merchandise, is extensive and daily increasing. Such a boat of 350 tons capacity will take 1,200 tons of freight in barges up stream, or 3,000 tons down. The completion of the canal around the falls of the Ohio, at Louisville, enabling boats 300 ft. long and 80 ft. wide to pass through nearly the whole year, has had an important effect upon the river trade of Cincinnati. Since the opening of this great work in 1872, large Mississippi river steamers have been enabled to come up to the city. Boatbuilding constitutes an important industry. In 1872, 20 steamboats and barges of 7,761 tons were built, and in 1871, 25 of 12,758 tons. By the act of congress, July 14, 1870, Cincinnati was made a port of entry. Direct foreign importations since then have been, in import value, as follows: 1870, $1,058,226; 1871, $1,326,868; 1872, $1,463,984. The chief articles of import are tea, coffee, and textile fabrics.
In 1871 Cincinnati merchants withdrew from the original port of entry $52,000,-000 worth of imported goods. - The central situation of the city with reference to extensive iron and coal producing regions has given it great advantages as a manufacturing centre. The following is a summary of the manufactures of Cincinnati in 1872 (to Dec. 31), compared with 1860:
VALUE OF PRODUCTS.
Soap, candles, oils..
Cotton, hemp, etc.
Stone and earth..
Carriages, cars, etc.
B'kbind'g and blank books...
Printing & publish'g
There were 3,971 establishments in 1872, occupying $45,164,954 worth of real estate, and employing $55,265,129 cash capital. The leading interests for the year ending Jan. 1, 1873, were:
No. of Establishments.
No. of Hands.
Value of Real Estate Occupied.
Value of Products.
Book and newspaper publishing...
Boots and shoes...
Building materials not brick or stone..
Candles, soaps, and oils.....
Iron,forged and rolled....
Railway materials and supplies...
Stoves and hollow ware...
Stone and marble work..
Colors, paints, etc....
Perhaps the most prominent industry is the slaughtering of swine and the packing of pork. Formerly Cincinnati enjoyed a supremacy in this branch, which is now held by Chicago, 1,225,236 swine having been packed in the latter city in 1871-2, and 917,197 in the preceding year. There are 51 houses in the city that cut and pack pork, besides a large number which purchase green meats for packing or pack elsewhere. The union stock yards, in Spring Grove avenue (nearly completed), occupy 60 acres, 30 of which are covered with houses and pens. The regular packing season extends from Nov. 1 to March 1; but recently summer packing has been carried on extensively. The extent of this industry for 1870-'71 and 1871-72 was as follows:
Whole number of hogs packed..
Average gross weight, lbs....
Aggregate gross weight, lbs..
Average yield per head of lard, lbs.
Total yield of lard, lbs......
Average price paid, gross..
Pork packed, bbls...
The whole number packed between March 1 and Nov. 1, 1871, was 87,515, making an aggregate of 717,816 for the season of 1872. In 1872 were manufactured from the product (other than provisions) of hogs slaughtered $8,436,039 worth of candles, soaps, and oils, $250,000 worth of bristles and curled hair, about $100,000 worth of grease and $125,000 worth of artificial guano; total $8,911,039. The exports of the product of the hog for the year ending Aug. 31, 1872, were: pork and bacon, $12,981,151; lard, $3,531,327; lard oil, $2,838,810; candles, $1,799,633; soap, $494,790; total, $21,645,717. During the winter season of 1872-3 the number of hogs packed was 626,305; cost, $7,492,030; total net weight, 152,766,653 lbs; yield of lard and trimmings, 28,604,877 lbs. The manufacture of iron in all its branches has grown with great rapidity, and promises to take the leading rank in the industrial products of the city. The manufacture of furniture is also increasing rapidly. In 1872, 13,530,973 gallons of lager beer were made from 1,209,249 bushels of barley and 991,235 lbs. of hops; $4,500,000 capital was invested in this business, and 1,306 hands were employed, at an annual cost of $l,2()0,000. Large shipments of this beverage are made to the southern states, the West Indies, and Mexico. The number of gallons of liquor distilled in 1869 was 4,707,440; in 1870, 5,951,120; in 1871, 7,488,796. The number of gallons rectified in 1869 was 9,949,632; in 1871, 13,233,634. In 1873 there were 7 state and national banks, with an aggregate capital of $4,800,000; 15 private banks, with $2,300,-000 capital; and 2 savings banks with deposits of $540,000 from 5,522 depositors.
There were 24 fire and marine insurance companies, with $5,000,000 capital, and $3,360,000 income (1872) from premiums; two life insurance companies, with $200,000 capital, and $384,298 income from premiums; one mutual health insurance company, with $30,175 income from premiums, and $16,480 losses on risks. - The government of Cincinnati is vested in a mayor elected for two years, with a salary of $4,000, a board of 25 aldermen, one for each ward, and a board of 50 councilmen, or two for each ward. The board of education consists of 48 members, elected by the people. The courts are: common pleas, of 5 judges; superior, with civil jurisdiction in city cases, of 3 judges; probate, of 1 judge; police court, 1 judge; 10 magistrates' courts; and a district court, with a state supreme judge. The United States circuit and district courts for the southern district of Ohio are held in Cincinnati. The fire department is under the control of five commissioners, who are appointed by the mayor. It is a paid department, employing 158 men, 19 steam fire engines, 1 hand engine, 1 hose carriage, 4 hook and ladder carriages, and 86 horses. There are 228 miles of fire alarm telegraphic lines and 170 signal boxes.
The police are under the control of the mayor and 4 commissioners, and their number is limited to 12 captains, 20 other officers, and 300 patrolmen. The city is divided into 10 police districts, each with a station house. In 1872, 12,500 arrests were made. The police telegraph has 20 m. of wire. Water is obtained from the Ohio river. The water works, in East Front street, are of great magnitude. There are four powerful pumping engines, with an average daily capacity of 19,000,000 gallons. The reservoir contains 4,500,000 gallons, and the average daily consumption of the city is about 17,000,000. Two reservoirs, with a capacity of 100,000,000 gallons each, are in process of construction in Eden park. The value of the entire works is $4,247,557. The total receipts in 1872 were $610,961. The sewerage of the city was much neglected until about 1870. In 1873 about 30 m. of sewers had been built, some of which were 14 ft. in diameter. The cost of the city government in 1872 was $4,220,403. Its revenues were $4,976,544, of which $3,297,518 was from taxation.
The chief expenditures were: for schools, $717,-969; police, $367,041; redeeming bonds, $105,-760; fire department, $287,343; street improvements, $435,484. The bonded debt, April 1,1873, was $6,001,500. The tax levy for city purposes for 1869 was $2 80 on each $100 of the tax duplicate, producing a revenue of $3,-150,243; 1870, rate $2 39 1/2, revenue $3,259,768; 1871, rate $1 68, revenue $3,039,100; 1872, rate $1 51, revenuo $2,643,772. Property in churches, etc, exempted by law from taxation, amounted in 1872 to $5,029,690, and the value of city property not taxed was $15,237,194. The increase in the value of property, the rate of tax, and the amount of tax revenue (including both city and county taxes) are shown in the following statement:
Rate of Tax.
Amount of Revenue.
- The charitable institutions of the city are numerous and very efficient. The Cincinnati hospital, occupying the square bounded by Twelfth street, Central avenue, Ann and Plum streets, is supported by taxation, and has an unpaid medical staff of 14, 6 resident undergraduates, and 68 other employees. In 1872, 3,720 patients were treated, of whom 467 paid for treatment. The daily average of patients was 249. The cost of maintenance was $90,-114 20. From paying patients was received $12,070. The Good Samaritan hospital, inLocke street (capacity 250 patients), and St. Mary's hospital in Betts street, are private institutions managed by Roman Catholic sisters. The Jewish hospital, in Baum street, cost $40,000, and is maintained at a cost of $8,000 annually by the Jewish hospital association. Longview asylum for the insane in 1872 had 818 patients under treatment, with a daily average of 585, all of whom except 14 were treated without charge. A principal and two assistant physicians and 33 nurses were employed. The expenses for the year were $103,487. It is said to be the best finished and best appointed asylum in the United States. Its grounds are laid out in lawns, walks, and parks, with greenhouses. There are no bars to the windows, and everything prison-like is avoided.
The asylum is supported by Hamilton county, which is set off by the state as a district. The city infirmary in 1872 maintained 035 indoor paupers, at a cost of $35,197; of outdoor poor it relieved 3,074 with provisions and 5,240 with coal, and furnished coffins and interment to 228, at a cost of $19,923 39. The Cincinnati orphan asylum, maintained by private charity, with accommodations for 300, cared for 102 children, the German Protestant orphan asylum for 108 children. The colored people sustain an asylum with 40 orphans at Avondale. The Roman Catholics sustain two large orphan asylums, under charge of the sisters of charity, and a protectory, where boys are taught trades, under the Dominican brothers. The widows' home. Mount Auburn, receives indigent women not under 00 years old, and in 1873 had 40 inmates; it has property worth $55,000, and $85,500 endowment and trust funds. The Protestant home of the friendless, and the Roman Catholic house of the guardian angel and convent of the Good Shepherd, are female guardian societies, and, except the last-named, afford temporary protection. In 1872 the home of the friendless received 498 inmates, 57 being infants.
The house of the guardian angel is a branch of the convent of the Good Shepherd; it boards about 60 girls, and teaches them trades. Both are under the charge of sisters of the Good Shepherd. The children's home in 1872 cared for 274 neglected children. The house of refuge in Mill creek valley, for children under 16 convicted of minor offences, in 1873 had 228 inmates; it is supported by the city, and managed by a board of directors, at an annual cost of about $50,000. The city workhouse receives adult criminals convicted of minor offences. It is managed by an unpaid board appointed by the mayor and council. In 1872, 4,011 prisoners were committed, of whom all but 317 were discharged; the average number of prisoners per day was 301; the expenses were $65,732; the services of prisoners let to contractors yielded $11,118 50. Secret and mutual benevolent societies are very numerous, especially among the German population. The public schools are under the control of a board of 50 members, elected two from each ward in alternate years, and comprise 25 district, 4 intermediate, and 2 high schools, besides a normal school for females, and evening schools. In addition to the ordinary branches, German, music, drawing, and gymnastics are taught in the day sehools.
According to the report of the superintendent for the year ending June 30, 1872, of the 120,578 persons between 5 and 21 years of age, 27,617 were registered in the public schools; the average daily attendance was 20,048. The total number of teachers was 510, of whom 406 were females. In the 10 night schools there were 55 teachers and 2,952 pupils enrolled, with an average attendance of 1,410. The expenditures for school purposes for the year ending June 30, 1872, amounted to $746,027, including $421,241 for teachers' wages, and $29,457 for night schools. From an average daily attendance of 18,973 for that year, 11,273 were studying German. The two high schools, known as the Woodward and the Hughes high schools, have a wide reputation for efficiency and a high standard of instruction; in 1873 they had 22 teachers and 805 pupils. The tax for schools in 1872 was 2.75 mills city and 1 mill state levy. Of the $181,000 raised by the state levy, the city received $169,000, or $12,000 less than it paid. There are 106 Roman Catholic parochial schools, with an average attendance of 16,165 pupils.
The establishment of a free university, to afford liberal and technical training, is in progress, through the bequest of Charles McMicken, estimated at from $500,000 to $750,000. A board of 18 trustees has been organized, under whose auspices the McMicken school of design was opened in 1869, and in 1873 had 5 instructors and 300 pupils. The telescope and property of the Cincinnati ohservatory, on Mount Adams, had heen transferred to the university, and a site of four acres for a new ohservatory has been donated at Mount Lookout, near Linwood, 6 m. from the city. The Cincinnati Wesleyan college for females, established in 1842, has preparatory, academic, and collegiate departments, and a department of music and of art. In 1872 there were 17 instructors, of whom 11 were females, and 200 pupils. St. Xavier college, conducted by Jesuits, in 1872 had 317 pupils, of whom 145 were in the academic department, 69 in the collegiate, 69 in the commercial, and 34 in the preparatory; 18 instructors, and a library of 12,000 volumes. The college possesses valuable chemical and philosophical apparatus, a museum, and a large mineralogical and geological collection.
The Chickering classical and scientific institute, in George street, between Smith and John, one of the largest private schools for boys in the west, has a classical and a scientific course, each of five years, with 14 instructors and 201 pupils. Lane theological seminary (Presbyterian), occupying a site of seven acres on Walnut Hills, was organized in 1829, and had an endowment fund of $200,000, and a library of 12,000 volumes. In 1873 there were 5 professors and 38 students in the three classes. The medical college of Ohio, founded in 1819, in 1872 had 10 instructors, 22G pupils, and nearly 2,000 alumni. Cincinnati college has been suspended since 1845, excepting its law school, which, with 5 professors, graduates about 30 students annually. Chief among other institutions are the theological seminary of Mount St. Mary's of the West (Roman Catholic), Mount Auburn, young ladies' institute, Cincinnati college of medicine and surgery, Ohio college of dental surgery, Eclectic medical institute, Miami medical college, organized in 1852, and Pulte medical college (homoeopathic), founded in 1872. There are four commercial colleges and two conservatories of music.
Cincinnati has 11 public libraries, the most important of which is the so-called public library, occupying an imposing structure in Vine street. It is under the control of a hoard of seven managers, chosen by the board of education, and is maintained by taxation for the free use of all citizens. The total number of volumes June 30, 1873, was 59,695, the increase during the previous year having been 10,059; 230,487 volumes were taken out by 19,636 persons; average daily circulation, 765. Two large reading rooms on the lower floor are open 14 hours every day in the year, and are supplied with 310 periodicals, including 138 American, 96 English, 60 German, 12 French, 3 Dutch, and 1 Welsh. The reading room, in the third story, is supplied with 42 medical periodicals, and tiles of 37 current religious newspapers; making, with duplicates, the total number of periodicals received 404, besides 37 newspapers.
The reading rooms were first opened on Sunday from 8 A. M. to 10 P. M., March 12, 1871. The number of Sunday issues for the year ending June 30, 1872, was 19,917. The young men's mercantile library association, founded in 1835, in 1872 had 34,362 volumes and 2,833 members. The increase for the year was 1,282 volumes and 95 active members. The total circulation of books was 59,024. In the reading room may be found 264 magazines and newspapers, of which 45 magazines and 30 newspapers are foreign. The library is open on Sunday. The law library, founded in 1847, contains 7,600 volumes. The mechanics' institute library has 6,500 volumes, and a reading room. The Ohio philosophical and historical society has a library of 4,500 bound volumes, and 12,000 pamphlets and unbound volumes. There are six large musical associations, seven dramatic and reading clubs, and one literary club. The natural history society, recently organized, has a fine cabinet, and the nucleus of a library and a building fund. The historical and philosophical society, organized Dec. 31, 1831, has apartments in College building. Its object is to collect and preserve materials for American history, and it has 87 members.
The chamber of commerce, merchants' exchange, an inrluential and powerful commercial organization, of 1,200 members, meets daily; the board of trade, 850 members, composed of manufacturers; the mechanics' institute, composed largely of machinists, and the pork packers' association, are important organizations. Besides these, nearly every considerable branch of business has its own organization. Under the management of a board appointed by the chamber of commerce, board of trade, and mechanics' institute, three successive industrial expositions have been held yearly, the last in September, 1873. The buildings cover 3 1/2 acres of ground in the heart of the city, and have 7 acres of space for exhibiting. The young men's Christian association occupies a building in Vine street, containing free reading, conversation, and amusement rooms. Daily religious services are held here, and free lectures and concerts are given. Here also are a free employment agency, and a boarding-house directory. In 1872 the total attendance was 68,539. The chief places of public amusement are Pike's opera house, Mozart hall, Robinson's opera house, Hopkins music hall, National theatre, and Wood's theatre.
There were 75 newspapers and periodicals published in Cincinnati in 1873, as follows: 9 daily, of which 3 were in German; 1 semi-weekly; 42 weekly, including 4 German; 21 monthly, including 1 German, and 1 quarterly. There are 160 church edifices in the city, distributed as follows:
Baptist, 14; Christian, 2; Congregational, 4; Disciples of Christ, 4; Friends, 2; German Evangelical Union, 4; German Reformed, 3; Independent Methodist, 1; Hebrew, 5; Lutheran, 4; Methodist Episcopal, 26: Methodist Protestant, 3; Calvinistic Methodist, 1;
African Methodist, 1; New Jerusalem, 1; Presbyterian, 16; United Presbyterian, 3; Reformed Presbyterian, 3; Protestant Episcopal, 11; Roman Catholic, 32, and 12 chapels; United Brethren in Christ, 3; Universalist, 1; Unitarian, 3; Union Bethel, 1. - Cincinnati was first settled in 1788, by emigrants from New Jersey, on land purchased from the United States government by John Cleves Symmes. Fort Washington was soon built on the crest of the second plateau, between the present Lawrence and Ludlow, and Pearl and Fourth streets. The village was laid out early in 1789 by Col. Israel Ludlow, and was mainly built below the fort, on the river bank. For many years it was composed of frame and log houses. It is said that the name was suggested by Gen. St. Clair, in honor of the Cincinnati society of officers of the revolutionary war, of which he was a member. In 1790 Hamilton county was organized by Gen. St. Clair, with Cincinnati as the county seat. After the victory over the Indians by Gen. Wayne, at the battle of Fallen Timbers, in 1795, which gave peace to the Miami country, immigration rapidly increased, and the growth of the village was steady.
Emigrants descended the Ohio river from Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh) in flat boats or arks, the journey being attended with great peril from hostile Indians on either shore. In 1794 a line of two keel boats pushed by poles, with bullet-proof covers and port holes, provided with cannon and small arms, was established between Cincinnati and Pittsburgh, making the trip once in four weeks. The keel boat was the best and most comfortable boat for navigation on the Ohio, and this and the flat boat were the sole means of conveyance on the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi. In 1811 the first steamboat was launched in the west, and in 1816 the first steamboat was built in Cincinnati. The steamboat changed the whole kind and character of navigation on the Ohio. Cincinnati at once began to build steamboats, and to trade with the most distant parts of the Mississippi valley. It was incorporated as a city in 1814, and became the mart of a vast commerce, and the point for the receipt, distribution, and transshipment of the immense surplus products of the great region to which she was a centre. Since 1816 the building of river boats has been extensively carried on. During the 25 years ending with December, 1872, 655 steamboats and barges were built, with an aggregate burden of 223,477 tons.
The Miami canal was built in 1830, and in 1840 the Little Miami railroad was constructed. In September, 1862, martial law was for a brief period declared in the city, when an attack by confederate troops was expected. The territorial extent of the city, which was formerly about 7 sq. m., has been recently much increased by the following annexations: Feb. 24, 1870, Storrs township, 3 sq. m.; Mount Auburn and Corryville, 1 sq. m.; and Walnut Hills, 3/4 sq. m.; May 9, Lick Run and Camp Washington, 5 sq. m.; Pendleton and Spencer township, 2 1/2 sq. m.; Feb. 1, 1873, Columbia village 1 sq. m.; March 18, 1873, Cummins-ville, 2 1/4 sq. m. 5 March 28, Woodburn, 1 sq. m.