Legislative...................................... $69,310

Executive........................................ 48.564

Judicial......................................... 45,694

Public printing................................... 49,366

Support of state prison........................... 34,857 of reform school......................... 30,000

" of soldiers' orphans...................... 20,017

" of deaf, dumb, and blind................. 26.000

" of hospital for insane.................... 84,500

" of normal schools........................ 26,250

" of state university....................... 30.000

Erection of public buildings...................... 188,099

Interest on state bonds............................ 31,255

School fund apportioned.......................... 194,654

Purchase of bonds for invested funds.............. 168,757

Appropriations from internal improvement fund... 14,513

Frontier relief.................................... 31.970

Interest coupons, bonus railroad bonds............ 10,562

Support of agricultural societies................... 3,000

Geological survey................................ 2,000

Teachers' institutes and training schools........... 2,710

State historical society........................... 2,980

The total equalized valuation of taxable prop-ertv was $39,264,740 in 18(31, $45,184,0(53 in 1865, $87,133,673 in 1870, $112,035,501 in 1873, and $217,427,211 in 1874. The great increase of the last year is due largely to a new tax law requiring property to be assessed at its cash value. The total for 1874 includes 13,-741,404 acres of land, exclusive of town and city lots, valued with buildings at $113,410,-620; town and city real estate, $58,994,793; personal property, $45,021,798. Besides this, 90,533 persons had each $100 of property exempt, or $9,053,300. The total taxes levied on this equalized valuation amounted to $4,102,-835, including $507,369 for state purposes, $1,331,772 for common schools (a two-mill tax yielding $433,193 and a special tax of $898,- 579), and $1,085,967 for county and $1,177,727 for town and city purposes. The rate of the state tax was 2.33 mills. Of the amount raised, $329,790 was for general revenue, $101,474 for state institutions, $50,737 for interest on the state debt, and $25,368 for the sinking fund. In 1873 a state tax of five mills was levied, producing $561,459. All lands belonging to railroads are subject to taxation whenever sold or their sale is agreed upon.

The number of acres of public lands surveyed up to Aug. 1, 1873, was 34,659,751, of which 10,990,795 had not yet been disposed of. The land not yet surveyed is in the northern part of the state. - The hospital for the insane at St. Peter will accommodate when completed 450 patients. The whole number under treatment in 1874 was 497, of whom 219 were women; number at the close of the year, 381; daily average, 341. Of those discharged during the year, 56 were recovered, 32 improved, and 4 unimproved; there were 24 deaths. The current expenses amounted to $83,017. The institution for the education of the deaf and dumb and the blind, opened in 1863, is beautifully situated at Faribault, and is free to all deaf and dumb and blind persons in the state between the ages of 10 and 25 years. In 1874 104 deaf and dumb and 22 blind students were in attendance, and there were reported in the state 71 persons of the former and 18 of the latter class who were not in any institution. Seven teachers are employed in the deaf-mute and three in the blind department. The complete course of study embraces seven years, and comprises, besides the usual subjects, instruction in industrial branches. Articulation and lip reading are taught to about 10 per cent, of the deaf mutes.

The expenses for 1874 amounted to $30,818. The soldiers' orphans' home, at Winona, at the close of 1873 had 85 pupils, of whom 38 were girls. The total expenditures in that year amounted to $17,431. Unlike institutions of this class in other states, except that in Pennsylvania, the home is a private incorporated association, having an agreement with the state for the support upon specified conditions of soldiers' orphans who are destitute. Only those between the ages of 4 and 16 years are admitted, and they are discharged at the age of 18 or younger. There is no school connected with the institution, but the inmates receive instruction in the state normal school. The state prison is at Stillwater, and will have when completed a capacity for 300 convicts. United States military and civil convicts are confined here. In 1874 the average number of prisoners was 112, and the number remaining at the close of the year 134. The entire earnings of the prison amounted to $19,261, including $11,723 for convict labor and $6,499 for boarding United States military convicts. The cost of the prison after deducting the earnings was $17,618, or $158 27 for each convict. The labor of the prisoners is let out by contract.

The reform school at St. Paul, opened in 1868, is intended for incorrigible and criminal boys and girls under the age of 16 years. At the beginning of 1874 there were in the institution 107 boys and 13 girls, all of whom were receiving instruction in the ordinary branches and industrial pursuits. Provision has been made for the establishment of an asylum for inebriates. - The permanent school fund is derived from the proceeds of the school lands, which comprise every 16th and 36th section, constituting one eighteenth of the entire public domain. It is estimated that these lands will amount to 2,000,-000 acres. At the beginning of 1875, 450,357 acres had been sold, from which and the sales of timber a productive fund of $3,030,127 had been realized. The income of this fund amounted to $189,826 in 1874, which was distributed among the counties in proportion to the school population. The total distribution ($192,264) was based on the school population of 1873, 196,065, making the per capita apportionment 98 cents.

The principal of this fund is protected by the constitution against diminution; and it is estimated that when the remainder of the school lands are sold the permanent school fund will exceed $15,000,000. The state superintendent of education is appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for two years, and receives an annual salary of $2,500. County superintendents are appointed by the county commissioners. The most important statistics for the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, are given in the following statement:

Number of persons between 5 and 21 years old___ 210,104 15 and 21............ 57,650

" " attending school.............. 128.902

" of school districts....................... 3.266

" " " reporting.............. 3.114

Number of winter schools........................ 2.769

Average length in months..................... 3.55

Total attendance.............................. 99,842

Average " ............................. 71.362

Number of summer schools...................... 2.713

Average length in months..................... 8.11

Total attendance.............................. 81,781

Average " .............................. 55,243

Number of teachers in all schools (male 1,834, female 3.648).................................. 5.582

Average monthly wages of teachers, male........ $41 46

" " female....... $28.91

Number of school houses........................ 2,758

Value " " ....................... $2,238,700

Amount received from school fund, including 2-mill tax, fines. etc.......................... $362,708

Amount apportioned from permanent school fund $192,264

" received from taxes voted by districts----- $889,890

" expended for school purposes, total...... $1 .155,542

" " for teachers'wages............ $678.60G.

" " for school houses.............. $323,601

According to the federal census of 1870, the total number of educational institutions in Minnesota was 2,479, having 2,886 teachers, of whom 1,907 were females, and 107,264 pupils. The total income of all was $1,011,769, of which $2,000 was from endowment. $903,101 from taxation and public funds, and $106,668 from tuition and other sources. There were 2,424 public schools with 2.758 teachers and 103,408 pupils, 4 colleges with 31 teachers and 524 students, 3 academies having 10 teachers and 133 pupils, and 23 private schools with 28 teachers and 959 pupils. In 1874. 487 pupils were instructed in academies, 582 in colleges, and 2 980 in private schools, making with those in the common and normal schools a total of 133,854. Minnesota has three state normal schools: at Winona, opened in 1860; Mankato, 1808; and St. Cloud, 1869. The number of instructors and pupils in these during the year ending Nov. 30, 1874, together with the annual appropriation made by the legislature, was as follows:

NORMAL. SCHOOLS.

Instructors.

PUPILS.

Appropriations.

Model department.

Normal department.

Total.

Winona.....

11

261

255

516

$12,000

Mankato...

5

46

171

217

10,000

St.Cloud...

6

4S

122

170

6,000

Total

22

355

543

903

$28,000

For the further training of teachers, the superintendent of public instruction is required to hold annually in the thinly settled counties as many state teachers' institutes as practicable, each to continue in session at least one week. In 1874 six training schools of four weeks each and five institutes of one week each were held in 11 counties, and were attended by 1,024 teachers. The expense, $2,710, was borne by the state. These institutes are regarded as an important feature of the public school system. Applicants for position as teachers, if not graduates of a normal school, are required to obtain a graded certificate, which is granted on examination by county superintendents. - The state university is described in the article Minnesota, University of. Carleton college (Congregational), at Northtield, was organized in 1866, and has an English preparatory and a collegiate course, which are open to students of both sexes. In 1873 - "4 it had 10 instructors and 171 pupils, of whom 7 were in the college and 10."; in the preparatory department; 04 were females. St. John's college is an important Roman Catholic school at St. Joseph's, organized in 1850, and having in 1873-4 22 instructors and 26 students in the ecclesiastical and 97 in the classical and commercial course.

Macalester college (Presbyterian) at Minneapolis was opened in 1874. Besides the theological department of St. John's college, instruction in theology is afforded by Augsburg seminary (Evangelical Lutheran) at Minneapolis, which was founded in 18G9, and in 1873 had 5 instructors and 03 students. The only institution exclusively for the higher education of women which reported to the United States bureau of education in 1873 was St. Mary's Hall at Faribault (Protestant Episcopal), which in 1873-'4had 14 instructors and 114 pupils. There are, however, seminaries for the secondary instruction of girls at Hastings, Minneapolis, and St. Paul. There are also several well conducted academies open to boys and girls in St. Paul, Red Wing, Caledonia, and other places. There are from 15 to 20 excellent high schools in the state, in which students may be prepared to enter the state university. Several private schools afford instruction in the Norwegian and Swedish languages. There are business colleges in St. Paul and Minneapolis. - According to the census of 1870, there were in the state 2,703 libraries, with an aggregate of 2,174,744 volumes; 23,701 with 1.590,113 volumes were private, and 3,002 with 578,031 volumes were other than private, including the state library of 10,000 volumes, and 23 circulating libraries containing 10,001 volumes.

Besides the state library, the most important ones are that of the university of Minnesota, which contains about 10,000 volumes; St. Paul library, 6,000; the Minneapolis Athenasum, 4,000; and that of the state historical society at St. Paul, which has 5,643 bound and 8,730 unbound volumes. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals was 95, having an aggregate circulation of 110,778 copies, and issuing annually 9,543,050. There were 6daily, with a circulation of 14,800; 5 tri-weeklv, 4.200; 79 weekly, 79,978; and 5 monthly, 11,800. In 1874 the number reported was 128, including 7 daily, 4 tri-weekly, 112 weekly, and 5 monthly. The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 077, having 582 edifices, with 158,200 sittings and property valued at $2,401,750. The denominations were represented as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.

Organizations.

Edifices.

Sittings.

Property.

Baptist, regular.....

80

43

11.135

$140,400

other........

14

7

1.300

19.100

Christian............

6

6

1.550

7.450

Congregational.......

57

39

11.400

143.200

Episcopal. Protestant.

64

54

14.595

400,500

Evangelical Associa'n.

20

16

3.875

24.100

Lutheran...

185

97

23.325

222.150

Methodist...........

225

106

26.890

337.550

Moravian............

6

5

1,400

8.500

New Jerusalem......

1

1

200

2.200

Presbyterian, regular.

75

59

16.756

273.000

" other...

1

1

200

2,000

Reformed church (late German Reformed).

2

2

400

45,000

Roman Catholic......

154

135

42.370

755.000

Second Advent.......

7

1

150

2,100

United Brethren in Christ..............

5

2

500

1.000

Universalist....

18

6

1,720

55,000

Though of recent settlement, Minnesota has long been the seat of a considerable traffic with the Indians, and of missionary enterprise. As early as 1080 Hennepin and La Salle penetrated these wilds, followed by La Hontan and Le Sueur, and in the last century by Carver; and within the present century this region has been thoroughly explored by Pike, Long, Keating, Nicollet, Schoolcraft, Owen, and others. But it was not until 1812 that the United States had any authority within the limits of Minnesota. In 1810 a law was passed excluding foreigners from the Indian trade; and the military post at Fort Snelling was established in 1819. In 1837 a small tract of country between the St. Croix and Mississippi was ceded by the Indians to the United States, and lumbering operations commenced upon the St. Croix. The territory of Minnesota was established by an act of congress passed March 3, 1849, and the government was organized in June. It embraced nearly twice the area of the present state, its western limits extending to the Missouri and White Earth rivers.

Up to this period the country was occupied almost entirely by Indians; but a small civilized population of whites and half-breeds had grown up around the trading posts and mission stations, amounting in 1849 to 4,857. In 1851 the Sioux ceded to the United States all their lands in the territory W. of the Mississippi to the Big Sioux river. The population increased so rapidly after this, that in 1857 application was made for admission into the Union. In the convention assembled to frame a state constitution, a dispute arose among the delegates, which resulted in the secession of a portion and the formation of another convention. The two conventions, known as the republican and the democratic, held sessions at the same time in St. Paul. A compromise was effected, and the same constitution was signed by the delegates of both conventions and submitted separately to the people by each convention, with the names only of its officers and delegates. It was ratified by an overwhelming majority. According to the census ordered in the enabling act, and dated Sept. 21, 1857, the territory contained 150,092 inhabitants. The act authorizing the formation of a state government passed congress Feb. 26, 1857, and the stats was admitted into the Union May 11, 1858, with the boundaries above described.

That portion of the state lying on the E. side of the Mississippi originally belonged to the country termed the "Territory Northwest of the Ohio," and had the ordinance of 1787 been fully complied with would have been included in the fifth state (Wisconsin) formed from that region. This section comprises an area of 22,336 square miles. The part of the country lying W. of the Mississippi, and embracing more than two thirds of its area, was originally a portion of Louisiana, and came into the possession of the United States in 1803; and before it was included in Minnesota it had been a part of the territory of Missouri, and subsequently of Iowa. There are bonds amounting to $2,275,000 outstanding against the state," the validity of which has been disputed. These bonds were issued in 1858 and lent to railroad companies, upon the authority of an amendment to the constitution made in that year. Soon after receiving them the companies, as is alleged, failed to comply with the conditions upon which the bonds were granted, and payment was refused by the state.

In 1860 another amendment to the constitution was adopted "expunging" the amendment of 1858, and providing that " no law levying a tax or making other provisions for the payment of principal or interest of the bonds denominated Minnesota state railroad bonds shall take effect or be in force until such law shall have been submitted to a vote of the people of the state and adopted by a majority of the electors of the state voting upon the same." Before this amendment was adopted the mortgages held by the state had been purchased and the mortgaged railroads bought by the government at nominal prices. In May, 1871, a popular vote was taken on a proposition for settlement by arbitration of these claims, when 21,499 votes were cast against and 9,293 in favor of the proposition, the total vote being less than half the average vote of the state. The total number of men furnished by Minnesota to the army and navy during the civil war was 25,034, or 19,675 reduced to a three years' standard.