Wisconsin, one of the N. TV. states of the American union, the 17th admitted under the federal constitution, between lat. 42° 30' and 46° 58' N., and Ion. 87° 8' and 92° 54' TV., exclusive of the Apostle islands in Lake Superior, and the islands near the N. E. coast in Green bay and Lake Michigan. It is bounded N. by Lake Superior, N. E. by Michigan, E. by Lake Michigan, S. by Illinois, and TV. by Iowa and Minnesota. The Montreal and Menomonee rivers form parts of the boundary line between this state and Michigan, and the Mississippi and St. Croix rivers most of the TV. boundary line. Its greatest length N. and S. is about 300 m.; greatest breadth E. and TV. about 260 m.; area, according to the federal census, 63,924 sq. m. It is divided into 60 counties, which, with their population according to the state census of 1875, are as follows:

State Seal of Wisconsin.

State Seal of Wisconsin.

COUNTIES.

Population.

Adams

6,502

Ashland

730

Barron

8,737

Bayfield..........

1,032

Brown..........

35,373

Buffalo...........

14,219

Burnett..........

1,456

Calumet.........

15,065

Chippewa

13,995

Clark............

7,282

Columbia

28,803

Crawford.........

15.035

Dane

52,798

Dodge

48.394

Door

8,020

Douglas

741

Dunn............

13,427

Eau Claire

15,991

Fond du Lac

50,241

Grant

39,086

Green

22,027

Green Lake

15,274

Iowa.............

24,133

Jackson

11,339

Jefferson

34,908

Juneau

15,800

Kenosha

13,907

Kewaunee

14,405

La Crosse

23.945

Lafayette

22,169

COUNTIES.

Population.

Lincoln

895

Manitowoc

38,456

Marathon

10,111

Marquette

8,597

Milwaukee

122,927

Monroe

21,026

Oconto

13,812

Outagamie......

25,558

Ozaukee

16,545

Pepin

5,816

Pierce

15,101

Polk............

6,736

Portage

14,856

Racine

28,702

Richland

17,353

Rock ...........

39,039

St. Croix........

14,956

Sauk

26.982

Shawano

6,635

Sheboygan

84,021

Taylor..........

849

Trempealeau

14,992

Vernon

21,524

Walworth

26,259

Washington

23,862

Waukesha

29.425

Waupaca

19,646

Waushara

11,523

Winnebago

45,033

Wood...........

6,048

The capital is Madison, and the largest city Milwaukee; in 1875 the former had 10,093 inhabitants, and the latter 100,775. The other principal cities were Appleton, 6,730; Beaver Dam, 3,455; Beloit, 4,605; Berlin, 3,341; Chippewa Falls, 5,050; Eau Claire, 8,440; Fond du Lac, 15,308; Fort Howard, 3,610; Green Bay, 8,037; Janesville, 10,115; Kenosha, 4,959; La Crosse, 11,012; Manitowoc, 5,724; Menasha, 3,170; Mineral Point, 3,054; Neenah, 4,023; Oconto, 4,457; Oshkosh, 17,015; Portage, 4,337; Prairie du Chien, 2,948; Racine, 13,274; Ripon, 3,501; Sheboygan, 6,828; Stevens Point, 3,363; watertown, 9,424; and Wausau, 2,820. The population of Wisconsin and its rank in the Union, according to the federal census, have been as follows:

YEARS.

White.

Colored.

Total.

Rank.

1840..................

30,749

196

30,945

29

1850..................

304,756

635

305,391

24

1860.................

773,698

1,171

775,881

15

1870..................

1,051,351

2,113

1,054,670

15

Included in the total for 1870 were 1,206 Indians, and in that for 1860, 1,017. The population in 1875, as returned by the state census, was 1,236,729. Of the total population in 1870, 544,886 were males and 509,784 females; 690,171 were of native and 364,499 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 450,272 were born in the state, 5,714 in Connecticut, 12,234 in Illinois, 6,415 in Indiana, 8,931 in Maine, 10,403 in Massachusetts, 5,302 in Michigan, 105,697 in New York, 23,164 in Ohio, 21,358 in Pennsylvania, and 16,421 in Vermont. Of the foreigners, 25,666 were born in British America, 28,192 in England, 48,479 in Ireland, 6,590 in Scotland, 6,550 in Wales, 5,212 in Denmark, 40,046 in Norway, 2,799 in Sweden, 5,990 in Holland, 162,314 in Germany, and 6,069 in Switzerland. The density of population was 19.56 persons to a square mile. There were 200,155 families, with an average of 5.27 persons to each, and 197,098 dwellings, with an average of 5.35 to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 35.93 per cent. In 1870 there were 178,669 males and 175,347 females from 5 to 18 years of age, 192,331 males from 18 to 45, and 203,077 male citizens 21 years old and upward.

There were 35,031 persons 10 years of age and over unable to read, and 55,441 who could not write, of whom 41,328 were foreign born; 17,822 males and 22,785 females 21 years old and upward were illiterate. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 1,553, at a cost of $151,181. Of the whole number (1,126) receiving support at that date, 736 were foreigners. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 837; of those (418) in prison June 1, 1870, 203 were foreigners. Of the total population 10 years old and over (751,704), there were engaged in all occupations 292,808; in agriculture, 159,687, of whom 50,753 were laborers and 108,240 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 58,070, including 1,189 clergymen, 19,141 domestic servants, 24,670 laborers not specified, 785 lawyers, 915 physicians and surgeons, and 4,164 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 21,534; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 53,517. The total number of deaths during the year was 9,960, being 0.94 per cent, of the population.

There were 1,318 deaths from consumption, there being 7.6 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; 487 from pneumonia, or 20.5 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; 368 from cholera infantum, 211 from whooping cough, 152 from measles, 186 from diphtheria, 1,016 from scarlet fever, 464 from enteric fever, 296 from diarrhoea, 265 from dysentery, and 280 from enteritis. In 1875 there were 8,162 tribal Indians in Wisconsin, including 1,522 Menomonees, 1,332 Oneidas, and 118 Stockbridges at the Green Bay agency; 4,534 Chippewas at the La Pointe agency; and 656 Winnebagoes not under an agent. - The whole surface of Wisconsin may, with slight exceptions, be considered one vast plain, varied only by the cliffs bordering the rivers and lakes, and the moderate undulations called "rolling:." This plain is from 600 to 1,500 ft. above the ocean; the dividing grounds between the valleys usually attain but a slight elevation above the surrounding country, the waters of a lake or marsh being often drained in opposite directions to reach the ocean at widely different points.

The highest lands are those along the sources of the tributaries of Lake Superior, which, near the Montreal river, are 1,700 to 1,800 ft. above the sea, gradually diminishing westward to about 1,100 ft. at the W. line of the state. From this great watershed the land slopes rapidly toward the lake, and more gradually toward the south to the lower Wisconsin river, whence there is another slope toward the south drained mostly by the waters of Rock river and its tributaries. At Portage City the Fox and Wisconsin rivers approach so nearly that their waters are often commingled; they are connected by a canal, from which there is a descent of 195 ft. to Green bay and 171 ft. to the Mississippi near Prairie du Chien. There are several elevations called mounds in the S. W. portion of the state; the principal are the Blue, 1,729 ft. above the sea; the Platte, 1,281 ft.; and the Sinsinawa, 1,169 ft. The cliffs along the E. shores of Green bay and Lake Winnebago extend as far as Iron Ridge in Dodge co., and form a bold escarpment not unlike the "mountain ridge " of western New York in general character and geological age.

From this ridge the country slopes gradually E. to Lake Michigan. On this slope there is a remarkable series of drift hills and circular depressions called " potash kettles," extending S. S. W. from the peninsula E. of Green bay into the state of Illinois; one of the highest peaks in Washington co. is 1,402 ft. above the sea. Lake Michigan, according to J. T. Gardner's calculations (United States survey reports, 1873), is 589 ft. above the sea. The Mississippi river at the S. W. corner of the state is 576 ft.; at the mouth of the Platte, 8 m. above Dubuque, 591 ft.; at Prairie du Chien, 602; at La Crosse, 632; and at the mouth of the St. Croix river (Prescott), 677; and it therefore has a descent in this part of its course of 5 in. per mile. The descent of Fox river from Lake Winnebago to Green bay is 162 ft., forming one of the most valuable series of water powers in the west. - The Mississippi forms the western boundary of the state for about 250 m., and in that distance receives the waters of the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, and Wisconsin rivers.

The other principal rivers are the Rock, another tributary of the Mississippi; the St. Louis, Bois Brule, Bad, and Montreal, flowing into Lake Superior; the Menomonee, Peshtigo, Oconto, Pensaukee, and Fox, with its tributary the Wolf, flowing into Green bay; and the Manitowoc, Sheboygan, and Milwaukee, tributaries of Lake Michigan. Innumerable smaller streams water almost the whole surface; their waters are usually clear, originating in springs and small lakes. Many of those at the north have beautiful cascades or rapids; and at the south they often run through narrow rocky gorges, called "dells." The Mississippi is navigable for steamboats throughout its course on the border of the state; the Wolf and Fox rivers are navigable for small steamboats, the latter having been artificially improved; and many of the streams afford ample water power. Besides the two great lakes, Superior and Michigan, there are numerous others, especially in the central and northern portions of the state; they are from 1 to 20 or 30 m. in extent, usually with high, picturesque banks, and deep water, abounding in fish.

The greatest numbers are found near the sources of the Chippewa and St. Croix rivers, the whole surface being studded with them, so that in some districts it would be difficult to travel 5 m. without finding a lake. A kind of wild rice (zizania aquatica) grows in the shallow waters, affording sustenance to innumerable water birds. The principal lakes are Winnebago, the largest, St. Croix, Pepin, Poygan, Pewaukee, Geneva, Green, Koshkonong, and the Four Lakes. - The geology of the state is simple, the series of rocks extending from the Laurentian to the Devonian. In the north central portion of the state there is a large area of archaean (azoic) rocks, having an extreme length E. and W. of nearly 240 m., and a breadth N. and S. of 160 m. These rocks are metamorphic in origin, and consist chiefly of granite, gneiss, syenite, diorite, and other hornblendic and allied rocks, quartzite, porphyrite, and a variety of schists and slates. The falls and rapids of the St. Croix, Chippewa, Black, Wisconsin, Wolf, Peshtigo, Menomonee, Montreal, and other rivers are due to the unequal hardness of these rocks. Besides the main area, there are in the south central part of the state outcrops of limited extent entirely surrounded by later formations, through which they project.

The greater part of the archaean rocks of the state are regarded as belonging to the Laurentian period, though the Huronian are well developed. The unconformability of the two has been demonstrated, but their boundaries have not yet been satisfactorily traced at all points. To the latter period belongs the Penokee Iron range, which abounds in magnetic iron not yet worked. Similar iron deposits also occur on the Menomonee river and at Black River Falls. The copper-bearing series is found in Ashland, Bayfield, Douglas, Burnett, and Polk cos., and contains copper, but to what extent is not yet fully ascertained. Resting unconformably upon the archsean rocks is the Potsdam sandstone, forming a belt on almost every side from 10 to 60 m. in breadth. The general form of the sandstone district is that of a Crescent, its horns on the Menomonee and St. Croix rivers, and its greatest breadth in the region of the Wisconsin river, near the middle of the state. The sand is generally pure, frequently suitable for the manufacture of glass. It often contains calcareous beds with fossil remains of a very ancient fauna; the decay of these beds mingling with the sand renders the soil fertile. This rock often forms bold cliffs and prominent peaks.

The strata present ripple marks, cross laminations, and other evidences of deposition in shallow water. Next above the Potsdam sandstone is a heavy deposit of limestone, locally known as the lower magnesian limestone; it contains copper ores in a few places, and also lead. This is succeeded by the upper sandstone, having many of the characteristics of the Potsdam, upon which are the blue and Galena limestones (or dolomites) of the Trenton period, chiefly in the latter of which are found, in the S. W. part of the state and adjoining portions of Iowa and Illinois, the fissures containing deposits of lead, zinc, and copper ores. In this district, though yielding large quantities of lead, the soil is rich and productive. These mines were first discovered by Le Sueur in 1700, but attracted little attention till 1826, from which time the quantity of lead produced increased rapidly till about 1845, since which it has declined. Upon the Galena limestone rest the blue and green shales and limestones of the Cincinnati group, and upon these at Iron Ridge, Hartford, and other points in eastern Wisconsin, rest the Clinton iron ore beds, which attain at the first named place the unusual thickness of 25 ft., consisting of regular horizontal beds, which are extensively mined with the very greatest facility.

Above this, and forming the surface rock over a large area in the E. part of the state, is the Niagara limestone, which is highly magnesian, and contains some of the purest stratified dolomites known. It affords excellent building material and quicklime of the first quality. Near Milwaukee, covering a limited space, occurs a rock now known as the Milwaukee cement stone, from the hydraulic properties which it has recently been shown to possess in a high degree. It belongs to the Hamilton period of the Devonian age. The limestone district of Wisconsin includes nearly all those portions lying S. and E. of the Fox and lower Wisconsin rivers, with considerable tracts along the Mississippi and W. of Green bay. All these rocks are older than those of the coal formation; hence no coal is found in this state. With the exception of the lead region, and the counties along the Mississippi river, the state is covered with a heavy deposit of clay, sand, gravel, and bowlders or "drift;" and it is generally, this deposit rather than the underlying rocks that gives character to the soil. Among the pebbles masses of native copper are often found, associated with silver, clearly showing that this drift had its origin at the north.

The drift, in a modified form, furnishes the clay from which cream-colored bricks are made, of great beauty and durability. A geological survey of the state is in progress; a full report is now (1876) in preparation. - Lead ore is the most important mineral product of the state, found chiefly in the counties of Grant, Lafayette, and Iowa; it is mostly the sulphuret (galena), though the carbonate (called white mineral) often occurs. Iron ores are found in great quantities and of easy access at Iron Ridge in Dodge co., at Ironton in Sauk co., at the Black river falls in Jackson co., and in the Penokee Iron range, in Ashland co., near Lake Superior. Magnetic ores also occur in the archsean region in the vicinity of the Menomonee river, in the N. E. part of the state. The ore has been smelted only at Iron Ridge, Ironton, and Black River Falls. Native copper is found in limited quantities in the N. part of the state; and copper ores have been discovered in fissures in Iowa and Crawford counties. Two ores of zinc, associated with the lead, have been smelted at Mineral Point. Limestone suitable for polishing (or marble) has been found; the drift affords clay suitable for the coarser wares and for brick; beds of peat and of shell marl occur in the marshes and beds of ancient lakes.

Carnelians and agates are picked up among the pebbles of the lake shores, and are found associated with the trap rocks. - The mean annual temperature of the southern and more settled portion of the state is 46° F.; mean temperature of winter, 20°; of spring and autumn, 47°; and of summer, 72°. The waters of Lake Michigan materially affect the temperature of the counties along its shores, moderating both the excessive heat of summer and the cold of winter; and hence the temperature of January at Milwaukee is found on the Mississippi river half a degree of latitude further S., and that of July at St. Paul, 2° further N. The N. part of this lake only is covered with ice in winter, which never reaches as far S. as Milwaukee. The Milwaukee river remains closed on an average about 100 days, from the end of November to the middle of March. Snow always falls in the north before the occurrence of heavy frosts, protecting the ground and the roots of plants from freezing, and accelerating the growth of vegetation in the spring. In the south snow often lies to the depth of 12 to 18 in., but some winters pass almost without snow.

The prevailing winds of spring are from N. E.; of summer, S. W.; of autumn and winter, W. The winters are cold, mostly uniform, with many clear dry days; the springs are backward, the summers short and hot, the autumns mild and almost always pleasant. The annual quantity of rain and melted snow is about 32 in. The barometer varies in its extremes from 28 to a little above 30 in., the mean being about 29.5 in. - The fauna of Wisconsin embraces the elk, deer, bear, beaver, fisher, wolf, otter, wild cat, porcupine, striped gopher, bat, mole, squirrel, pouched rat, etc. The buffalo, wild turkey, and some other species are extinct. The larger birds are the golden and bald eagles, great white owl, quail, partridge; the spruce, willow, prairie, and sharptailed grouse; woodcock, wild goose, ducks in great numbers and varieties, pelican, loon, etc. Pigeons are abundant. Great quantities of fish are annually caught in Lakes Superior and Michigan, as well as in the smaller lakes and rivers; among these the most important are the white fish, trout, sisk;wit, muskallonge, pickerel, and perch; the most curious are the billfish and the spoonbill sturgeon.

The flora of Wisconsin embraces about 150 species of compound flowering plants (sunflowers, &c), which formerly occurred so abundantly in the prairies and open districts as often to give a yellow hue to the landscape in the latter part of the flowering season. Nearly all the N. half of the state abounds in pine, balsam, hemlock, and other cone-bearing evergreen trees, of which the lofty white pine is the most common. The great prairies of Illinois extend into several of the southern counties of Wisconsin, between which and the heavily timbered districts is a region of openings, in which the bur oak (quercus macrocarpd) chiefly abounds. A line drawn from Racine on the W. shore of Lake Michigan in a N. W. direction will mark the boundaries between the openings and the heavily timbered lands. The red oak (Q. rubra) is the only species of oak that extends as far N. as the shores of Lake Superior. - The ancient earthworks, so abundant in the western states, assume in Wisconsin imitative forms, being intended to represent the human figure, or that of some of the more familiar animals. These are usually combined and associated with circular mounds and ridges running in straight or curved lines.

The most important and best known are those at Aztalan in Jefferson co., where a space of 17§- acres is enclosed by a wall of earth and burnt clay (not proper brick), supported at regular intervals by mounds or buttresses. Fragments of rude pottery are often found, with arrow heads of flint, and stone axes, pipes, etc. - Wisconsin is in the front rank of agricultural states. Agriculture is encouraged by annual legislative appropriations to the state agricultural society, and to each of the county societies. According to the federal census of 1870, the state contained 11,715,321 acres of land in farms, of which 5,899,343 were improved, 3,437,442 woodland, and 2,378,536 other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 102,904, and the average size 114 acres. There were 10,955 containing between 10 and 20 acres, 40,064 between 20 and 60, 30,060 between 50 and 100, 15,776 between 100 and 500, 112 between 500 and 1,000, and 32 over 1,000. The cash value of farms was $300,414,064, and of farming implements and machinery $14,239,364. The total estimated value of farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, was $78,027,032; value of orchard products, $819,268; of produce of market gardens, $226,665; of forest products, $1,327,618; of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $11,914,643; of all live stock, $45,310,882. According to the United States department of agriculture, the principal crops in 1873 were:

CROPS.

Quantity produced.

Average yield per acre.

No. of acres in each crop.

Total value.

Indian corn, bush.

16,308,000

30

543.600

$7,175,520

Wheat...........

26,322.0011

16.5

1,595,273

25,532,340

Rye..............

1.240.000

15.7

78.981

768,800

Oats.............

18,862.000

35

538,914

6,224.460

Barley

1,515,000

26.6

56.955

1,636,200

Buckwheat

289,000

11

26.273

265,880

Potatoes

4.964.000

71

69,915

3.971,200

Tobacco, lbs

3.750,000

1.05

3,571

225,000

Hay, tons

1,370,000

1.3

1,053,846

13,015,000

Total

3,967,328

$58,814,400

The number of acres planted with the leading crops in 1875, as returned by the state assessors (five counties not reported), was: wheat, 1,539,008; oats, 766,343; Indian corn, 866,081; barley, 117,020; rye, 97,286; hops, 9,720; tobacco, 4,399; flax, 6,224. There were 291,815 horses, valued at $12,374,928; 6,592 mules and asses, $304,839; 805,881 neat cattle, $8,979,158; 1,025,990 sheep and lambs, $1,640,967; and 462,300 swine, $1,188,564. The production of wool in 1870 was 4,090,670 lbs., from 1,069,282 sheep; butter, 22,473,036 lbs., from 308,377 cows; cheese (on farms), 1,591,798 lbs.; flax, 497,398 lbs.; maple sugar, 507,192 lbs.; honey, 299,341 lbs.; sorghum molasses, 74,478 gallons. Commissioners have been appointed to stock the waters of the state with fish, and a hatching house has been erected. - In 1870 there were 7,013 manufacturing establishments, having 926 steam engines of 30,509 horse power, and 1,288 water wheels of 33,714 horse power, and employing 43,910 hands, of whom 40,296 were males above 16, 2,114 females above 15, and 1,500 youth.

The capital invested amounted to $41,981,872; wages paid during the year, $13,575,642; value of materials used, $45,851,266; of products, $77,214,326. The leading industries were:

INDUSTRIES.

No. of establishments.

Hands employed.

Capital.

Value of products.

Agricultural implements..

82

1,887

$1,494,700

12.303,428

Boots and shoes

753

2,352

1,082,268

2,271,425

Bread, crackers, and other bakery products00000

59

191

127,250

410,227

Brick....................

79

1,183

456.050

509,626

Carriages and wagons..........

4S5

2,184

1,252,476

2,596,534

Cheese

54

177

126,740

249,056

Clothing, mens

232

1,786

1,075,185

2,260,004

Cooperage

250

717

207,040

627,190

Flouring and grist-mill products00000000000

5S1

2,031

6,574,650

20,419,877

Furniture

188

1,844

1,793,505

1,542,856

Iron, forged and rolled....

1

642

100,000

1,129,562

" pigs................

6

592

865,000

787,268

" castings

74

719

760.500

1,423,193

Lead, pig

13

91

91,000

514,402

Leather, tanned

85

577

906,184

2,013,093

" currie

70

822

407,206

2,360,347

" dressed skins....

19

85

56,350

129,641

Lime....................

53

312

228,180

307,729

Liquors, distilled

8

104

171,000

425,340

" malt............

176

835

2,108,150

1,790,273

INDUSTRIES.

No. of establishments.

Hands employed.

Capital.

Value of products.

Lumber, planned

83

263

$254,800

$614,270

" sawed

719

12,458

11,448,345

15,129,869

Machinery, not specified..

44

311

312,024

555,606

" cotton and woollen.

2

34

35,000

24,300

Machinery, railroad and repairing......................

8

25

23,000

63,100

Machinery, steam engines and boilers

17

448

521,000

738,410

Malt.....................

3

33

178,000

213,000

Paper

6

207

445,000

873,200

Saddlery and harness

269

672

342,211

711,695

Sash, doors, and blinds.......

81

1,381

1,413,793

1,852,379

Soap and candles

16

69

103,480

280,685

Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware..........................

225

605

888,839

769,470

Tobacco and cigars

1

34

75,000

122.000

" chewing and smoking. ..................

4

128

190,000

495,000

Tobacco, cigars

109

597

308,230

605,082

Wooden ware

6

861

188,700

342,198

Woollen goods

48

736

1,211,289

1,115,646

The products of mining were valued at $510,982, including iron worth $22,000, lead $369,067, peat $750, stone $106,925, and zinc $12,240. The total production of lead ore from 1862 to 1873 was 163,422,672 lbs. The amount of zinc ore obtained in the lead region of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois from 1860 to 1873 inclusive was 155,302,150 lbs., most of it being the production of Wisconsin. The yield amounted to 25,921,785 lbs. in 1871, 43,278,358 in 1872, and 33,603,570 in 1873. The manufacture of lumber is an important industry, there being in the state a capacity for producing about 1,500,000,000 ft. annually. Besides an immense quantity of shingles, there were made 983,631,402 ft. of lumber in 1874, and 1,097,443,681 in 1875. There were oh hand on Jan. 1, 1876, 268,640,309 ft. of lumber and 279,336,000 ft. of logs. - Wisconsin had 20 m. of railroad in 1850, 187 in 1855, 905 in 1860, 1,010 in 1865, 1,525 in 1870, and 2,565 in 1876. A general supervision over the railroads of the state is exercised by a state commissioner, who receives reports from the companies and makes reports to the legislature.

The railroads lying wholly or partly within the state in 1876 were as follows:.

NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.

TEEMINI.

LENGTH.

From

To

In

Wisc'nsin.

Total.

Chicago and Northwestern

Chicago, Ill

Fort Howard

171

242

Fort Howard

Menomonee

49

49

Rockford, Ill.............

Kenosha

27

72

Elgin, Ill.................

Geneva Lake

8

43

Belvidere, Ill

Elory

121

141

Elory

Wilnona Junction

55

55

Chicago and Milwaukee*

Chicago, Ill

Milwaukee

40

85

Northwestern Union*

Milwaukee

Fond du Lac

63

63

La Crosse, Tremopealeau, and Prescott*

Winona Junction

Winona, Minn.........

28

29

Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul

Milwaukee

La Crosse

196

196

Milwaukee

Prairie de Chien

193

193

Watertown

Madison

37

37

Milwaukee

Portage

96

96

Horicon

Berlin

43

43

Rush Lake

Winnecome

14

14

Milton

Monroe

42

42

* Operated by the Chicago and Northwestern company.

TERMINI.

LENGTH.

NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.

From

To

In

Wisconsin.

Total.

Wisonsin Union

Chicago, Ill

Milwaukee

38

85

Madision and Portage

Madison

Portage

39

39

Oshkosh and Mississippi

Ripon

Oshkosh

20

20

Galena and Southerb Wisconsin

Galena, Ill

Platteville.............

20

31

Green Bay and Minnesota

Green Bay

Winona

218

218

Milwaukee Lake Shore and Western

Milwaukee

Appleton..............

120

120

Branch

Manitowoc

Two Rivers

6

6

Mineral Point

Mineral Point

Warren Ill.

31

33

Branch

Calamine

Platteville.............

18

18

Sheboygan and Fond du Lac

Sheboygan

Princeton

79

79

Superior and St. Croix

Superior City

16

24

Western Union

Rockland, Ill

Racine.................

71

197

Branch

Elkhorn

Eagle

16

16

West Wisconsin

St. Croix Lake

Elroy..................

178

178

Chippewa Falls and Western

Eau Claire

Chippewa Falls

11

11

North Wisconsin

North Wisconsin Junction....

40

40

Wisconsin Central

Menasha

Worcester

194

194

Ashland

Penokee

29

29

Milwaukee and Northern

Milwaukee

Schwartzburg..........

6

6

Schwartzburg

Green Bay.............

107

107

Hilbert..................

Menasha

16

16

Branch

Stevens Point

20

20

Wisconsin Valley

Tomah

Wausau

89

89

The Fox and Wisconsin rivers are connected by the Portage canal, which extends through Portage City, about one mile. Important improvements by the national government in these rivers have been in progress for several years, by means of which and the construction of a ship canal it is contemplated to open a channel for large vessels between the Mississippi river and Lake Michigan. The United States customs district of Milwaukee includes all the shores, harbors, and waters of Wisconsin bordering on Lake Michigan. Milwaukee is the port of entry, and De Pere, Green Bay, Kenosha, Racine, and Sheboygan are ports of delivery. La Crosse is a port of delivery in the district of Louisiana. The foreign commerce of Milwaukee is considerable, and the domestic trade is very extensive. (See Milwaukee.) During the year ending June 30, 1875, the domestic exports to foreign countries amounted to $1,390,179, including 1,233,483 bushels of wheat, valued at $1,351,884. The imports were valued at $56,646. In the foreign trade 3 vessels of 878 tons entered, and 9 vessels of 2,745 tons cleared. In the coastwise trade 7,230 vessels of 2,812,493 tons entered, and 7,261 of 2,798,208 tons cleared. The number of vessels belonging to the port was 342, of 62,157 tons, of which 276 were sailing vessels and 66 steamers.

The number of national banks in operation at the close of 1875 was 42, having a paid-in capital of $3,550,000 and an outstanding circulation of $2,914,329. - The constitution gives the right of suffrage to male citizens and persons who have declared their intention to become citizens, who are 21 years of age and have resided in the state one year. The legislative power is vested in a senate of 33 members chosen for two years, and an assembly of 100 members elected annually. Each member receives $350 a year and 10 cts. a mile for travel to and from the capital. In case of an extra session of the legislature, no additional compensation is allowed. The legislature meets annually on the second Wednesday in January. The chief executive and administrative officers are the governor, annual salary $5,000; lieutenant governor, who acts as president of the senate, $1,000; secretary of state, who is ex officio auditor, $5,000; treasurer, $5,000; attorney general, $3,000; and state superintendent of education, $1,200 and certain allowances. The salaries of the secretary of state, treasurer, and attorney general, as given (previously $1,200, $1,400, and $2,000, with fees, respectively), were fixed by act of 1876, to take effect in 1877. All are elected for two years.

The state election is held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Other state officers are three commissioners of school and university lands, one of railroads, four of fish and fisheries, three of the state prison, and a state board of charities and reform composed of five members. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 13 circuit courts, courts of proDate, and justices of the peace. The supreme court consists of a chief and two associate justices. It has in general only appellate jurisdiction. Two terms are held annually at Madison. The circuit courts have general original jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters, and appellate jurisdiction over all inferior courts. Both they and the supreme court issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, and certiorari. Judges of the supreme and circuit courts are elected by the people for six years. By a recent law, not applicable to those then in office, the salaries of the former were increased from $4,000 to $5,000 a year, and of the latter from $2,500 to $3,000. A circuit court must be held at least twice a year in each county.

A judge of probate is elected by the people in each county for four years; justices of the peace are elected by the people for two years in the several cities, towns, and villages. United States courts are held at Milwaukee (semi-annually) and Oshkosh (annually) in the eastern district, and at Madison (semi-annually) and La Crosse (annually) in the western district. Wisconsin is represented in congress by two senators and eight representatives, and has therefore ten votes in the electoral college. The constitution requires a state census to be taken every ten years; the latest one was in 1875. - On Sept. 30, 1875, the total state debt amounted to $2,252,057, viz.: bonds outstanding, $14,000; due to the school fund, $1,559,700; university fund, $111,000; agricultural college fund, $51,600; normal school fund, $515,700; currency certificates, $57. The total receipts on account of the general fund during the year were $1,136,483, and the disbursements $1,260,168. The chief sources of revenue were: state tax, $592,070; tax on railroad companies, $436,414; on insurance companies, $67,859. Among the items of expenditure were: interest on state debt, $157,820; legislature, $86,645; and state institutions, $565,030. The total valuation of property, as determined by the state board of assessments, with the amount and rate of state taxes, has been as follows:

YEAR.

Valuation.

State tax.

Rate per cent.

1871...........

$455,900,800

$629,143 10

1 38/100 mill.

1872...........

390,454,875

765,291 55

1 96/100 "

1873...........

390,454,875

671,582 38

1 72/100 "

1S74...........

421,285,359

526.606 35

1¼ "

1875...........

421,285,359

589,799 33

14/10 "

The total amount of property exempt from taxation was $14,174,721, including $1,655,349 common school, $3,951,783 church, and $4,301,753 railroad property. - The general supervision of the charitable and correctional institutions is vested in a state board of charities and reform, consisting of five members appointed for five years by the governor. The institute for the blind, at Janesville, was opened in 1850, and in 1875 had a total of 82 and an average of 59 students. The current expenses amounted to about $18,000. The institute for the deaf and dumb, at Delavan, opened in 1852, had in 1875 a total of 180 and an average of 132 pupils; the ordinary expenses of the institution were about $34,000. The state hospital for the insane, opened in I860, is at Madison, and the northern hospital for the insane, opened in 1873, at Oshkosh. In 1875 there were in the former a total of 507 and an average of 364 inmates, and in the latter a total of 351 and an average of 257. The current expenses of the former were $63,500, and of the latter nearly $55,000. According to the federal census of 1870, there were in the state 409 blind, 459 deaf and dumb, 846 insane, and 560 idiotic.

According to the returns of the state census of 1875, the numbers of these classes were: blind, 503; deaf and dumb, 720; insane, 1,422. The state prison is at Waupun. The total number of convicts in 1875 was 357; average number, 240. Labor is performed in the prison on account of the state, the chief industries being the manufacture of chairs, wagons, boots and shoes, clothing, and stone work. The institution is not self-sustaining. The receipts from labor, etc, in 1875 amounted to about $53,000; the total disbursements were about $100,000; the state appropriation was $46,341. A school is maintained in the prison, which also has a library. The present site of the prison is too distant from sources of supply and from a market for the articles manufactured. In 1875 a resolution was passed by the legislature providing for the appointment of a commission to consider the expediency of a change, to recommend a more suitable site, and to report to the next legislature. It is recommended that the present prison be transformed into an institution for the incurable insane, of whom about 500 are confined in the poorhouses and jails. The industrial school for boys was opened at Waukesha in 1860, where it has a farm of 233 acres, mostly cultivated.

In 1875 there was a total of 412 and an average of 301 inmates. The ordinary expenses of the institution were about $45,000. Boys between the ages of 10 and 16 years are committed to this institution by the courts and magistrates, for vagrancy and other minor offences. The soldiers' orphan home was organized as a state institution and opened in Madison in 1866. It continued in successful operation, with an average annual attendance of about 200, till 1874, when the legislature authorized the trustees to prepare for closing it. The total number of orphans who have received its benefits exceeds 600; the total cost to the state for the purchase of buildings and maintenance has been about $342,000. In 1875 the legislature authorized the transfer of the buildings and grounds to the regents of the state university for a medical college. In 1875 the legislature appropriated $5,000, to be distributed among the following private charitable institutions, which are thereby brought under the supervision of the state board of charities and reform: Cadle home, in Green Bay; St. Luke's hospital, in Eacine; and St. Kose orphan asylum, St. Joseph orphan asylum, Milwaukee orphan association, St. iEmilian asylum, and home for the friendless, in Milwaukee. The northwestern branch of the national asylum for disabled soldiers is about 3 m. from Milwaukee, where it has a farm of 425 acres and a brick building with accommodations for 700 or 800 inmates.

The average number of inmates in 1875 was 642. - The general management of the public schools is vested in a state superintendent, 64 county superintendents, 27 city superintendents, and a school board in each district. The state and county superintendents hold office for two years, and the district officers for three years. In each independent city there is a board of education, and the larger cities have each a superintendent, who in some cases is also principal of the high school. By law of 1869 towns are authorized to adopt the township system of school government, under which each town becomes a school district. This system has been adopted by only a few towns. The school fund created by the constitution of 1848 comprises: 1, the income from the proceeds of lands granted by the United States to the state for educational purposes; 2, all moneys accruing from forfeiture or escheat; 3, all lines collected in the several counties for breach of the penal laws; 4, all moneys paid for exemption from military duty; 5, five per cent, on the sale of government lands. The first is the principal source.

The whole amount of school and university lands held by the state on Sept. 30, 1875, was 1,622,642 acres, classified as follows: school, 221,438; university, 4,407; normal school, 612,774; drainage (held in trust for counties), 722,229; agricultural college, 52,404; Marathon county, 9,300. The amounts of the various funds for educational purposes at that date were as follows:

FUNDS.

Productive.

Unproductive.

School

$2,624,239

$260,000

University

222,256

9,000

Normal school

976,364

735,000

Agricultural college

236,134

65,000

Drainage

12,643

866,000

Total.....................

$4,071,636

$1,935,000

The unproductive funds consist of unsold lands held in trust by the state; the amounts above given are estimated. The income of the school fund during the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, amounted to $186,409, and the disbursements to $185,961. In 1874-'5 the total number of children in the state over 4 and under 20 years of age was 461,829; the total number of persons receiving instruction was 293,888, viz.: in the public schools, 279,854; private schools, 10,733; colleges and academies, 2,150; benevolent institutions, 1,150. There were 5,489 school districts and 5,197 school houses, valued with sites and apparatus at $4,979,169, and having accommodations for 330,189 pupils. The total number of graded schools in the state was about 400. During the year there were 816,097 school days in the public schools; the number of teachers required was 6,224; 9,455 different teachers were employed. The total amount expended for schools was $2,065,370, including $1,350,784 for teachers' wages. In 1865 the legislature set apart certain lands for the creation of a fund for the establishment and maintenance of normal schools.

This fund amounted on Sept. 30, 1875, to $976,364, and the total income, including tuition fees of three schools, to $75,994. A board of regents of the normal schools was incorporated by the legislature in 1866, and since that date four state normal schools have been opened. Their condition in 1875-6 was as follows:

WHERE SITUATED.

When opened.

Total number of instructors.

PUPILS.

Total.

In normal department.

Platteville.....

1866

10

455

200

Whitewater.........

1868

12

400

266

Oshkosh

1871

16

521

321

River Falls.........

1875

10

430

120

The law providing for the establishment of these schools declares that their purpose shall be, besides training teachers, "to give instruction in agriculture, chemistry, the arts of husbandry, the mechanic arts, the fundamental laws of the United States and this state, and in what regards the rights and duties of citizens." An elementary course of two years and an advanced course of four years (including the two years' course) have been prescribed for each of the state normal schools. On the completion of the four years' course a diploma is awarded by the board of regents, which exempts the holder from examination as a teacher in the common schools of the state. Each assembly district in the state is entitled to send to any one of the normal schools six students, to whom no charge will be made for tuition. The appointments are made by the county and city superintendents. The board of regents are authorized to expend $5,000 annually for the support of teachers' institutes. In 1874-5, 57 institutes were held in 44 counties, and were attended by 3,760 teachers and persons desiring to teach.

The colleges and universities of the state in 1875-'6 were:

NAME OF INSTITUTION.

When opened.

Where situated.

Denomination.

Departments or courses.

Number of instructors.

Pupils in collegiate department.

Pupils in all departments.

Beloit college...........

1847

Beloit..............

Congregational and Presbyterian......

Preparatory and collegiate

10

84

194

Galesville university...

1860

Galesville..........

Methodist Episcopal.

Preparatory and collegiate

5

29

135†

Lawrence university

1849

Appleton

" "

Preparatory, academic, and collegiate..............

13

102

833

Milton college.......

1867*

Milton.............

Seventh-day Baptist.

Preparatory and collegiate

9

82

270

Northwestern university.

1864

Watertown........

Lutheran...........

Academic and collegiate..

8

210

Pio Nono college and normal school.........

1871

St. Francis Station.

Roman Catholic.....

Collegiate and normal___

8

44

105

Racine college

1852

Racine

Episcopal

Letters, science, and grammar school.............

20

157

Ripon college

1863

Ripon

Congregational

Collegiate and preparatory

13

69

353

St. John's college

1865

Prairie du Chien...

Roman Catholic.....

Colleeriate and preparatory

14

80

150

university of Wisconsin.

1850

Madison...........

Not denominational.

Collegiate and other

27

••

345

* Opened as an academy, 1844, †1874 - '5.

Instruction in science and law is afforded by the state university. (See Wisconsin, University of.) Nashotah house, at Nashotah mission, is a Protestant Episcopal school of theology, and the seminary of St. Francis of Sales, at St. Francis, is a Roman Catholic school of theology. The chief academies and seminaries are Carroll college at Waukesha, Elroy seminary at Elroy, Rochester seminary at Rochester, which are open to both sexes, and Kemper hall at Kenosha and St. Clara academy at Sinsinawa Mound, which are exclusively for females. Women are also admitted to the university of Wisconsin, Lawrence university, and Milton and Ripon colleges. - According to the federal census of 1870, the total number of libraries was 2,883, having 905,811 volumes. Of these, 1,551 with 527,131 volumes were private, and 1,332 with 378,680 volumes were other than private. There were 4 state libraries with 61,400 volumes; 9 town, city, etc, 4,838; 8 court and law, 1,010; 194 school, college, etc, 50,492; 1,008 sabbath school, 209,503; 70 church, 12,550; and 39 circulating, 38,867. The library of the state historical society in Madison has 67,000 books, pamphlets, etc, and the state law library in Madison 12,000 volumes.

The total number of newspapers and periodicals reported by the federal census of 1870 was 190, having a circulation of 343,385 and issuing annually 28,762,920 copies. There were 14 daily, with a circulation of 43,250; 2 tri-weekly, 3,200; 3 semi-weekly, 6,850; 160 weekly, 266,000; 2 semi-monthly, 1,900; and 9 monthly, 22,185. In 1875 the total number was 253, viz.: 19 daily, 2 weekly, 2 semi-weekly, 207 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 1 semi-monthly, and 21 monthly. In 1870 there were 1,864 religious organizations, having 1,466 edifices with 423,015 sittings and property valued at $4,890,781, as follows:

DENOMINATIONS.

Organizations.

Edifices.

Sittings.

Property.

Baptist, regular

145

109

32,480

$414,223

" other

67

33

10.500

91.400

Christian

13

5

1,450

9,000

Congregational

157

140

44,960

619,550

Episcopal, Protestant......

82

70

21,200

389,585

Evangelical Association...........

170

88

24.175

237,450

Friends

2

2

375

1,100

Jewish

4

3

750

8,500

Lutheran

171

156

36.780

302,860

Methodist

508

396

103,240

973.018

Moravian (Unitas Fratrum).......

13

10

2,500

21,700

Mormon

1

...

New Jerusalem (Sweden-........

borgian).........................

5

4

800

14.000

Presbyterian, regular

96

84

23,480

300,070

other........

2

2

450

8,000

Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed)

5

5

1,015

7,780

Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed)

18

14

3.260

24,595

Roman Catholic

329

304

104,000

1,334,450

Second Advent

10

3

650

9,000

Spiritualist

2

...

Unitarian

7

5

1.900

41,000

United Brethren in Christ.........

34

21

5,650

87.900

Universalist

12

10

3,150

43.300

Unknown (local mission).......

1

1

100

1.800

1

1

150

500

The name of the state, taken from the river Wisconsin (originally used with the French orthography Ouisconsin), is said to mean as an Indian word "wild rushing river." The territory of Wisconsin was formed in 1836 out of lands then comprised within the territory of Michigan. It embraced all the land now within the states of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, and that part of the present territory of Dakota which lies E. of the Missouri and White Earth rivers. In 1838 all of the territory W. of the Mississippi river and of a line due N. from the sources of that river to the international boundary line was taken to form the territory of Iowa. As thus bounded, Wisconsin became a state in 1848. In 1849 a part of the state was taken to form part of the territory of Minnesota, since which time the area of Wisconsin has remained unchanged. The first territorial government was formed at Min- • eral Point in July, 1836, and in October of the same year the first territorial legislature assembled at Belmont in Iowa co.

Madison was chosen as the permanent seat of government, and the legislature first assembled there in November, 1838. In 1836 the population was reported at 11,683. An enabling act for the admission of the state into the Union was passed by congress in 1846. A constitution was framed by a convention sitting at Madison from Oct. 5 to Dec. 6; it was approved by congress in 1847, but was rejected by the people on account of certain provisions relating to banks. A second convention was held at Madison from Dec. 15, 1847, to Feb. 1, 1848, and prepared a constitution which was ratified by the people on March 2 by a vote of 16,442 to 6,149. The state was admitted into the Union under an act of congress of May 29,1848, and the legislature assembled at Madison in June. The original constitution, as amended several times, is still in force. The number of troops furnished by Wisconsin to the federal army during the civil war was 96,118, being equivalent to 78,985 for three years.