Menomonees, Or Menoniinees, a tribe of American Indians, belonging to the Algonquin family, and from their first discovery to the present century residing on the Menominee river, which empties into Green bay, Wis. Their traditions point to an emigration from the east, hut as early as 1640 they were known to the French as residing near Green bay, their name being that of the wild rice on which they in great part subsisted. Missions were established among them as early as 1G70 by the Jesuits Allouez and Andre. They were lighter in complexion than the neighboring tribes, and remarkably well formed. They continued friendly to the French till the troubles caused by La Salle's monopoly, when they are said to have instigated the murder of some men employed at the Jesuit mission; but they made reparation, and when the Foxes made war on the French, the Menomonees marched to the relief of Detroit in 1712, and subsequently drove the Foxes from the bay. In the operations against the English they were frequently in the tield from 1712 to 1763, some of their braves figuring in Braddock's defeat and the battles of Fort William Henry and the Plains of Abraham. When the American revolution began, they, under their chief Chakauchokama, or Old King, adhered to the English side, and a part of the warriors went to Montreal; but Clarke's success in Illinois checked all operations on their part in the west till 1780, when they served in the expedition against the Spaniards at St. Louis. After the close of the war they remained friendly till the second war with Great Britain, when they were again won over by English officers, and under Thomas Car-ron helped to capture Mackinaw in July, 1812, fought under their chief Souligny with Tecum-seh at Fort Meigs in 1818, and under Carron and Grisly Bear were repulsed by Croghan at Sandusky. They were also at the battle of Mackinaw in 1814, and probably in the capture of Prairie du Chien. On March 30, 1817, To-wanapee and other chief's made a treaty with Clarke, Edwards, and Chouteau, ratifying land grants of the French, English, and Spanish governments, and giving up prisoners.
The treaty of 1825 recognized their territory as bounded X. by the Chippewa country, E. by Green bay and Lake Michigan, south by the Milwaukee river, and W. by the Black. The treaty of 1827 settled the line between them and the Chippewas. That of Feb. 5, 1831, began the cession of their lands and the payment of money. I hat of Sept. 3, 1836, ceded a large tract for $620,110. In the mean time they served the United States in the Sac and Fox Avar. In 1862 and 1868 Hie official reports give half or two thirds of the tribe as Catholic, the rest being pagan. Schools have been maintained with great regularity, but inconsiderable effect on the tribe, very few acquiring English. After the cession of their lands their reservation was between the Wisconsin, Wolf, and F'ox, and the Chippewa country. By a treaty in 1848 they were to remove west of the Mississippi; but the nation repudiated the treaty. In November, 1852, they were placed on the Upper Wolf and Oconto rivers, Wisconsin, 50 m. from Green Bay, and the reservation was secured to them by treaty in 1854. It consists of 230,400 acres of very poor land.
Oshkosh, grandson of Old King, was at this time the head chief, and remained so till his death in 1858. They refused to join the Sioux in their outbreak in 1861, and several of the warriors served as volunteers in the United States army during the civil war. They have declined rapidly in numbers. In 1822 they were estimated at 3,900, and in 1872 were reported at 1,480. Disease, and especially intoxication, which seems ineradicable, are steadily destroying the tribe. Their language is a very peculiar Algonquin dialect, with strange guttural sounds and accents, and differs from the other dialects in the inflection of the verbs and other parts of speech.