Emigration (Lat. e, from, and migrare, to depart), the act of leaving the country or place where one has resided, in order to reside in another. The terms emigration and emigrant are strictly applicable only with reference to the country from which the migration is made, and the converse terms immigration and immigrant are used when express reference to the country into which it is made is intended; but in the unlimited sense of change of residence, the former are generally employed in connection with either the old or the new domicile. - Of the earliest migrations by which the fundamental features of European history have been defined, no records remain, but numerous traces of them are found by the archaeologist, ethnologist, and linguist. Emigration proper commenced when herdsmen congregated into nomadic tribes. Of such corporate emigration patriarchal history records some examples, as those of Abraham and Jacob. With the progress of agriculture and the growth of more definite political relations, trade, and commerce, began the emigration of single bodies of adventurers to distant countries.

In this way, according to Hellenic traditions, Phoenicians, led by Cadmus, and Egyptians, led by Danaus and Cecrops, emigrated to Greece, the Heraclidae from Greece to Asia Minor, and the Tyrrhenians to Italy. The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan was a corporate emigration of a people, on account of religious and political oppression for which modern history furnishes parallels in the Mormon emigration to Utah and the emigration of the Boers in southern Africa. During the historical times of ancient Greece emigration generally assumed the character of colonization. Many flourishing and powerful Greek colonies were thus sent forth along the shores of the Mediterranean and Black seas by Greece. The colonies of ancient Rome for the most part were rather outposts of an army and combinations of fortune hunters than settlements of men intending to found permanent residences. The great migration of the Germanic nations having destroyed the Roman empire, European society was for centuries subject to constant changes. Charlemagne changed the direction of German emigration from the south to the east and north.

While from that time the movements of German nations toward Italy assumed the character of mere military conquests, their emigration conquered nearly the whole country between the Elbe and Vistula rivers from the Slavic race. A counter-current from Asia, which set in at various periods of the middle ages, consisting of Magyars and Tartars, was successfully resisted, and the tide was even turned upon Asia by the crusades; but at a later period another Asiatic race, the Osmanli Turks, succeeded in displacing the most decayed of Christian nations in southeastern Europe, while almost simultaneously still another Asiatic race (the Arabs) was expelled from the southwestern peninsula, Spain, to which they had emigrated eight centuries before. - In Europe, Russia was among the earliest to perceive the advantages of immigration. Peter the Great invited emigrants from all nations to settle in Russia. His successors followed the same policy by granting premiums and valuable privileges, such as exemption from taxation for a certain number of years, exemption from military duty, and free homesteads to colonists.

Induced by these advantages, a large number of emigrants from the Palatinate settled in southern Russia about 1784. Immediately after the Napoleonic wars an extensive Germanic emigration to Russia (including Poland) took place. The total number of Germans who emigrated thither between the years 1816 and 1826 is estimated at 250,-000. The agricultural colonies of Vielovish in the government of Tchernigov, and Rieben-dorf in that of Voronezh, a manufacturing colony near Poltava, a Moravian settlement at Sarepta, and a number of German colonies in the Crimea, originated in this way. During the reign of Nicholas emigration to Russia ceased almost entirely, but it revived to a certain degree after the accession of Alexander II. - Individual emigration, as distinguished from the movements of nations, commenced on a large scale after the discovery of America. During the 16th century the nations in which the Roman element predominated, Spain, Portugal, and France, sent forth a great number of emigrants, most of them mere adventurers who did not intend to stay longer than might be necessary to become rich. The first attempts by the English to organize emigration to America likewise originated in adventurous designs.

In such attempts 300 men and £40,000 were lost from 1585 to 1590. In 1606 more than 2,000 emigrants were sent from England to North America to seek for gold, but they perished miserably, and in 1609 but 60 remained. The Hakluyt company for the colonization of Virginia lost 9,000 men and £100,000. At last religious contests laid a firm foundation for the permanent settlement of the North American continent. The emigration of the Puritans and their successful establishment in New England served as an example to all those who in Europe were oppressed for the sake of their religion. Besides, the ground having been broken for the settlement of what are now the southern states of the Union, the fertility of their soil, their genial climate, and withal the still lingering hope of sudden enrichment by discoveries of precious metals, attracted large numbers of colonists. A strong tide of emigration from Germany set in toward Pennsylvania near the end of the 17th and during the 18th century; the Dutch colonized New York; the Swedes Delaware; Canada and Louisiana were settled by the French. Still the current of emigration to America during the 170 years of the colonial history was slow and tedious when compared with that which commenced after the war of independence, and especially when the success of American institutions had been tested by the experience of one generation.

Since the formation of the government, the United States has been the principal point of emigration from Europe, and of late also from Asia, owing chiefly to the advantages presented to the laboring classes, who constitute the great bulk of emigrants. Immigration from whatever source has been regarded with favor by the government, and laws have been passed at different times for the regulation of emigrant ships and the protection and comfort of emigrants. During the latter part of the 18th and the early part of the 19th century the practice prevailed in New York and Philadelphia of selling by public auction into temporary servitude emigrants who were indebted for their passage money and other advances. During the last century the prepayment of the passage by the emigrant was the exception, and its subsequent discharge by compulsory labor the rule. Ship owners and ship merchants derived enormous profits from this traffic, as they charged very high rates for the passage and added a heavy percentage for their risks. Adults were sold for a term of from 3 to 6 years, and children from 10 to 15 years.

Servants signed indentures and were known as " indented servants." The last sales of this kind took place in Philadelphia in 1818 and 1819. - During the early part of the present century there was little protection for emigrants during the sea voyage. Ship owners generally chartered the lower decks of their vessels to agents, who made temporary arrangements for the accommodation of the passengers, and either underlet the steerage to associations of emigrants or parcelled it out to sub-agents or to single passengers. These agents crowded emigrants into vessels without regard to their comfort or health, and there was no authority to which the latter could appeal for protection. As late as 1819 the lower deck of an emigrant vessel was no better than that of a slave or coolie ship. The ordinary height of the steerage deck was from 4 to 5 ft.; the lower, or orlop deck, which was also used for the transportation of passengers, was still worse. The natural consequence was a mortality frequently amounting to 10 and sometimes to 20 per cent. The first law which prescribed the space to be allotted to each steerage passenger was that passed by congress in March, 1819, which made it unlawful for a ship to carry more than two passengers for every five tons, custom-house measure.

This law, however, did little toward reducing the hardships of the voyage, which was attended with much sickness and many deaths, the prevailing diseases being typhus or ship fever, cholera, and smallpox. In 1855 an act was passed by congress intended to secure the rights of emigrants on shipboard, by giving to each of them two tons of space, and providing for the proper ventilation of the ship, as well as for a sufficient amount of proper food; and this law has resulted in great amelioration. Another circumstance which has largely reduced the suffering and mortality during the voyage is the use of steamers instead of sailing vessels. In 1856 only about 3 per cent. of the emigrants came in steamers, while in 1873 more than 96 per cent. arrived in steamers and less than 4 per cent. in sailing vessels. The deaths in steamers were about 1 in 1,128 passengers, while the death rate in sailing vessels reached the significant ratio of 1 in 65. The port of New York is the great gate through which the emigration to the United States chiefly passes. Of the total number (437,004) of emigrants in 1873, 266,818 entered at New York. Hero exists the only thoroughly organized system in the country for their reception and protection.

The extortions and frauds which had been practised upon emigrants arriving at New York, as well as the rapidly increasing tide of immigration, led to the passage by the legislature of the act of May 5, 1847, creating the board of commissioners of emigration of the state of New York, which has since been in successful operation. It consists of nine members, six of whom are appointed by the governor of the state with the consent of the senate, and three are members ex officio, viz.: the mayor of New York, the president of the German society, and the president of the Irish emigrant society. All the commissioners serve without compensation. Their duties are to protect alien passengers arriving at New York from fraud and imposition, to care and provide for the helpless among them, to give them trustworthy advice and information, and generally to guard their interests. To provide a fund for this purpose, the owner or consignee of any vessel carrying emigrants to New York is required to give a bond, with a penalty of $300 for each alien passenger, to indemnify the commissioners and the state from any cost that may be incurred for the relief, support, or medical care of the person named in the bond during five years.

In lieu of this bond he may pay a commutation, originally fixed at $2 50, but in 1871 reduced to $1 50, for each alien passenger brought into the port. For the more effectual protection of emigrants arriving at New York, an act was passed by the legislature in 1868, by which the commissioners of emigration are invested with authority to examine under oath any witness as to the condition of any ship, and the treatment of the emigrants while on board. The commissioners may also take testimony in reference to any death that may have occurred during the voyage; and such testimony, if made in the presence of the persons complained of, may be used as evidence in any subsequent action. The good intentions of the legislature, however, have not been realized, as the emigrants cannot afford the necessary time and money to enter into a long litigation against rich and powerful companies. The commissioners of emigration have therefore repeatedly and strongly urged congress to negotiate with foreign governments for the appointment of a joint high commission or court for the speedy adjudication of all cases relating to the treatment of emigrants while on board of a ship.

Upon the arrival of an emigrant vessel at quarantine, six miles below the city, it is inspected by the health officer of the port, and the sick emigrants, if any, are transferred by steamer to hospitals, where they are cared for by the commissioners of emigration. If removed by authority of the health officers, they are taken to the quarantine hospital, where they are under charge of the quarantine commission. The vessel is then taken in charge by an officer of the department who ascertains the number of passengers, the deaths, if any, during the voyage, and the amount and character of the sickness; he also examines the condition of the vessel in respect to cleanliness, and hears complaints by passengers; of all which he makes reports to the superintendent at Castle Garden, He remains on board the ship during the passage up the bay, to see that the passengers are not interfered with by any unauthorized person from the shore. After examination of their luggage by the customs officers the emigrants are transferred to the landing depot at Castle Garden, which was formerly a fortress defending the port, and was subsequently used as a place of amusement. It was opened as the emigrant landing depot in August, 1855, and is well adapted for the purpose.

The emigrants are brought by barge or tug from the vessel in which they arrived, and after examination by a medical officer are ushered into the rotunda, a circular space comprising 50,000 sq. ft., and with a dome in the centre about 75 ft. high. It is well warmed, lighted, and ventilated, and will properly accommodate about 4,000 persons. Here the name, nationality, former place of residence, and intended destination of each individual, with other particulars, are registered. The newly arrived emigrant here finds facilities for supplying every immediate want without leaving the depot. The names of such as have money, letters, or friends awaiting them are called out, and they are put into immediate possession of their property or committed to their friends, whose credentials have first been properly scrutinized. There are clerks at hand to write letters for them in any European language, and a telegraph operator to forward despatches. Here, also, the main trunk lines of railway have offices, at which the emigrant can buy tickets, and have his luggage weighed and checked; brokers are admitted, under restrictions which make fraud impossible, to exchange the foreign coin or paper of emigrants; a restaurant supplies them with plain food at moderate prices; a physician is in attendance for the sick, and a temporary hospital ready to receive them until they can be sent to Ward's island; employment is provided by the labor bureau, connected with the establishment, to those in search of it; such as desire to start at once for their destination are sent to the railway or steamboat; while any who choose to remain in the city are referred to boarding-house keepers admitted to the landing depot, whose charges are regulated under special license, and whose houses are kept under supervision by the commission.

Ample facilities for the care of sick and destitute emigrants are afforded by the institutions on Ward's Island, which are under the supervision of the commissioners of emigration. This island comprises about 200 acres in the East river, and extends opposite the city from 100th to 116th street; 121 acres, including the entire water front next to New York, are used for emigrant purposes, and the remaining portion is chiefly used by the commissioners of public charities and correction. The institutions embrace the hospitals, the refuge, the lunatic asylum, the nursery, dispensary, chapels, schools, workshops, etc. These institutions contain on an average about 2,000 inmates, the most of whom are more or less helpless. The chief building is the Verplanck hospital, which consists of a corridor 450 ft. long and two stories high, from which project five wings each 130 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and two stories high except the centre wing, which has three stories; the corners of each wing are flanked with towers. It is constructed upon the most approved plans for perfect ventilation, and all necessary comforts for the sick. It has accommodations for about 500 patients, and is used exclusively for non-contagious diseases and surgical cases.

A new lunatic asylum has recently been erected, with accommodations for more than 300 patients. The extent of the work done by the commission since its organization is indicated by the fact that of the 5,033,392 emigrants arriving at New York from May 5, 1847, to Jan. 1, 1873, for whom commutation money was paid, and all of whom received protection, advice, and information from the commissioners, 1,465,579 were provided and cared for out of the emigrant fund for a greater or less period during the five years subsequent to arrival, viz.: 398,643 received treatment and care in the institutions of the commissioners; 449,275 were supplied temporarily with board and lodging and money relief in the city of New York; 349,936 were provided with employment through the labor bureau at Castle Garden; 53,083 were forwarded from Castle Garden to their destination in the United States, or returned to Europe at their own request; and 214,642 were relieved and provided for in various parts of the state of New York at the expense of the commissioners of emigration. During 1873, 731 emigrant vessels from 23 different ports arrived at Castle Garden. In the labor bureau employment was procured for 25,325, including 7,504 females.

Through the agency of the information bureau, about 12 per cent. of the total arrivals were delivered to their friends. The number cared for in the institutions on Ward's island was 12,586, including 2,134 receiving treatment at the beginning of the year; of this number 10,-430 were discharged during the year, and 439 died, leaving 1,717 under treatment Jan. 1, 1874. The expenditures for the year amounted to $466,108, including $215,086 for support of the institutions on Ward's island, $133,451 for expenses at Castle Garden, and $61,188 for buildings and permanent improvements. The current expenses of the commission were $510,306 in 1869, $540,467 in 1870, $518,387 in 1871, and $461,028 in 1872. In addition to these sums, $651,980 were expended during these four years in the erection of buildings and permanent improvements. These expenditures are met by the funds realized from the commutation fund paid by owners or consignees of emigrant ships, which amounted to $657,072 in 1869, $534,056 in 1870, $372,528 in 1871, $442,429 in 1872, and $402,199 in 1873. The emigrants are not considered or treated as paupers, but as persons requiring temporary aid and protection, for which neither the state nor any community is required to contribute.

In 1872-13 bills were introduced into congress to supersede the New York commission of emigration by a national bureau, thus vesting in the general government all control and regulation of this important subject; but the measures met with great opposition from the New York commissioners of emigration and others, and failed. - Prior to 1819 no official record was kept of the number and character of the persons coming to the United States from abroad. The extent of the immigration prior to that date has been differently estimated by various authorities. Mr. Lorin Blodget thought the arrivals did not exceed 4,000 a year from 1789 to 1794. Dr. Adam Seybert estimated the number at 6,000 a year from 1790 to 1810. According to Prof. Tucker, whose estimate is confirmed by high authorities, 50,000 arrived from 1790 to 1800, 70,000 from 1800 to 1810, and 114,000 from 1810 to 1820; making 234,000 from 1790 to 1820. According to Mr. Young, chief of the United States bureau of statistics, the total number of arrivals prior to 1820 was 250,000, of whom 25,000 came between 1776 and 1790. In the following table are indicated the total number of alien passengers arriving in the United States in each year since 1820, and the chief countries from which they emigrated:

YEARS.

England.

Ireland.

Scotland.

Total

British

Islet.

British America.

Germany.

Prussia.

Holland.

Sweden and Norway.

France.

Switzerland.

Italy.

Total.

1820*...........

1,782

3,614

263

6.024

209

948

20

49

3

371

31

25

8.3S5

1821*...........

3,073

1,518

233

4.723

184

865

18

56

12

370

93

62

9,127

1822*...........

856

2,267

198

3 438

204

139

9

51

10

351

110

32

6 911

1823*...........

851

1,903

180

3 003

167

179

4

19

1

460

47

32

6 354

1324*...........

713

2 345

257

3 603

155

224

6

40

9

377

253

41

7 912

1825*...........

1,092

4,888

118

6,983

314

448

2

37

4

515

166

58

10 199

1826*...........

1,459

5,403

230

7 727

223

495

16

176

16

545

245

53

10 837

1827*...........

2,521

9,766

460

13 952

165

425

7

245

13

1 930

297

35

18 875

1323*.......

2,735

12,488

1,011

17 840

267

1 806

45

263

10

2 843

1 592

30

27 382

1829*...........

2,149

7,415

111

10 534

409

582

15

169

13

582

314

16

22 520

1830*...........

733

2,721

29

3874

189

1 972

4

22

3

1 174

109

8

23 322

1831*..........

251

5,772

226

8,247

176

2 395

18

175

13

2 038

63

28

22 633

1832+...........

944

12,436

158

17,767

603

10.168

26

205

813

5 361

129

2

60,482

1833+...........

2,966

8,643

1,921

13,564

1,194

6,823

165

89

16

4 682

634

1,693

58.640

1834$...........

1,129

24.474

110

34,964

1 020

17,654

32

87

42

2 989

1 389

103

65,865

1S35$...........

468

20,927

63

29.897

1 193

8,245

66

124

81

2 696

'548

56

45 374

1836+...........

420

30.578

106

43,634

2 814

20139

563

301

57

4 443

445

107

76 242

1887$...........

836

28,508

14

40,726

1,270

23,036

704

312

290

5 074

883

36

79 340

1838+...........

157

12,645

43

18,065

1476

11 863

314

27

60

3 675

123

82

38 914

1839+...........

62

23,963

34,234

1926

19,794

1,234

85

324

7 198

607

76

68 069

1840+...........

318

29,430

21

42,043

1 938

28,581

1.123

57

55

7 419

500

28

84 066

1341$...........

147

87,772

85

53 960

1 816

13 727

1.554

214

195

5 006

751

166

80 289

1842$...........

1.743

51,342

24

73 347

2 073

18 287

2 083

330

553

4 504

483

93

104 565

1S43§...........

3,517

19,670

41

28100

1 502

11 432

8,039

330

1 743

3 346

553

108

52 496

1844*...........

1,357

33.490

23

47 843

2 711

19 226

1 505

184

1,811

3155

839

79

78 615

1845*...........

1,710

44,821

868

64 031

3193

33 138

1 217

791

928

7 663

471

63

114371

1846*...........

2.851

51,752

305

73 932

3 855

57 010

551

979

1 916

10 583

698

88

154 416

1847*.....

3 476

105 536

837

128 838

3 827

73 444

837

2 631

1 307

20 040

192

160

234 963

1848*...........

4,455

112,934

653

149 093

6 473

58 014

451

918

903

7 743

319

219

226 527

1849*...........

6,036

159,398

1 060

214 530

6 890

60 062

173

1 190

3 473

5841

13

203

297 024

18508...........

5,276

133,806

627

175,435

7,796

63,168

14

'576

1,363

8,009

146

360

310.004

1850...........

1,521

30,198

233

39 6)4

1 530

14 969

745

108

206

1 372

179

46

59 976

1851$...........

5,306

221 213

966

272 740

7433

71 322

1 160

352

2 424

30 126

427

423

379 466

1852+...........

30.007

159,548

8148

200 247

352

143 575

2343

1 719

4103

6763

2 788

297

371 603

1853+...........

23,867

162,649

6 006

203 225

5 424

140 653

1 293

600

3 364

10 770

2 748

267

368 645

1854+...........

48,901

105,931

4 635

160 253

6891

206 054

8 955

1 584

3 531

13 317

7 953

984

497 833

1355+...........

33,871

56,332

5 275

97 199

7 761

66 219

5 699

2538

821

6044

4433

1,024

200 877

1856+...........

25,904

59.008

3,297

29.007

6493

63 897

7 221

1395

1157

7,246

1780

962

200 436

1857+ +...........

27,804

70.211

4.182

112 840

5 670

83 798

7 983

1 775

1 712

2 397

2080

632

251.306

1358+ +...........

14,638

34,410

1 946

55 829

4 603

42 291

3019

185

2 430

3155

1 056

889

123 126

1859+...........

13821

43.709

2 293

61 379

4163

39 315

2 463

290

1 091

2579

833

764

121.282

1860+...........

13,001

60.092

1,613

78 374

4 514

50 746

3 745

351

298

3 971

913

770

153.640

1861+...........

8970

33,274

767

43 472

2 069

80 189

1472

283

616

2 326

1 007

764

91.920

1862+...........

10,947

35,859

657

47 990

3 275

24 945

2544

432

892

3 142

643

541

91.987

1863+...........

24,065

96,0S8

1 940

122 799

3 464

31 989

1 173

416

1 627

1 838

690

537

176.262

1364+...........

26,096

69,442

3 476

116 951

3 636

54 379

2 897

708

2 249

3 128

1 396

597

193,416

1865+...........

15,033

77,370

8 037

112 237

21 586

80 797

2 627

779

6109

8 583

2 839

923

249,061

1866+...........

2,770

83,894

672

131 620

32 150

110 440

5 452

1 716

12 633

6 855

8 823

1 298

318.494

1867+...........

10S,S57

125.520

6.014

121.240

12.186

2,223

7,055

5.237

4,168

1,612

298.358

1368+...........

11,107

59.957

1 949

107 532

10894

111 593

11 567

652

20 490

8 936

3 261

1.402

297,215

1869+...........

55,046

79 030

12415

147 716

30 921

124 776

22

1 360

41 833

4118

3 488

2 182

395.922

1870+...........

59,488

75 544

11 820

151 089

53 340

91 163

611

970

24 365

3 586

2 474

2 940

378.796

1S71+...........

61,174

61,463

12 135

143 934

39 929

107 201

1 122

22 966

5 780

2 824

2,927

367,789

1872+...........

72,810

69,761

14 565

157 905

40 288

155 595

2006

24 992

13 782

4 031

7,239

449,483

1S73+...........

69,600

75,848

13,003

159,355

29,508

133,141

4,640

29,458

10,813

3,223

7,478

437,004

Total.........

719,776

2,907,565

124,331

4,319,048

394,216

2,663,437

100,983

88,886

231,344

276,187

71,650

41,636

8,808,141

* Years ended Sept. 30. +1832 and last quarter of 1831.. + + Years ended Dec. 31. § First three quarters.. Last quarter.

To obtain the net immigration from the preceding table, about 1 2/3 per cent. of the total aliens should be deducted for those not intending to remain in the United States. Those who died during the voyage are included prior to 1867. Prior to 1871 the statements for Germany do not include the emigrants from Prussia and Austria. Since 1819 a law of congress has required that all who come to the sea and lake ports shall be registered at the custom houses. The number, age, sex, nativity, occupation, and destination of all passengers coming to the United States, distinguishing aliens from citizens returning from abroad, and those intending to remain from those who come merely for temporary purposes, are ascertained and reported to the general government. This information is compiled and published annually by the United States bureau of statistics. No official registration is made, however, of those foreigners who enter the country through other channels than the sea and lake ports, many of whom come across the border from Canada and New Brunswick. The following statement shows the principal countries represented in the emigration to the United States from 1820 to 1874, with the total number from each during that period and in 1873 :

FROM

1873.

1820 to 1874.

Great Britian and Ireland...

159,355

4.319,043

Germany (including Prussia)..

133,141

2,764,420

Austro-Hungrary...

7,835

28.742

Sweden and Norway...

29,453

231,344

Denmark..

5 095

84,624

Netherlands...

4,640

38.886

Belgium...

1,306

19,716

Switerland....

3,223

71.650

France...

10,813

276.187

Spain....

486

24,876

Portugal....

34

5,153

Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Malta..

7,511

44.684

Greece....

37

263

Turkey....

78

440

Russia, Poland, and Finland...

6,466

20,398

Other parts of Europe....

9

33

Total Europe...

369,487

7,880,469

Azores..........................

1 397

10 187

Other islands of the Atlantic.....

81

1 060

est India Islands...

1 974

54 692

British North America...........

29 508

394 216

Mexico.........................

473

91 799

Central America.................

34

1253

South America...............

168

8045

China...

18 154

144 328

Japan ..........................

25

324

Other countries of Asia...........

40

366

Africa...

13

736

Australasia, Pacific, and East India islands....

1052

4794

Countries not specified *....

14,4C0

2S5 721

Born at sea.......

138

362

Total other countries than Europe and countries not stated.

67,517

927,672

Aggregate allen passengers..

437,004

8,808.141

Estimated arrivals prior to 1820.

250,000

Grand aggregate........

9,058,141

The distribution of sex and age among those arriving for a series of years has been:

* Includes aliens not intending to remain in the United States.

SEX AND AGE.

1870.

1871.

1872.

1873.

Number of passengers arrived :

Male.......

255,540

247,756

299,746

297,162

Female...

164,458

167,399

199.077

186,297

Total..................

419,998

415,155

498,823

483,459

Citizens of the U. S. returning: Male..................

26.271

30.138

32,737

30,297

Female...

14,931

17,228

16.603

16,158

Total.....

41,202

47,366

49,340

46,455

Foreigners visiting the U. S.:

Male....

14,3S4

12,890

8,440

10,465

Female........

8.1(9

7.961

3,293

3,994

Total..................

22,493

20,851

11,733

14,459

Net immigration under 15 years:

Male..

42,686

38,665

49.787

47,915

Female....

88,621

35.378

49,033

44,444

Total..................

81,307

74,043

98,820

92,359

Net immigration, 15 to 40 years: Male..................

146.662

140,081

173,028

1C9,473

Female.........

84,966

88,252

104,911

98.347

Total..................

231,628

228,333

277,939

267,820

Net immigration over 40 years:

Male........

25537

. 25,PS2

35.754

39.012

Female........

17,831

! 18,580

25.237

23.354

Total..................

43,368

44,562

60,991

62,366

Total net immigration:

Male...........

214.885

204,728

258,569

256.400

Female.........

141,418

142.210

179,181

166,145

Total..................

356,303

846,938

437,750

422,545

The number of foreigners in the United States in 1870, with the places of their birth, is reported as follows in the census of 1870:

Aggregate population.......

38,558,371

Born in the United

States....

32,S91,142

Born in foreign countries...

5,567,229

White..........

5,49:3,712

Coloured...

9.645

Chinese....

62,736

Indian..........

1,136

Not stared...

954

Africa...

2,657

Asia...

864

Atlantic islands___

4,431

Australasia...

3,118

Austria (proper)___

30,508

Belgium...

12,553

Bohemia...........

40,289

British America (total)..............

4f3.464

Canada...

414.912

New Brunswick.

26,737

Newfoundland...

3.423

Nova Scotia...

83,562

Prince Edward

Island...

1,861

Not specified___

18,469

Central America....

801

China....

63.042

Cuba...............

5,319

Denmark.....

30,107

Europe (not specified).............

1,546

France....

116.402

Germany (total).....

1,690,533

Baden...

153,866

Bavaria...

204,119

Hamburg...

7,829

Hanover...

104,365

Hesse...

131,524

Lubeck...

279

Mecklenburg...

89,670

Nassau...

8.962

Oldenburg.......

10.286

Prussia..........

596.782

Saxony...

45,256

Weimar...

1,628

Wurtemberg....

127.959

Not specified...

253,632

Gibraltar....

77

Great Britain and Ireland (total)....

2,626,242

England........

550,924

Ireland...

1,855,827

Scotland...

140,835

Wales...

74,533

Not specified....

4,123

Greece...

390

Greenland...

3

Holland...........

46.802

Hungary...

3,737

India...

586

Italy...............

17,157

Japan...

73

Luxemburg...

5,802

Malta..............

55

Mexico...

42,485

Norway...

114,246

Pacific islands......

32G

Poland............

14.436

Portugal...

4.542

Russia...

4,644

Sandwich islands...

584

South America...

3.565

Spain..............

3.764

Sweden...

97.332

Switzerland...

75,158

Turkey...

802

West Indies.......

6,250

Born at sea........

2,638

According to Mr. Young, 46 per cent. of the whole immigration, after deducting the women and children, had been trained to various pursuits, nearly half being skilled laborers and workmen. Nearly 10 per cent. consist of merchants and traders. The occupations of the emigrants arriving in the United States from 1820 to Jan. 1, 1874, are shown in the following table, compiled by the United States bureau of statistics:

OCCUPATIONS.

182C-'30.

1831-'40.

1841-'50.

1851-'G0.

1861-'73.

Aggregate.

Laborers.....

10,280

53,169

2S1,229

527,639

785,464

1,657,781

Farmers..

15,005

88.240

256,Ss0

404,712

318,434

1,083.271

mechanies, not specified.

6,805

50.582

164,411

179.726

176,113

583.637

Merchants...

19,434

41,881

46.388

124,149

113,870

345,722

Servants.....

1,327

2,571

24,538

21,058

130.340

179.834

Miners.....

341

368

1,735

37,523

70,960

110,927

Mariners...

4,995

8,004

6,398

10,087

23 624

53,108

Clerks....................................................

682

1,143

1,065

792

22 197

25,979

Weavers and spinners..

2,937

6,600

1,303

717

. 6.945

18,502

Physicians.

805

1,959

2,116

2,229

8,766

10,S75

Seamstresses, dressmakers, and millioners.

413

1,672

2.096

1,065

5.787

11.033

Clergymen...

415

932

1,559

1,420

4,118

8,444

Bakers.....

583

569

28

92

10.247

11,519

Artists...

139

513

1,223

615

3,981

6.441

Butchers...

329

432

76

108

aso5

9,750

Tailors...

9s3

2 252

65

334

10 871

14 505

Shoemakers..

1,109

1,966

63

336

10,660

14,134

Manufactures.

175

107

1,833

1,005

1,917

6,037

Lawyers....

244

461

831

1,140

1,861

4.537

Masons.......

793

1,435

24

58

15.235

17,545

Engineers.....

226

311

654

625

4.001

6,017

Teachers....

275

267

832

154

3,096

4.624

Millers....

199

189

83

210

2 286

2 917

Painters..

282

869

8

83

4,056

4.703

Printers...

179

472

14

40

1,395

2.100

Musicians....

140

165

236

18S

2,079

2,808

Actors...

183

87

233

65

403

991

Hatters..........

137

114

1

4

385

641

Other occupations..

5,466

4,004

2,892

13,8S4

67.842

94.048

Occupations not stated, and without occupation.............

101,442

363,252

969,411

1,544,494

2,395,612

5.624.211

Total...............................................

176,473

640,086

1,768,175

2,874,6S7

4,206.350

9,665.771

Deduct citiens of the United States....

24,649

40,961

54,924

276,473

460,623

857,630

Aliens.......

151,824

599,125

1,713,251

2,598,214

8,745,727

8,80S,141

In respect of nationality, more than half of those having arrived are British, coming from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the British possessions in North America, and speaking the English language. The German element is next in magnitude, and embraces nearly two thirds of the remainder. A large proportion settle in rural districts and develop the agricultural resources of the west and south, while the remainder, consisting largely of artisans and skilled workmen, find employment in the cities and manufacturing towns. About 25 per cent. of the emigrants are under 15 years of age, and less than 15 per cent. over 40, leaving more than 60 per cent. in the prime of life. The number of males is largely in excess of that of females, the ratio varying with the nationality. Among the Chinese only about 7 per cent. are females, while their ratio among the Irish is over 45 per cent., and in the total number of emigrants about 40 per cent. - For several centuries there has been a great emigration from China to the surrounding countries, both by sea and land. Vast multitudes of Chinese have settled in Tartary, Thibet, Anam, Siam, Burmah, Malacca, and in Borneo, Java, Sumatra, the Philippine islands, and in short everywhere in the East Indian archipelago.

But of these emigrants there are no accurate statistics. Of late years they have made their way in considerable numbers to Australia; and in 1853, attracted by the gold of California, they began to come to the United States, and their immigration has attained a magnitude worthy of attention. The whole number who had arrived up to Jan. 1, 1874, was 144,328, nearly all of whom entered at San Francisco. Most of them have settled in California, where they are occupied chiefly in mining pursuits; but many have found their way to Nevada and some of the territories, and a few to the Atlantic and some of the other states. Nearly one half of all who have arrived have returned to their native country. According to the census of 1870, there were 63,199 Chinese in the United States, of whom only 4,566 were females; there were 49,277 in California, 4,274 in Idaho, 3,330 in Oregon, 3,152 in Nevada, and 1,949 in Montana. The number of arrivals, according to the United States bureau of statistics, is given below; those prior to 1855 are differently reported by another authority in the article China :

YEARS.

No. of immigrants.

1853 ...............

42

1854................

13,100

1855................

3.526

1856................

4,733

1857................

5,944

1858................

5,128

1859................

8,457

1860................

5.467

1861................

7.518

1862................

3,633

1863................

7,214

1864................

2,795

The Chinese emigration to the United States has been characterized by an organized system which is not found in the emigration from any European nation. The latter, as has been

YEARS.

No. of im-migrants.

1865...............

2.942

1866...............

2.385

1867...............

3.863

1868...............

10,684

1869........

14.902

1870...............

11.943

1871...............

6,039

1872...............

10.642

1873...............

18,154

Total............

144,328

seen, is entirely without system or organization, and the emigrant is wholly unrestrained as soon as he reaches his destination. The emigration from China, however, is controlled by men of large capital, who engage in it as a traffic. A contract is made with the emigrants in their native country by which they mortgage their future earnings to secure the cost of passage and other expenses, and which binds them to a specified term of service after arrival in this country. In many instances the Chinaman gives a mortgage on his wife and children, with a stipulation that at the end of his term of service he is to be brought back to China by his contractor. This contract is sold or transferred to an agent in the United States at an advance, and is thus a source of great profit to the dealer. The agent contracts for the labor of the Chinese in any part of the United States. Perhaps the most prominent contractor of this kind has been Mr. Koopman-schap, who sought to introduce Chinese labor under this system into the southern states and other parts of the United States. The contract made in China has no validity in the United States, but it has always been strictly observed by both parties.

The following table, from the census of 1870, exhibits the distribution by states and territories of the leading nationalities in the United States:

STATES AND TERRITORIES.

Aggregate population.

Total foreign.

British America.

England.

Ireland.

Scotland.

Wales.

France.

Germany.

Holland.

Switzerland.

Norway and Sweden.

Total of the U'd States.

38,555,988

5,566,546

493,464

550,924

1,855,779

140,635

74,533

116,402

1,690,533

40,802

75,153

211,578

Total of the states....

88,113,253

5,472,346

4S7,605

528,990

1,838,678

136,846

71,907

115,040

1,679,146

46,501

73,972

206,563

Alabama...

996,992

9,962

183

1 041

3,8f3

458

39

594

2 482

14

168

126

Arkansans...

4S4,471

5,026

342

526

1.428

156

24

237

1 563

71

104

154

California..

560.24T

209 831

10 6G0

17.699

54,421

4.949

1,517

8,068

29,701

452

2.927

2,944

Connecticut..

537 544

113 639

10,861

13 001

70.630

3.238

288

821

12,443

99

492

395

Delaware...

125,015

9,136

112

1,421

5,907

'229

43

127

1,142

16

33

9

Florida.

187,748

4,967

174

399

137

144

6

126

597

7

14

46

Georgia..

1,184.109

11,127

247

1,088

5,093

420

61

312

2,701

42

1(3

49

Ilinois..

2,539 891

515.198

32.550

53,S71

120.162

15,137

3140

10,911

203,75S

4,180

8980

41 859

Indiana...............

1,630,637

141,474

4,765

9.945

28,698

2.507

556

6.363

78.060

813

4,287

3 303

Iowa..

1,191,792

204.057

17,905

16,660

40,124

5.248

1,967

3,180

66,162

4,513

3.937

28 352

Kansas....

364,399

48.392

5.324

6.161

10.940

1,581

1.021

1.274

12,775

300

1.828

5542

Kentucky..

1,321.011

63.398

1,082

2.811

21.642

1,019

347

2.057

30,318

270

1,147

128

Louisiana..

726.915

61,827

712

2,797

17.068

614

114

12.341

18.933

232

873

434

Maine.................

626,915

48.881

26,788

3.650

15,745

998

279

137

508

26

9

149

Maryland..

780,894

83 412

644

4,808

23,680

2.432

194

649

47 045

236

297

118

Massachusetts.........

1,457,351

353.319

70.055

84,085

216,120

9,003

576

1,629

13,072

480

491

21.808

Michigan..

1,164,059

268,010

89,500

35,047

42.013

8.552

558

3.121

C4,143

12,559

2,116

3 922

Minnesota...

439,706

160,697

16,6(8

5.672

21,746

2.194

944

1,743

41.364

1,855

2162

56,927

Mississippi............

827,922

11.191

375

1.081

3.359

434

25

630

2,960

35

200

1.048

Missouri..

1,721.295

222,267

8,448

14.314

54,983

3,283

1,524

6.293

113,618

1,167

6,597

2.599

Nebraska..............

122.993

30,748

2.635

3,602

4.999

792

220

340

10.954

180

593

2,858

Nevada...

42 491

18,801

2 365

2,547

5,035

630

301

414

2.181

44

247

297

New Hampshire.......

318,300

29,611

12,965

2.687

12.190

892

27

60

436

5

11

97

New Jersy...

906,096

188,943

2,474

20.674

86,184

5,710

604

3,130

54.001

2.944

2.C61

644

New York.............

4.382,759

1,138 353

79,042

110,003

528,806

27,282

7,857

22,302

316,902

6,420

7,916

6,497

North Carolina..

1 071 361

3 029

171

500

677

420

10

54

904

13

80

43

Ohio...

2,665.260

372,498

12,9S8

36.553

82.674

7,819

12,939

12.781

182,897

2,018

12,727

316

Oregon...

90.923

11,600

1.187

1.344

1,967

894

68

808

1.875

39

160

261

Pennsylvania...

3,521,791

545.261

10.022

69.668

235,750

16.846

27,633

8,695

160,146

819

5,7(5

2,381

Rhode Island..

217.353

55.396

10,242

9,285

81,534

1,946

56

167

1.201

45

74

123

South Carolina..

705.606

8.074

77

016

3,262

310

15

143

2,754

32

45

61

Tennessee..

1,258.520

19,316

587

2.085

8.048

555

314

562

4.539

100

802

386

Texas.................

818,579

62,411

597

2,037

4,031

621

55

2,232

23,976

54

599

767

Vermont...

330,551

47.155

28,544

1,946

14,080

1,240

565

98

370

20

19

117

Virginia..

1,225.163

13,754

327

1,909

5,191

705

148

369

4.050

231

148

47

West Virginia.........

442,014

17,091

207

1 811

6,832

746

321

228

6 232

174

325

6

Wisconsin...

1,054,670

364.499

25,664

28,192

4S,479

6.590

6,550

2,7C4

162,314

5,990

6,069

42,645

Total of the territories.

442,730

94,200

5,859

21,934

17,101

3,989

2,626

1,262

11,387

241

1,181

5,015

Ariona...

9 658

5 809

142

134

495

54

8

69

879

11

28

14

Colorado..............

89,864

6,599

753

1 858

1,685

188

165

209

1,456

17

140

220

Dakota..

14 181

4 815

906

248

688

'77

3

57

565

8

33

1 559

District of Columbia...

131.700

16.254

290

1,422

8,218

352

29

233

4.018

23

175

27

Idaho...

14.999

7,855

334

540

986

114

885

144

599

9

52

152

Montana...

20,595

7,979

1,172

€92

1,635

208

197

193

1,233

18

97

229

New Mexico...

91,874

5,620

125

120

543

86

9

124

582

8

42

11

Utah..................

86,786

30,702

687

16,073

502

2,391

1,783

63

358

122

509

2.403

Washington..

23.955

5,024

1.121

791

1,047

309

44

113

C45

25

50

262

Wyoming...

9,118

3,513

329

550

1,102

260

58

57

652

5

60

137

- The variance in the magnitude of the emigration to the United States in different periods presents results of great interest and importance, and points to the causes that increase or diminish the movement from foreign countries.

Chief among these causes are war, political troubles, famine, commercial panics, and other influences which produce distress at home or an unfavorable condition of affairs in the country to which emigration is directed. The most remarkable illustrations of this kind were presented by the great exodus from Ireland and that from Germany during the period 1845 to 1854, when the highest figures till then known in the history of emigration were reached. After the great famine of 1846, the emigration from Ireland to the United States, which had increased from 44,821 in 1845 to 51,752 in 1846, rapidly rose to 105,536 in 1847, 112,934 in 1848, 159,398 in 1849, and 164,004 in 1850. It reached its maximum in 1851, when 221,213 Irish emigrants arrived in the United States; and in the following year it decreased to 159,548. During the period from 1845 to 1854 inclusive, 1,512,100 Irish left their country for the United States, of whom 607,241 came during the first and 904,859 during the last half of the decade. Since 1854 the movement has fallen off to less than one half of the average of the preceding ten years. During this same period the emigration from Germany also culminated.

This increase was very marked as early as 1845, when the number of German emigrants was 33,138; in 1847 it reached 73,444; in 1848, 58,014; in 1849, 60,062; and in 1850, 63,168. This disturbance in the ordinary tide of emigration has been attributed to the political revolutions attempted in 1848 and 1849. The increase continued till 1854, when the German emigrants reached the number of 206,054. In discussing the causes of this remarkable exodus Frederick Kapp, for many years a commissioner of emigration, says in his work on "Immigration " : "The coup d'e-tat of Louis Napoleon closed for all Europe the revolutionary era opened in 1848. In the three years preceding that event, the issue of the struggle of the people against political oppression had remained doubtful. But the second of December, 1851, having decided the success of the oppressors for a long time to come, the majority of those who felt dissatisfied with the reactionary regime left their homes. The fact that the largest number of Germans ever landed in one year in the United States came in 1854, showed the complete darkening of the political horizon at that time. The apprehension of a new continental war, which actually broke out a year later in the Crimea, also hastened the steps of those who sought refuge in this country.

People of the well-to-do classes, who had months and years to wait before they could sell their property, helped to swell the tide to its extraordinary proportions." From the beginning of 1845 to the close of 1854 the number of Germans arriving in the United States was 1,226,392, of whom 452,943 came in the first and 773,449 in the last five years. In 1866 and 1867 the tide of German emigration again began to swell, "in consequence," according to Mr. Kapp, "of the emigration of men liable to military service from the new provinces annexed to Prussia in 1866, and of families dissatisfied with the new order of things." In 1872 it reached the unprecedented magnitude, except in 1854, of 155,595.

The extent of the emigration to the United States, however, is not governed by political events, failure of crops, commercial and industrial crises, etc, acting in Europe alone, but also by the same causes operating in this country. The effects of the great financial crisis of 1837 are indicated in the falling off of the total immigration from 79,340 in that year to 38,914 in the following. And so the commercial crisis of 1857 was followed in the two ensuing years by a smaller immigration than that of any year since 1845; while during the first two years of the civil war (1861 and 1862), the number of aliens arriving was less than that of any year since 1844. Since the close of the war there has been a marked increase. The arrivals amounted to 449,483 in 1872, being more than in any preceding year, and 437,004 in 1873. The northern and western states, chiefly the latter, have been the chosen destination of the great majority of emigrants to the United States. Prior to the civil war there was very little emigration to those states in which slavery existed, except Missouri. Since the war great efforts have been made by the southern and southwestern states to encourage emigrants to settle there, but with only partial success as yet.

In many of these states bureaus of emigration have been established or commissioners appointed, for the purpose of preparing reports showing the inducements offered to emigrants. This information is published in various languages and gratuitously distributed in the United States and in Europe. The United States bureau of statistics also publishes information for emigrants relative to the demand and compensation for labor in the several states, the cost of living, the price and rent of land, staple products, market facilities, the cost of farm stock, and such other practical information as the emigrant most needs. - The contribution made by emigration to the population and wealth of the United States has been in the highest degree valuable and important. Its extent, however, is determined only by computation, and different authorities have reached different results. According to Mr. Kapp, who followed the estimate of Mr. Schade that the natural rate of increase in the native population of the United States, exclusive of slaves, had been 1.38 per cent., that population, including white and free colored, would have been 8,435,-882 in 1860, and 9,675,041 in 1870; whereas the total white and free colored population, including the foreign element, was 27,489,662 in 1860, while the white population alone in1870 was 33,589,377. According to this calculation, more than 24,000,000 of the population in 1870 was of foreign extraction.

Dr. Jarvis, however, has shown that this proportion is entirely too great, owing in part to the fact that the census reports of the number of births and deaths on which the calculation is based are erroneous. According to the federal census, the number of foreign-born living in the United States was 2,244,602 in 1850, 4,138,697 in 1860, and 5,567,229 in 1870. In the last named year statistics concerning the nativity of parents were collected for the first time, and show that there were 10,892,015 persons having one or both parents foreign, 10,521 233 a foreign father, 10,105,627 a foreign mother, and 9,734,-845 both parents foreign. There were therefore 1,157,170 persons of mixed (half American and half foreign) parentage. In measuring the increase of the foreign element, Dr. Jarvis assumes that only one half (578,585) of this number should be added. Deducting this from the census statement, 10,313,430 remain as the surviving number of foreigners and their children of the first generation, as reported by the census of 1870. This, however, does not include the children of the second and third generations, the number of whom Dr. Jarvis determines at 400,000, making the total foreign element in 1870, 10,813,430; American, 22,-775,947; aggregate white population, 33,589,-377. The census reports the total number of surviving foreigners in 1870 and the total of their children born in the United States of entire and half foreign parentage, but gives no indication of the nationality or race of these children.

The distribution of the entire foreign element into the chief nationalities has been computed by Dr. Jarvis as follows:

NATIONALITY.

Born in foreign countries.

Their children born in U. S.

Total.

Irish........ ......

1.855,827

1,775,012

3,630,639

German....

1.690,410

1,616.795

3,307,205

British..

765.027

781.712

1,496,739

Seandinavian...

238,791

228.392

467,183

All others.

1,017,074

972,875

1,990,049

Aggregate...

5,567,229

5,324,786

10,892,015

According to the report of the United States bureau of statistics, 9,058,141 aliens had arrived in the United States from the foundation of the government to Jan. 1, 1874, of whom 250,000 were estimated to have come prior to 1819. Deducting 1 2/3 per cent. for those not intending to remain, the total number of aliens permanently added to the population to the close of 1873 was 8,907,172. Dr. Jarvis has determined the number of foreigners arriving and of those surviving in the United States at decennial periods since 1790. These results are exhibited in the following statement, and it will be seen that the variance is slight from the census returns of foreigners in 1850, 1860, and 1870:

Emigrants Arriving In Decennial Periods And Surviving At Their Close

ARRIVED.

SURVIVING IN

Period.

Number.

1800.

1810.

1820.

1830.

1840.

1850.

1860.

1870.

1790-1800.......................

50,000

44,282

84.732

27,241

21.364

16.755

13,135

10,272

8,179

1800-1810.......................

70,000

61,993

43.623

38.137

29,912

23,796

18.237

14.600

1810-1820.......................

114.000

100,861

79,187

62,109

49,409

37.808

30.315

1820-1S30...............

500.000

177,141

138,940

110,578

84,7(4

67.810

1830-1840.....................

682,112

611,486

486,450

372,829

298,499

1840-1850.......................

1,711,161

1,552,709

1,190,036

952,685

1850-1860.......................

2,766,435

2,421,944

1.938.742

1860-1870.......................

2,424,390

2,253 548

1790-1870.......................

8,018,153

44,282

96,725

176,825

315,830

859,202

2,236.217

4,135.890

5,5C4S78

Census...

2,244,002

4,138,697

5,567,229

Variance..........

8,385

2,807

2,851

In reaching the above results, the numbers of the survivors of those who arrived in each decade are calculated at the annual rate of 2.4 per cent. mortality and .976 per cent. surviving for the periods 1790 to 1850, 2.625 per cent. mortality for the period 1850 to 1860, and 2.2 per cent. mortality for the decade 1860 to 1870. This is a very high rate of mortality, especially when it is considered that among the emigrants are included only a small portion of those in the perilous periods of life, the very young and the aged, but that they are chiefly in the healthy ages, when the death rate is low. This, however, may be explained by the fact that they are mostly of the poor, whose death rate is everywhere greater than that of the comfortable classes; and that a large proportion of them are Irish, whose vitality is very low. It would be important to know the capital value of immigration to the United States, and the addition thus made to the national wealth; but this result can only be reached by a computation which will be but approximately accurate.

In 1856 the commissioners of emigration in New York examined every emigrant as to the amount of his means, and it was ascertained that the average cash of each of the 142,342 arriving that year was $68 08. This amount, however, was thought to be much below the actual average, since it subsequently appeared that many emigrants, not understanding the object of this inquiry, were careful not to report the full amount of their means. Mr. Kapp estimated the average amount of money brought by each emigrant at $100, and other personal property at $50; total, $150. This estimate, however, is believed by many to be far beyond the facts. Dr. Young estimates the average amount brought by each at $80. Assuming that the 422,545 aliens who arrived in the United States in 1873 with the intention of remaining brought an average of $80 each, it will be seen that the immigration of that year added $33,803,600 to the wealth of the country. Applying the same calculation to the total number of aliens arriving with the intention of remaining from the formation of the government to the beginning of 1874, and the result is about $712,000,000 as the total amount contributed by immigration to the wealth of the country since its origin.

In the above computation only the money value of the emigrant is considered, but the economic value of each, arising from the addition to the industrial and intellectual resources of the country, is still greater. Mr. Kapp, taking the estimate of the distinguished German statistician, Dr. Engel of Berlin, that it costs 750 tha-lers to produce a manual laborer in Germany, and assuming that about double this amount is the cost of an unskilled laborer in America, calculates that the capital value of each male emigrant is $1,500, and of each female $750, making the average for every person of either sex $1,125. Dr. Young, however, considers this estimate to be too high, and makes the average capital value of each immigrant $800. At this rate the emigration to the United States in 1873 added about $338,000,000 to the national wealth, while the increase from this source since the formation of the government is about $7,125,700,000. The uncertainty of such computations, however, is made still greater by the fact that no allowance is made for unfortunates, paupers, and criminals, who are a charge to the community.

These classes of foreigners in 1870 numbered nearly 50,000, as appears by the following statement from the census, showing the total of each class national and foreign in the United States :

CLASSES.

Aggregate.

Born in United Slates.

Born in

Foreign

Countries.

Blind...........................

20.820

17,043

3.277

Deaf and dumb..

36.205

14,869

1.336

Insane.

37,382

26,161

11,221

Idiotic.......

24,527

22,SS2

1,645

Paupers receiving support June1, 1870..........................

76,737

£3,939

22,798

Number of persons in prison June 1,1870..................

32,901

24,173

8,728

Total.......................

208,072

159,067

49,005

- The most extensive European emigration has been from Great Britain and Ireland. According to the report of the land and emigration commissioners, 7,561,285 persons emigrated from the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1873, the principal points of destination being the North American colonies, the United States, and the Australian colonies. The largest proportion of these have been from Ireland. Thus the official reports of the United States show that of the 4,319,048 immigrants from the British isles between 1820 and the beginning of 1874, 2,907,565 were from Ireland, 719,776 from England, and 124,331 from Scotland.

Prior to 1815 the emigration from the United Kingdom was unimportant. Up to 1835 the main stream was toward the North American colonies; but since that year the great body of British emigration has been to the United States. Including the foreign emigration passing through the country, which has been considerable since. 1864, and constituted 26 per cent. in 1872, it has been :

YEARS.

To the

North American Colonies.

To the United States.

To the Aus-tialian Colonies and NewZealand.

To other places.

Total.

1815....

680

1,209

192

2,081

1816....

3.370

9,022

118

12,510

1817....

9,797

10,280

557

20,034

1S18....

15.136

12.429

222

27,787

1S19....

23,534

10.674

579

34,787

1820....

17,921

6,745

1,063

25,729

1821....

12,155

4.958

384

18,297

1S22....

16,013

4.137

219

20,429

1628....

11,355

5,632

1C3

16,550

1S24....

8,874

5,152

99

14,025

1825....

8,741

5.551

485

114

14,891

1826....

12,818

7.0(3

9(3

116

20.900

1827....

12.C48

14.526

715

114

28,003

1828....

12.084

12,817

1,056

135

26,092

1829....

13,307

15,C78

2.016

197

31.198

1830....

30,574

24,687

1,242

204

56,907

1881....

58.067

23.418

1.561

114

83,160

1832....

66,339

32.872

3,732

196

103.140

1833

28,808

29.109

4,693

517

62,527

1834....

40 060

33.074

2.800

288

76,222

1835....

15,573

26,720

1,860

325

44,473

1636....

34.226

87,774

3.124

213

75.417

1837....

29.864

36.770

5,(54

326

72,034

1838....

4.577

14.322

14,(21

292

33.222

1639....

12,658

38.536

15.786

227

62,207

1840....

32.293

40.642

15,650

1,953

90,743

1841....

38,164

45017

32.625

2,786

118.592

1842___

54.123

63 852

8..534

1,635

128,344

1843...

23.518

28.835

3.478

.1.681

57,212

1844___

22,924

48.C60

2,229

1.873

70,666

1845

31,803

58.538

680

2.330

93,501

1846....

43,439

82.239

2.847

1.826

129,851

1847....

109.660

142.154

4.949

1,487

258,270

1843....

31,065

168,233

23.904

4,887

248,089

1849 ...

41,367

219,450

32.191

0,490

299,498

1850....

32,961

223.078

16.037

8.773

260,849

1851....

42,605

267.357

21,532

4.472

335,966

1852....

32.873

244.2C1

87.881

8,749

368,764

1853

34.522

230.855

61,401

3.129

829,93T

1854....

48.761

113.065

83.237

3.366

323,429

1655....

17,966

103.414

52 309

3,118

176,807

1856

16,378

111.837

44.584

8.755

176,554

1857....

21,001

126.9C5

61,248

3,721

212.875

1858....

9,704

59,716

89,21 5

5.257

113,972

1859....

6,689

70,8(3

31.613

12.427

120,482

1661...

9.766

65,700

24 302

6 881

128,469

1861....

12,707

49,764

23.738

5.561

91,770

18(52....

15,522

58,706

41.643

5.143

121,214

1863....

18,083

146.813

53.654

5.808

223,758

1664....

12,721

147.042

40.942

8.195

208,900

18C5....

17,211

147.258

37.288

8.649

209,801

1866....

13.255

161,000

24.697

6,530

204,882

1867....

15.503

159.275

14.4C6

6.709

195.953

1868....

21.062

155.532

12 809

6.922

196,325

1869....

33.891

2(3,001

14,901

6.234

258,027

1870....

85,295

196.075

17.065

8.5(5

256,940

1871....

32.671

198.843

12.227

8.694

252.435

1872....

32,205

233,747

15,876

13,385 182,650

295,213

Agg'te.

1,456,647

4,905,262

1,016,526

7,561,285

Notwithstanding this great exodus, the population of the United Kingdom increased from 18,627,476 in 1811 to 31,817,108 in 1871. The increase has been steady and constant in England, Wales, and Scotland; but in Ireland there has been a remarkable decrease. In 1841 the population of Ireland was 8,175,124; and in 1851, owing chiefly to the great exodus following the famine of 1846, it had decreased to 6,551,970. In 1861 it was 5,792,055, and in 1871 5,402,759, or more than half a million (535,097) less than it was in 1811. In Great Britain protection is extended by the government to emigrants, especially those destined to the British possessions. Emigration is regulated to a considerable extent by the government, acting through the land and emigration commissioners. Acts have been passed at various times for regulating the number of passengers in each ship and providing for their proper accommodation on board, and for protecting them from the numerous frauds to which they are exposed. To enforce the provisions of these acts, and generally to protect the interests of emigrants, government agents are stationed at the principal ports of embarkation, and at the chief colonial ports to which emigration is directed. - The German emigration is chiefly to the United States, and its principal points of departure are the ports of Hamburg and Bremen. As early as 1819 efforts were made in Brazil to attract emigration from Germany and Switzerland, but the treatment of the emigrants by the large property holders prevented the success of the enterprise.

In 1850 an act was passed offering great inducements to colonists, and the immigration of settlers from Europe, particularly Germans and Swiss, has been otherwise encouraged by the government. These efforts have been attended with but partial success, as only about 50,000 persons have settled in the empire, chiefly in the southern provinces. There has been an immigration of some importance during recent years into the Argentine Republic. This amounted for 14 years ending Jan. 1, 1871, to 204,451 persons, who were mostly from Italy, Spain, and France. In order to encourage immigration, the government of Buenos Ayres in 1873 offered a premium of $50 each to the first 100,000 immigrants between the ages of 12 and 45, to be paid at the expiration of 18 months after arrival. - Formerly the doctrine was held by Great Britain and other European powers that a subject could not throw off his allegiance by emigrating therefrom; and whether he became a naturalized citizen of another country or not, his own still retained its claim upon him.

Treaties, however, have been recently concluded between the United States and Great Britain, Sweden and Norway, Denmark, Belgium, the late North German Confederation, Austria, Hungary, Baden, Bavaria, Hesse-Darmstadt, Wurtemberg, and Mexico, which provide that subjects of these powers who have become naturalized citizens of the United States, and have resided uninterruptedly therein for five years, shall be held to be citizens thereof. The treaties with Belgium and Great Britain do not require a residence of five years within the United States, but recognize citizenship if sooner acquired. It seems to be the opinion of French jurists that a French subject can at any time by his own act transfer his allegiance to any country which consents to naturalize him. He thus, according to the Code Napoleon, "loses the quality of a Frenchman." Italy, Spain, Norway, and Greece follow substantially the Code Napoleon, and treat nationality as lost by naturalization in a foreign country, or by entering without royal license into its civil or military service. A Russian subject cannot emigrate or become naturalized in a foreign country without the permission of the emperor; if he does so, he commits an offence for which he may be for ever excluded from the Russian dominions.

Nor can a subject of the Ottoman empire divest himself of that character without the authority of the imperial government.