Tennessee, one of the southern states of the American Union, the third admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 35° and 36° 35' N., and Ion. 81° 37' and 90° 15' W.; greatest length from E. to W. 432 m., breadth 109 m.; area, 45,600 sq. m. according to the federal census, or 42,000 as reported by the state authorities. Its shape is rhomboidal, its E. and W. sides sloping at considerable, though not equal angles. It is bounded N. by Kentucky and Virginia, S. E. by North Carolina, S. by Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, and W. by Arkansas and Missouri, from which it is separated by the Mississippi river. The state is divided' into 94 counties, viz.: Anderson, Bedford, Benton, Bledsoe, Blount, Bradley, Campbell, Cannon, Carroll, Carter, Cheatham, Claiborne, Clay, Cocke, Coffee, Crockett, Cumberland, Davidson, Decatur, De Kalb, Dickson, Dyer, Fayette, Fentress, Franklin, Gibson, Giles, Grainger, Greene, Grundy, Hamblen, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Hawkins, Hardeman, Haywood, Henderson, Henry, Hickman, Houston, Humphreys, Jackson, James, Jefferson, Johnson, Knox, Lake, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Lewis, Lincoln, Loudon, McMinn, McNairy, Macon, Madison, Marion, Marshall, Maury, Meigs, Monroe, Montgomery, Moore, Morgan, Obion, Overton, Perry, Polk, Putnam, Rhea, Roane, Robertson, Rutherford, Scott, Sequatchie, Sevier, Shelby, Smith, Stewart, Sullivan, Sumner, Tipton, Trousdale, Unicoi, Union, Van Buren, Warren, Washington, Wayne, Weakley, White, Williamson, and Wilson. The chief cities and towns are: Nashville, the capital, which in 1870 had 25,865 inhabitants; Brownsville, 2,457; Chattanooga, 6,093; Clarksville, 3,200; Columbia, 2,550; Gallatin, 2,123; Jackson, 4,119; Knoxville, 8,682; Lebanon, 2,073; Memphis, 40,226; Murfreesboro, 3,502; and Pulaski, 2,070. The population of the state and its rank in the Union at decennial periods, according to the federal census, have been as follows:
State Seal of Tennessee.
Included in the aggregate of 1860 are 60 Indians, and 70 in that of 1870. Of the total population in 1870, 623,347 were males and 635,173 females; 1,239,204 were of native and 19,316 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 1,027,653 were born in the state, 20,217 in Alabama, 18,021 in Georgia, 19,867 in Kentucky, 15,451 in Mississippi, 51,110 in North Carolina, 4,420 in Ohio, 4,074 in Pennsylvania, 13,854 in South Carolina, and 43,387 in Virginia and West Virginia. Of the foreigners, 4,539 were born in Germany, 2,085 in England, and 8,048 in Ireland. The density of population according to the federal census was 27.6 persons to a square mile. There were 231,365 families, with an average of 5.44 persons to each, and 224,816 dwellings, with an average of 5.6 to each. The increase of population from 1860 to 1870 was 13.4 per cent. There were 429,592 persons from 5 to 18 years of age, 222,903 males from 18 to 45, and 259,016 male citizens 21 years old and upward. There were 290,549 persons 10 years of age and upward who could not read, and 364,697 unable to write; of the latter, 178,725 were white and 185,952 colored, 163,206 males and 201,473 females; 225,724 were 21 years old and over.
The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 1,349, at a cost of $99,811. Of the 1,332 receiving support at that date, 314 were colored. The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 722. Of the 981 in prison June 1, 1870, 560 were colored. The state contained 876 blind, 570 deaf and dumb, 925 insane, and 1,091 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years old and over (890,872), there were engaged in all occupations, 367,-987; in agriculture, 267,020, of whom 136,925 were laborers and 129,550 farmers and planters; in professional and personal services, 54,-396, including 1,256 clergymen, 24,563 domestic servants, 16,780 laborers not specified, 1,126 lawyers, 2,220 physicians and surgeons, and 2,250 teachers not specified; in trade and transportation, 17,510; in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 29,061. The total number of deaths from all causes was 14,239, being 1.13 per cent, of the entire population; from consumption, 2,377, there being 6 deaths from all causes to 1 from this disease; from pneumonia, 1,298, or 11 deaths from all causes to 1 from this disease.
There were 652 deaths from croup, 571 from intermittent and remittent fevers, 729 from cerebrospinal, enteric, and typhus fevers, and 750 from diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis. - The state presents eight great topographical divisions. On its E. border the Unaka, Smoky, Bald, and other mountains, belonging to the Appalachian chain, have an average elevation of 5,000 ft. above the sea, and an area (according to state measurements) of 2,000 sq. m. Between these mountains and the Cumberland table land on the west the valley of East Tennessee comprises a succession of ridges and minor valleys running in almost unbroken lines from N E. to S. W. The average elevation of this valley is 1,000 ft., and its area 9,200 sq. m. The Cumberland table land rises about 1,000 ft. above the valley of East Tennessee, and has an area of 5,100 sq. m. Its E. side forms an almost continuous N. E. line, and presents an abrupt, rocky rampart. The W. edge is irregular and jagged, with deep coves and valleys. Next on the west, with an average elevation of 1,000 ft. above the sea, and an area of 9,300 sq. m., are the highlands, rim lands, or terrace lands, which extend to the Tennessee river. This division is for the most part a plain, traversed by numerous ravines and streams.
In the centre of these highlands is the great central basin, elliptical and resembling the bed of a drained lake; its average depression is about 300 ft. below the highlands, and it has an area of 5,450 sq. m. This whole basin, with the surrounding highlands, is slightly inclined toward the northwest. The next natural division on the west is the western valley, or valley of the Tennessee, 10 or 12 m. wide, with an elevation of 350 ft. above the sea and an area of 1,200 sq. m. The surface is broken and irregular, various subordinate valleys extending from 20 to 25 m. into the highlands. The plateau or slope of West Tennessee, which constitutes the seventh grand division, is a great, gently undulating plain, which slopes toward the Mississippi. It has few rocks, is furrowed with river valleys, and extends westward for an average distance of about 84 m., when it abruptly terminates in a long and steep bluff or escarpment that overlooks the great alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi. It has an area of about 8,850 sq. m., with an average elevation of 500 ft. The extreme western natural division comprises the bottoms of the Mississippi, a low, flat, alluvial plain, having an area of 900 sq. m. and an average elevation of about 300 ft.
It is covered with forests, and has numerous lakes and morasses. The state is also popularly divided into East, Middle, and West Tennessee; the first extending from the North Carolina border to about the middle of the Cumberland table land, the second from this line to the Tennessee river, and the third from the Tennessee to the Mississippi. - The rivers of Tennessee afford extensive commercial facilities and abundant water power. The most important are the Mississippi, which forms the W. border, and the Tennessee and the Cumberland, which with their tributaries drain more than three fourths of the state. The chief tributaries of the Mississippi are the Forked Deer and its branches (Obion river and South Forked Deer), the Big Hatchie, and Wolf river. The Forked Deer is navigable for steamboats to Dyersburg, and the Big Hatchie for several miles. (See Cumberland River, and Tennessee River.) - Geologically the state is divided into five districts or cross belts running from "N. E. to S. W. The first, comprising the interval between the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers, is occupied (in an order from W. to E.) by the alluvial, tertiary, and cretaceous formations of the gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic seaboard.
The second, from the Tennessee river to the W. foot of the Cumberland mountains, is a rolling country of nearly horizontal palaeozoic rocks, with a great basin-like district of lower Silurian ground in the centre, watered by the Cumberland, Stone's, Duck, and Elk rivers, and surrounded on all sides by sub-carboniferous hills. The third is the mountain division of the coal; a plateau 2,000 ft. above the sea, 40 m. wide by 140 m. long, bounded E. by the valleys of the upper Tennessee and Holston rivers, and covered with a plate of carboniferous rocks, which is thinned and broken up into patches and mounds as it approaches the Alabama state line. The fourth district is the great valley of Knoxville or East Tennessee. It is a prolongation of the great valley of Virginia, the valley of the Shenandoah, and that of Harrisburg and Reading, Pa. Its rocks are mainly of Silurian age, upturned and broken by enormous faults, which bring them against the coal. On its E. side rise the Unaka mountains and their continuations, forming a fifth district, the true prolongation of the Blue Ridge and South mountain range, extending laterally into North Carolina, and composed of rocks of the lower periods of the Silurian age, the equivalents of the slate rock, gneiss, and marble of western Massachusetts and Vermont, and partly of "cal-ciferous sand rock " age.
The most abundant and valuable minerals of Tennessee are coal, iron, and copper. The state is crossed by the great Alleghany coal field, which extends from Pennsylvania to Alabama. In Tennessee it is nearly coextensive with the Cumberland table land, and forms an irregular quadrilateral 71 m. wide at the N. end and 50 m. at the S. It covers about 5,100 sq. m. The amount of coal has been estimated at 42,127,360,000 tons. The production of the state in 1870, according to the federal census, was 3,335,450 bushels, valued at $330,498. In 1874 there were 12 mines in operation, producing about 10,000,-000 bushels annually. Iron exists in four distinct belts or areas. The eastern belt stretches across the E. part of the state, at the base of the border range of mountains, extending into Virginia on the northeast and Georgia on the southeast. The most abundant ore in this belt is the limonite, which occurs in Johnson, Sevier, Carter, and Blunt cos. There are also veins of magnetite and hematite ore, which will yield from 60 to 70 per cent, of metallic ores. There are five furnaces in this region, capable of producing about 15,000 tons annually; but owing to the lack of railroad facilities the amount produced does not exceed 10,-000 tons.
Iron ore containing oxide of manganese is abundant in Greene co., from which spiegeleisen is made. The dyestone belt skirts the E. base of the Cumberland table land, extending beyond the limits of the state on the northeast and southeast. In Tennessee it reaches from Chattanooga to Cumberland gap, about 150 m.; it spreads out laterally from 10 to 20 m. into the valley of East Tennessee, and includes the Sequatchie and Elk valleys. The chief ore of this belt is a stratified red iron rock, highly fossiliferous, occurring in layers, and called at many points dyestone, being sometimes used for dyeing. The ore is a variety of hematite, and yields from 50 to 60 per cent, of iron. There are four furnaces in this region. The Cumberland table-land belt of iron ore is coextensive with the coal field. The ore lies interstratified with shale, sandstone, and coal. It is called clay ironstone, and is an argillaceous carbonate of iron. It is inferior in quality, producing rarely more than 30 per cent., and usually not more than 20 per cent, of iron, and has not been worked. The western iron belt crosses the state N. and S., and lies mainly between the central basin and the Tennessee river, though extending in some counties a few miles W. of the river.
It is about 50 m. wide, and embraces an area of about 5,400 sq. m. But the ore is found in available quantities only at certain points called "banks," some of which are miles in extent, while others occupy only a few acres. Some of these banks have been worked for 80 years with no signs of exhaustion. The ore is a limonite or brown hematite, some of it being inferior in quality; in other places the yield of iron is from 40 to 55 per cent. There are 11 furnaces in this region, with a monthly capacity of about 4,230 tons. Tennessee has decided advantages for making iron, in the abundance, cheapness, and contiguity of ore and of fuel; the disadvantages are distance from market and want of transportation facilities. Valuable deposits of copper are found in Polk co. in the S. E. corner of the state, covering an area of 40 sq. m. The ore is smelted by two extensive companies at Duck-town, having 25 furnaces and employing about 900 hands. From 1865 to 1874 the larger of these companies produced 8,476,872 lbs. of ingot copper. Tennessee is rich in marble, which is found in every part of the state, the varieties including black, gray, magnesian, fawn-colored, white, red, variegated, conglomerate, and breccia. Many quarries are worked.
Limestone and other building stone abound in various parts of the state. Slate is common, but little of it is valuable. Several beds of millstone have been found, the most noteworthy being in Claiborne co. Hydraulic rocks abound in many counties, especially in Hardin, Wayne, Perry, Decatur, Warren, and Montgomery, and in Knox and McMinn cos. in East Tennessee. Lithographic stone of an excellent quality occurs in McMinn co. Granite of various shades of color, some of it rivalling the Scotch granite, is found in Carter co.; and unakite, a greenish compact granite, in the Unaka mountains, being peculiar to that locality. Deposits of potter's clay are found in East Tennessee, on the Knoxville and Ohio railroad, and in the vicinitv of the lower Tennessee river, in the counties of Hickman, Henry, Perry, and Wayne; also in Montgomery and Houston cos. Some of this clay has been worked up into stone ware. There are numerous potteries, the largest being in Memphis, Nashville, and Knoxville. Kaolin is found in Carter co. Fire clay is found in Stewart and Houston cos. and on the Cumberland river. It also exists in the coal measures immediately underlying a seam of coal.
Lead occurs in various places in East and Middle Tennessee. Mines have been worked in Washington, Monroe, and Bradley cos.; one of the most promising is the Caldwell mine on Powell's river in Union co. This vein, which fills a nearly vertical fissure, about 20 in. wide, in nearly horizontal rocks, can be traced about a mile. The two ores of zinc, smith-sonite and calamine, occur in considerable deposits in various localities, especially in Claiborne, Union, and Jefferson cos.; they are in greatest abundance in Union co. The Stiner belt, near Powell's river, is 50 or 60 ft. wide, and is marked by the absence of trees. The lead and zinc ores are often associated. Black oxide of manganese is found in small masses, associated with iron, all over the state. Iron pyrites also exists everywhere in the state; a large quantity is found associated with the copper at Ducktown. Largo beds also occur near Greeneville in Greene co., and in Moore, Carter, and Perry cos. Heavy spar or baryta, used for cheap paints, is found in Middle and East Tennessee; it is mined in Greene, Washington, Jefferson, and some other counties. It is usually associated with lead, constituting the gangue of that mineral. Asbestus exists in large quantities in Cocke co.
Copperas is abundant, and specimens of gypsum have been found. Salt was formerly made in the state, but its manufacture has been discontinued. Saltpetre abounds in numerous caves throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Petroleum has been found at various points, and 10,000 barrels of it has been obtained from the wells near Spring creek in Overton co.; but the production has not been found profitable. Extensive beds of lignite are found in many of the counties of West Tennessee. Alum occurs in the same situations as copperas in Middle Tennessee, Epsom salts in many of the saltpetre caves, and large quantities of blue-stone (sulphate of copper) at Ducktown. The state collection of minerals in the capitol comprises, besides a great variety of specimens, 200 kinds of marble, of all colors from Parian white to jet black, all found in the state. Tennessee has marked advantages in the number, variety, excellence, and medicinal value of its mineral waters. Mineral springs occur upon the lofty peaks of the Unakas and along the bases of the long ridges of the eastern valley. The Cumberland table land abounds with sparkling chalybeate springs.
There are also valuable sulphur and chalybeate springs in West Tennessee. - Tennessee has numerous caves, many of which were explored in 1811-'12 for the saltpetre earth in them, and a large amount of nitre was then manufactured from the earthy material thus obtained. In the Cumberland mountains are several caves which are 100 ft or more below the surface and several miles in extent. One has been descended to a depth of 400 ft., where a stream of water was found having sufficient force and fall to drive a mill. Another, on the summit of Cumberland mountain, is perpendicular in its descent, and its depth has never yet been fathomed. Some of these caves contain fossils and bones of extinct species of animals; others, large deposits of the excrement of bats, valuable as a fertilizer. Big Bone cave when first explored contained bones of the mastodon. There are throughout the cavernous limestone region occasional "sink holes," as they are termed. These are hopper-shaped cavities on the surface which communicate with the caves and underground streams. Near Manchester, Coffee co., is an ancient work called the Stone Fort, enclosed by a rude stone embankment by tourists called a wall, upon which trees are growing, whose age is estimated at over 500 years.
This mysterious enclosure lies in a peninsula formed by the near approach of two forks of Duck river, and occupies an area of 37 acres. - The climate is generally mild and remarkably salubrious, excepting in the swampy districts of West Tennessee. The eastern division is noted for its pure mountain air. The mean annual temperature along a line running E. and W. through the middle of the state is about 57° in the valley of East Tennessee, 58° in Middle, and 59° in West Tennessee. The temperature is about one degree higher along the southern, and about one degree lower along the northern boundary. Going from W. to E. there is a difference of elevation of more than 6,000 ft., which gives a wide range of climate and great variety in vegetable productions. - East Tennessee, excluding its great valley, has a limited surface adapted to cultivation. The soil of Middle Tennessee is generally good, producing large crops of wheat, rye, oats, Indian corn, buckwheat, barley, potatoes, hemp, hay, sweet potatoes, flax, cotton, and tobacco. The western division is almost level, and cotton, tobacco, and all kinds of grain are grown in extraordinary abundance. The soil of this part is a rich black mould.
Along the banks of the Mississippi and Tennessee are extensive cane brakes, covered with reeds. The country is well watered. The N. W. part contains an extensive tract of swampy land. Nearly half of the state is wooded land, and presents almost every variety of timber found in the United States. West Tennessee is specially noted for the magnificence of its forests. The high mountains in the east are covered with forests of pine, which yield tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber for export; white pine, chestnut, hemlock, and black walnut grow to immense size in the coves of the mountains. On the mountain slopes the sugar maple, ash, cedar, juniper, and savin are also abundant; and in the lower lands as well as in Middle Tennessee the poplar, hickory, black walnut, oak, beech, locust, and cherry are found. The most extensive red cedar forests in the United States are found in the central basin of Middle Tennessee. In the swamps and low lands of West Tennessee the cypress, hackmatack, Cottonwood, and swamp cedar occur in large quantities. Several wild or indigenous grasses grow spontaneously. The pawpaw, a low bushy tree or shrub, bearing a fruit somewhat resembling the banana, though inferior to it, is found in the river bottoms.
The persimmon, which is common, yields a fruit which in sweetness and pleasantness of flavor equals the date. The black haw, red haw, wild plum, blackberry, wood grape, muscadine, strawberry, whortleberry, gooseberry, and service berry all grow wild and yield luxuriantly. Nuts of various kinds abound, as the walnut, hickory nut, hazel nut, chestnut, pecan, and chinquapin, all forming articles of export. Ginseng is found on all the elevated lands. The wild animals are the bear, found only in the mountainous districts, deer, raccoons, foxes, opossums, and squirrels. Horses, cattle, sheep, and swine are raised on a large scale, and many thousands are annually exported. The hills and mountain slopes afford an abundance of fine pasturage. Much attention is given to wool growing. - According to the federal census of 1870, the state contained in farms 6,843,278 acres of improved land, 10,771,396 of woodland, and 1,966,540 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 118,141, containing an average of 166 acres each; 18,806 contained from 100 to 500 acres, 412 from 500 to 1,000, and 50 over 1,000. The cash value of farms was $218,-743,747, of farming implements and machinery $8,199,487. The staple crops of 1873 were reported as follows by the United States department of agriculture:
Yield per acre.
Hay (ton) ..........
The total value of these crops was $41,372,-410; whole number of acres, 3,385,984. The number and value of domestic animals in 1874 were reported as follows :
Horses . . . . . .
Mules . . . . .
Oxen and other cattle . . . . .
Milch cows . . . . .
Sheep . . . . . . . . .
Swine . . . . . . . . .
Peanuts, constituting an important crop, are raised in the counties of Perry, Hickman, and Humphreys, and parts of Dickson and Lewis, all of which are on the W. side of the Highland rim. The production amounted to 680,-000 bushels in 1872, 110,000 in 1873, 200,000 in 1874, and 250,000 in 1875. The average yield is about 40 bushels an acre. The shipment of cotton from Tennessee amounted to 378,813 bales in 1872-'3, 489,534 in 1873-'4, and 446,674 in 1874-'5, most of which was the product of the state. In 1873 there were 613,267 acres planted with cotton. The best grows in the S. half of West Tennessee; it is grown in the whole of the central basin S. of Nashville. As a tobacco-growing state Tennessee ranks third, Kentucky being first and Virginia second. The annual product of the state varies from 20,000,000 to 25,000,000 lbs., or from 13,000 to 22,000 hogsheads. The average yield per acre is between 700 and 800 lbs., though as much as 1,800 lbs. can be produced upon the best soils in good seasons.
The soil and climate are well adapted to the cultivation of grapes; much attention has recently been given to this industry, and also to the production of honey. - The total number of manufacturing establishments, according to the census of 1870, was 5,317, using 732 steam engines of 18,467 horse power and 1,340 water wheels of 19,514 horse power, and employing 19,412 hands, of whom 17,663 were males above 16 years of age, 1,089 females above 15, and 660 youth. The amount of capital invested was $15,595,295; wages, $5,390,630; materials, $19,657,027; products, $34,362,636. The statistics of the most important industries were reported as follows:
No. of establishments.
No. of hands employed.
Value of products.
Blacksmithing . . . . .
Boots and shoes ..........
Carpentering and building. ...
Carriages and wagons . . . . .
Cotton goods . . . . .
Flouring and grist-mill products . . . . .
Furniture . . . . .
Iron, blooms . . . . .
" forged and rolled . . . . .
" nails and spikes, cut and wrought . . . .
" railing, wrought . . . .
" pigs . . . . .
" castings . . . . .
Leather tanned . . . . .
" curried . . .
" morocco . . .
Liquors, distelled . . . .
" malt . . . .
Lumber, planed . . . . .
Machinery, not specified...
" cotton and woollen
" railroad repairing.
" steam engines and boilers
Oil, cotton - seed...........
Patent medicines and cornpounds . . . . . .
Saddlery and harness . . . .
Sash, doors, and blinds . . . .
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware . . . .
Wooden ware . . . . .
Wool-Carding and clothdressing . . . . .
Woolen goods . . . . .
There has been a marked progress in many industries since 1870, especially in the manufacture of cotton, iron, liquors, and carriages and wagons. In 1875 there were 40 cotton mills with 55,384 spindles; cotton consumed during the year, 6,701,718 lbs., or 14,443 bales. There are no United States customs districts in Tennessee, but Memphis and Nashville are ports of delivery in the district of Louisiana. At the close of 1875 there were 27 national banks in operation, with a capital stock of $3,455,300 and a circulation of $2,474,323. - Tennessee had 466 m. of railroad in 1855, 1,253 in 1860, 1,296 in 1865, 1,492 in 1870, and 1,641 in 1875. The lines lying wholly or partly in the state in 1875 were as follows:
NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.
Miles completed in the state in 1875.
Total length between termini when different from preceding.
East Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia
Dalton , Ga ..............
Knoxville and Ohio........
Rogersville and Jefferson...
Junction E. S. V. and G..
■ • * •
Knoxville and Charleston ...............
• • * ■
Louisville, Nashville, and Great Southern...
Louisville, Ky ..............
Memphis division ...................
Memphis Junction, Ky...
Leased Nashville and Decatur .........
Nashville ... ............
Memphis and Charleston..................
McMinnville and Manchester
Winchester and Alabama ...
Mississippi and Tennessee .................
Grenada, Miss ..............
Mobile and Ohio ......................
Columbus, Ky .............
Mobile, Ala ...............
Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis......
Bridgeport, Ala ..............
New Orleans, La.........
Paducah and Memphis....................
Paducah , Ky ..............
St. Louis and Southeastern................
East St. Louis, 111........
Tennessee and Pacific.....................
Western and Atlantic .........................
The governor is elected for two years, and receives an annual salary of $4,000. He must be 30 years of age and a citizen of the state for seven years next preceding his election. He is not eligible for more than six years in any period of eight. In case of the removal of the governor from office, or of his death or resignation, the executive functions devolve upon the speaker elected by the senate. The secretary of state is elected for four years by joint vote of the general assembly, and receives a salary of $1,800 a year and perquisites. A bill may be passed over the executive veto by a majority vote of each house. The state treasurer and comptroller are appointed by the general assembly for two years. The constitution provides that the number of representatives in the legislature shall not exceed 75 until the population of the state shall be 1,500,000, and shall never exceed 99. The number of senators is limited to one third of the number of representatives. There are now (1876) 25 senators and 75 representatives. The sessions of the legislature are biennial, beginning on the first Monday of January in odd years. Senators and representatives receive $4 a day and $4 for every 25 miles travel to and from the capital.
No member will be paid for more than 75 days of a regular session, or for more than 20 days of an extra session, or for any days when absent from his seat. The judicial power is vested in a supreme court and chancery, circuit, county, and justices' courts. The supreme court consists of a chief justice and five associates, who are elected by the people for eight years, and receive a salary of $4,000 each. Its jurisdiction is appellate only. Terms are held annually in Knoxville, Nashville, and Jackson. The attorney general and reporter for the state is appointed by the judges of the supreme court. Judges of the circuit and chancery courts are elected by the people for eight years. Two terms of the chancery court are held in each county annually. They have all the powers and jurisdiction incident to a court of equity, and exclusive jurisdiction of all equity cases where the amount in controversy exceeds $50. They have jurisdiction with the county courts over the person and property of persons of unsound mind, and of infants. Three terms of the circuit court are annually held in each county.
Concurrently with justices of the peace they have jurisdiction of all debts and demands on contract over $50, and exclusive jurisdiction of matters relating to the validity of wills; also appellate jurisdiction of all suits brought before inferior tribunals. Each county has a court consisting of the justices of the county, which has jurisdiction of probate matters. Justices of the peace are elected by the people for six years, and constables for two years. Judges may be removed from office by a two-thirds vote of the legislature. They are prohibited from charging juries with respect to matters of fact, but may state the testimony and declare the law. Fines exceeding $50 on any citizen must be assessed by a jury. The right of suffrage is given to every male person of the age of 21 years who is a citizen of the United States and a resident of Tennessee for one year, and of the county where he offers to vote for six months. There is no other qualification except the payment of a poll tax of not less than 50 cents nor more than $1 a year. In 1867 the state gave to negroes the right to vote.
Elections for governor and members of the general assembly are held biennially in even years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November; for judicial and other civil officers, on the first Thursday in August. Ministers of the gospel and priests are ineligible as members of the legislature. No person who denies the being of God or a future state of rewards and punishments can hold any civil office. Any person who has engaged in a duel or preparations for a duel, either as principal or second, is disqualified from holding any office of honor or profit, besides being subject to punishment by law. Amendments to the constitution may be proposed in either branch of the general assembly; before taking effect they must be approved by a majority of the members elected to each house of the general assembly when first proposed, by two thirds of the next legislature, and subsequently by a popular vote. The grounds of divorce are: impotence, adultery, desertion for two years, conviction of an infamous crime or of felony, malicious attempt upon the life of the wife, pregnancy by another man at the time of marriage without the husband's knowledge, cruelty, indignities by the husband forcing the wife to separation, abandonment of the wife or turning her out of doors, and refusal to provide for her.
The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent., but any rate not exceeding 10 per cent, may be contracted for in writing; if more than 10 per cent, is agreed upon, only 6 per cent, can be collected. Usury is punishable by a fine of not less than $100. Tennessee is represented in congress by 10 representatives and 2 senators, and has therefore 12 votes in the electoral college. - On Dec. 19, 1874, the bonded debt of the state was $22,908,400, which was largely contracted by the indorsement of railroad bonds. The assets of the state on bond account amounted to $3,817,896. The state revenue during 1873 and 1874, not including bonds or coupons paid by railroad companies, amounted to $3,618,703, and the disbursements to $3,290,-158. According to the federal census, the true value of property was $201,246,686 in 1850, $493,903,892 in 1860, and $498,237,724 in 1870. The assessed value of all taxable property, as reported by the state authorities, was $308,089,738 in 1873 and $289,533,656 in 1874. The amount of state tax levied in 1873 was: East Tennessee, $254,200; Middle, $542,686; West, $435,472; total, $1,232,358. In 1874 it was: East Tennessee, $192,913; Middle, $401,563; West, $410,190; total, $1,005,066. The total valuation of taxable property in 1872 was $265,874,258; taxation, $1,090,694. The constitution provides that all property shall be taxed according to its value, so that the taxes shall be equal and uniform throughout the state, and that no species of property shall be taxed higher than any other of the same value.
But the legislature is empowered to except from taxation property held by the state, counties, cities, or towns, and used exclusively for public or corporation purposes, and such as may be held and used for purposes purely religious, charitable, scientific, literary, or educational. In 1875 the comptroller reported that no railroad company had ever paid any taxes to the state; and that no corporations, excepting insurance companies and a few banks, had paid the taxes levied by law. - The state prison is in Nashville, and there are also several temporary prisons in various parts of the state, where convicts are employed upon railroads, mines, etc. The total number in confinement during the two years ending Dec. 1, 1874, was 1,625, of whom 744 were held on Dec. 1, 1872; 881 were received during that period, and 963 were in confinement at the end. Of the last number, 380 were white and 583 colored; 925 were males and 38 females; 13 had a good and 97 a fair education, 199 could read and write, and 654 had no education; 34 were under 16 years of age, and 275 under 21; 21 were sentenced for life, and 69 for 20 years or longer. The prisoners are employed under lease on public works, buildings, railroads, etc.
The revenue thus received is reported to be greater than the cost of supporting the prison. There is preaching and Sunday school instruction. The state hospital for the insane, near Nashville, was opened in 1852. The average daily number of patients during the two years ending with 1874 was 379; the whole number under treatment during that period was 561, of whom 374 remained on Jan. 1, 1875. Of the latter, all but 37 were maintained free of charge. The cost of maintaining the institution during the two years named was $157,987. The accommodations of the hospital are inadequate, the number of insane in the state being estimated at not less than 1,200. The Tennessee school for the blind, in Nashville, opened in 1844, had 55 pupils in 1874. Its cost during that year was $33,890. It is estimated that there are not fewer than 1,200 blind in the state. This school has recently been very much enlarged. The Tennessee deaf and dumb school is in Knoxville, and was opened in 1845. The number of pupils in attendance during the two years ending with 1874 was 155, of whom 121 remained on Jan. 1, 1875. There were seven instructors.
The ordinary expenditures during this period amounted to $53,356. - There was no satisfactory system of common schools in Tennessee prior to 1873, when the present law providing for a general state system was enacted. The school fund, which had been lost or diverted to other purposes, was restored, together with the suspended interest. A permanent fund, amounting in 1875 to $2,512,-500, was thus secured; the interest on this, at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum, is distributed semi-annually among the counties according to school population. The law also authorizes for school purposes a poll tax of $1, and a tax of one mill on the dollar upon all the taxable property of the state, and provides that when the money derived from the school fund and the taxes imposed by the state shall be insufficient to support a public school for five months in the year in each of the districts in any county, the county court shall levy an additional tax for the purpose, or submit the proposition to a vote of the people. About one half of the counties of the state have levied an additional tax to prolong the schools.
The total annual income from the permanent fund and state taxation is about $600,000. The state superintendent of public instruction is appointed for two years, and receives an annual salary of $3,000. County superintendents are elected biennially by the county courts. Three directors are elected in each district for three years. The public schools are free to all persons between the ages of 6 and 18 years; but there must be separate schools for colored persons. The school population (one county not reporting) on June 30, 1875, was 425,901; white, 319,671; colored, 106,230. The number of pupils enrolled (one county not reporting) was 198,085; average attendance (10 counties not reporting), 136,118; number of schools (13 counties not reporting), 3,942; school revenue, $740,316; total expenditures, $703,358. In 1873-'4 public schools in various parts of the state received aid from the Peabody education fund to the extent of $34,300. The state normal university, under the control of the state board of education, was opened as a department of the university of Nashville in December, 1875. It has an annual revenue of $6,000 from the Peabody education fund and $0,000 from the university of Nashville. Normal instruction is also afforded in several of the colleges.
In several of the cities there are efficient systems of free schools, supported in part by the cities and in part from the state and county school revenues. The universities and colleges of Tennessee, with the number of instructors and pupils in 1874-'5, were as follows :
NAME OF INSTITUTION.
No. of instructors.
No. of pupils in collegiate department.
No. of pupils in all departments.
Beech Grove college..................
Beech Grove .........
Central Tennessee college..............
East Tennessee university.............
East Tennessee Wesleyan university...
Greenville and Tusculum college.......
Methodist Episcopal, South
King college ........................
Southwestern Baptist university.......
University of Nashville..............
University of the South................
Protestant Episcopal ..........
Methodist Episcopal, South
The East Tennessee university embraces the state college of agriculture and the mechanical arts, for which provision was made by congress in 1862. The university was organized in 1840 (the East Tennessee college having been opened in 1808), and the agricultural college in 1869. There are three courses of study of four years each, agricultural, mechanical, and classical; and two preparatory courses of three years each. Each senator is entitled to name two, and each representative three students, who may attend the institution without charge for tuition, and may also pass free on railroads between their homes and the university. For others, the annual cost of tuition is $36 in the college and $30 in the preparatory department. Students are required to perform manual labor during the freshman and sophomore years. The university has a considerable library, and cabinets of geology, mineralogy, and zoology. The university of the South, at Sewanee, is under the control of the Protestant Episcopal church. It has separate schools for each department of learning. The institution has about 10,000 acres of land on a plateau of the Cumberland mountains, 2,000 ft. above the sea and 1,000 ft. above the surrounding country.
Owing to the favorable climate of this elevation, studies are continued during the summer, and a long vacation occurs in the winter. The university has a library of over 5,000 volumes. The East Tennessee Wesleyan university, at Athens, has a collegiate department, with classical and scientific courses, and preparatory and academic departments. Fisk university was organized in 1866 through the efforts of the American missionary association of New York. It is designed for the instruction of colored persons, and has made the training of teachers a prominent part of its work. It was named after Gen. C. B. Fisk, then commissioner of the freedmen's bureau, through whose efforts government buildings were obtained for the institution. Since 1871 upward of $100,000 have been raised for it by concerts given in the north and in Great Britain by the "Jubilee Singers." With this money 25 acres of land have been purchased, on which has been erected Jubilee hall, 128 by 145 ft. and six stories high. For the university of Nashville and Central Tennessee college, see Nashville; for Cumberland university, see Lebanon; see also Vanderbilt University. Instruction in theology is provided by Central Tennessee college; in law, theology, and medicine, by Cumberland and Vanderbilt universities; and in medicine and surgery, by the university of Nashville and the Tennessee college of pharmacy in Nashville. The last named was organized in 1872, and in 1875-'6 had seven instructors.
In 1870 the state contained 3,505 libraries with an aggregate of 802,112 volumes. Of these, 2,732 with 597,399 volumes were private, and 773 with 204,713 other than private, including the state library of 19,000 volumes. The total number of newspapers and periodicals in 1875 was 141, including 9 daily, 1 tri-weekly, 1 semi-weekly, 110 weekly, 1 bi-weekly, 1 semimonthly, 17 monthly, and 1 quarterly. In 1870 there were 3,180 religious organizations, having 2,842 edifices with 878,524 sittings, and property valued at $4,697,675, divided as follows:
Baptist, regular . . . . . .
" other . . . . .
Christian . . . . . .
Congregational .. . . .
Episcopal, Protestant . . . . .
Friends . . . . . .
Jewish . . . . . . . . .. . . .
Lutheran . . . . . .
Methodist . . . . . . .
Presbyterian, regular . . . . . .
" other . . . . .
Roman Cathloic . . . . . .
Unknown (union) . . . . . .
The name of Tennessee is derived from Tan-nassee, the Indian name of the Little Tennessee river. De Soto probably visited the spot where Memphis now stands. The first settlement was attempted in 1754 by a small body of North Carolinians, but they were speedily driven from the country by the Indians. In 1756 the first permanent settlement was made, and Fort Loudon built on the Tennessee river about 30 m. from the present site of Knoxville. This was the first Anglo-American settlement W. of the Alleghanies and S. of Pennsylvania. In 1760 the fort was besieged by the Indians, and the whites capitulated, stipulating that they should be allowed to return to North Carolina. On the second day of their march they were overtaken by the savages and many of them butchered, and the survivors reduced to captivity. In 1761 another armed force from Virginia and North Carolina entered the district, and after a number of successful battles with the Indians compelled them to sue for peace. A treaty was made with them, and the settlements along the Watauga and Holston rivers increased rapidly, being known from 1769 to 1777 as the "Watauga association.
In the colonial assembly of North Carolina in 1776 the territory was represented by deputies as the district of Washington; and in the revolutionary war the settlers flocked to the standard of the colonists. At the close of the revolution a settlement was made on the Cumberland river where Nashville now stands. From 1777 to 1784 the territory formed part of North Carolina, which set apart a portion of the district in the vicinity of Nashville for bounty lands for her revolutionary soldiers. In 1785 the people became dissatisfied with the manner in which they were treated by the government of that state, and organized the state of Franklin, which was maintained until 1788, when it was again united with North Carolina. In 1789 that state ceded the territory to the general government, and in 1790 it was organized, together with Kentucky, as the territory of the United States south of the Ohio. In 1794 a distinct territorial government was granted to Tennessee; and in 1796 a state constitution was formed at Knoxville, and Tennessee was admitted into the Union. The constitution was amended in 1834-'5, and again in 1853. The seat of government was at Knoxville from 1794 to 1811, excepting in 1807, when it was at Kingston; from 1812 to 1815 at Nashville; in 1817 at Knoxville; in 1816 and from 1819 to 1825 at Murfreesboro; and from 1826 to the present time it has been at Nashville. The general assembly of Tennessee was convoked in extra session Jan. 7, 1861, to consider what action should be taken by the state in view of the impending difficulties between the north and the south.
In East Tennessee the people were generally opposed to secession; in West Tennessee there was a strong popular sentiment in favor of separation. The governor, Isham G. Harris, actively favored the southern cause. On Feb. 9 the people of the state voted on the question whether a convention should be held to consider the subject of withdrawing from the Union, and also for delegates to the convention. In a total vote of 127,000, there was a majority of nearly 12,000 against a convention. Of those who voted for delegates a majority of about 64,000 were in favor of the Union. The requisition for troops made upon Tennessee by the president after the firing upon Fort Sumter was refused by Gov. Harris, who again summoned the legislature to meet in extra session. Early in May a military league was formed with the Confederate States by commissioners appointed for that purpose, and was ratified by the legislature. On May 6 the legislature again provided for submitting the question of secession to the people.
The election was held on June 8, and resulted in a majority of 57,675 for separation, the total vote being 152,151. In East Tennessee there was a large majority in favor of the Union. Troops were now recruited and armed by the state for the confederate army and to resist invasion from the north. Batteries were erected to command the Mississippi from Memphis to the Kentucky line; troops were concentrated in West Tennessee under Gen. Pillow; and the confederate forces took possession of the three gaps in the mountains of East Tennessee. The invasion of Tennessee by the federal forces was begun early in 1862 by a combined naval and military expedition, which captured Forts Henry and Don-elson in February. (See Fort Donelson.) Nashville, the headquarters of the confederate general A. S. Johnston, was taken a few days afterward, when the state government was removed to Memphis. (See Nashville.) A large portion of the state having now been restored to federal authority, Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor by President Lincoln, and assumed the duties of the office in Nashville on March 12. In the same month a formidable fleet of gunboats left Cairo, 111., for the purpose of regaining the Mississippi river from confederate control.
The advance of this fleet forced the confederates to abandon Island No. 10, Forts Pillow and Randolph, and other strongholds; and on June 6 Memphis was taken by the federal forces after a severe engagement between the gunboats. In November Gen. Rosecrans advanced from Nashville upon Murfreesboro, which was the centre of Gen. Bragg's operations in Tennessee. After a severe engagement lasting several days, the place was abandoned by the confederates, Jan. 4, 1863, and then became the depot of supplies for Gen. Rosecrans's army. The confederates now fell back to Shelbyville, and on the advance of Rosecrans in June retired to Chattanooga, which they abandoned on Sept. 8 upon the approach of Rosecrans. On the 19th and 20th a severe battle was fought about 12 m. S. W. of Chattanooga. (See Chickamauga.) The Union forces were repulsed, but continued to occupy Chattanooga, which however was besieged by the confederates. In the latter part of November an advance was made upon the confederate lines by Gen. Grant, which resulted in the complete rout of the confederates.
In this engagement were fought the battles of Lookout mountain and Missionary ridge. (See Chattanooga.) In the mean time Gen. Burn-side had marched into East Tennessee, and he took peaceable possession of Knoxville early in September. In November, 1864, the state was invaded by a confederate force under Gen. Hood. Battles were fought with the federal forces at Franklin and at Nashville, the latter resulting in the complete rout of the confederates, under Gen. Hood, and their retreat from the state. (See Nashville.) During 1864 numerous raids were made in different parts of Tennessee by the confederates. On Jan. 9, 1865, a state convention assembled in Nashville and proposed amendments to the constitution, abolishing slavery and prohibiting the legislature from recognizing property in man. A schedule was adopted annulling the military league made in 1861 with the Confederate States, also the declaration of independence, the ordinance of secession, and all acts of the confederate state government, and prohibiting the payment of any debts contracted by that government. These amendments were ratified by the people on Feb. 22. W. G. Brownlow was subsequently chosen governor, and members of the legislature were elected.
Each voter at these elections was required to take an oath that he had been and would continue to be loyal to the United States. The legislature met in Nashville early in April, ratified the 13th amendment to the federal constitution, reorganized the state government, and elected senators to congress. Among the acts passed was one prescribing the qualifications of voters, which disfranchised those who had not been "publicly known to have entertained unconditional Union sentiments from the outbreak of the rebellion until the present time." The 14th amendment to the federal constitution was ratified in 1866, and the state was soon after admitted to representation in congress. The revision of the constitution by a convention sitting at Nashville from Jan. 10 to Feb. 22, 1870, was ratified on March 26 by a popular vote of 98,128 to 33,872. - See "The Geology of Tennessee," by Dr. J. M. Safford (1869), and "The Resources of Tennessee," prepared under the direction of the state board of agriculture by J. B. Kille-brew (Nashville, 1874).