Virginia, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 36° 31' and 39° 27' N., and lon. 75° 13' and 83° 37' W. Its greatest length from E. to W. is about 440 m., greatest breadth from N. to S. 192 m.; area, according to the federal census, 38,348 sq. m.; according to state authority, 45,000 sq. m. It is bounded N. by West Virginia and Maryland, E. by Maryland and the Atlantic ocean, S. by North Carolina and Tennessee, and W. by Kentucky and West Virginia. It is separated from Maryland on the northeast by the Potomac river. The state is divided into 99 counties, viz.: Accomack, Albemarle, Alexandria, Alleghany, Amelia, Amherst, Appomattox, Augusta, Bath, Bedford, Bland, Botetourt, Brunswick, Buchanan, Buckingham, Campbell, Caroline, Carroll, Charles City, Charlotte, Chesterfield, Clarke, Craig, Culpeper, Cumberland, Dinwiddie, Elizabeth City, Essex, Fairfax, Fauquier, Floyd, Fluvanna, Franklin, Frederick, Giles, Gloucester, Goochland, Grayson, Greene, Greenville, Halifax, Hanover, Henrico, Henry, Highland, Isle of Wight, James City, King and Queen, King George, King William, Lancaster, Lee, Loudon, Louisa, Lunenburg, Madison, Matthews, Mecklenburg, Middlesex, Montgomery, Nansemond, Nelson, New Kent, Norfolk, Northampton, Northumberland, Nottoway,.Orange, Page, Patrick, Pittsylvania, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Prince George, Princess Anne, Prince William, Pulaski, Rappahannock, Richmond, Roanoke, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Russell, Scott, Shenandoah, Smyth, Southampton, Spottsylvania, Stafford, Surry, Sussex, Tazewell, Warren, Warwick, Washington, Westmoreland, Wise, Wythe, and York. The chief cities, with their population according to the census of 1870, are Richmond, the capital, 51,038; Alexandria, 13,570; Fredericksburg, 4,046; Lynchburg, 6,825; Norfolk, 19,229; Petersburg, 18,950; Portsmouth, 10,492; Staunton, 5,120; Winchester, 4,447; and Williamsburg, 1,392. The chief towns are Charlottesville, with 2,838, near which is the university of Virginia; Culpeper, 1,800; Danville, 3,463; Farmville, 1,543; Hampton, the seat of the Hampton normal and agricultural institute, 2,300; Harrisonburg, 2,036; Leesburg, 1,144; Lexington, the seat of "Washington and Lee university and of the Virginia military institute, 2,873; Manchester, 2,599; Salem, the seat of Roanoke college, 1,355; Warrenton, 1,256; and Wytheville, 1,671. The population of the state and its rank in the Union according to the federal census have been:
State Seal of Virginia.
The decrease in 1870 was due to the separation of West Virginia. The total population of the territory now constituting Virginia before 1870 was as follows: 1790, 691,737; 1800, 801,608; 1810, 869,131; 1820, 928,348; 1830,1,034,481; 1840,1,017,260; 1850,1,119,348; 1860,1,219,630. Included in the total for 1870 were 229 Indians and 4 Chinese. Of the total population in that year, 597,058 were males and 628,105 females; 1,211,409 were of native and 13,754 of foreign birth. Of the natives, 1,162,598 were born in Virginia and West Virginia, 7,344 in Maryland, 4,908 in New York, 16,869 in North Carolina, and 15,497 in Pennsylvania. Of the foreigners, 6,231 were born in Germany, 5,191 in Ireland, and 1,909 in England. The density of population was 31-95 persons to a square mile. There were 231,574 families, with an average of 5-29 persons to each, and 224,947 dwellings, with an average of 5.45 to each. There were 200,103 males and 196,709 females from 15 to 18 years of age, including 85,510 colored males and 85,644 colored females; 206,658 males from 18 to 45, of whom 83,488 were colored; 161,500 white males and 107,691 colored males 21 years old and upward; and 266,680 male citizens 21 years old and upward.
There were 390,913 persons 10 years of age and over unable to read, and 445,893 who could not write; of the latter, 31,403 were whites from 10 to 15 years of age, 21,438 from 15 to 21, and 67,997 21 and over; 57,433 were colored from 10 to 15 years old, 57,208 from 15 to 21, and 207,595 21 and over. Of the total population 10 years of age and over (890,056), there were engaged in all occupations 412,665; in agriculture, 244,550, of whom 162,604 were farmers and planters and 80,739 laborers; in professional and personal services, 98,521, including 1,073 clergymen, 54,008 domestic servants, 27,730 laborers, 1,075 lawyers, 2,126 physicians and surgeons, and 2,521 teachers; in trade and transportation, 20,181; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries, 49,413. The state contained 895 blind, 534 deaf and dumb, 1,125 insane, and 1,130 idiotic. The total number of deaths from all causes was 15,183, the ratio of mortality being 1.24 per cent.; from consumption 2,095, being one from that disease to 7.2 from all causes; from pneumonia 1,452, or one from that disease to 10.5 from all causes.
There were 573 deaths from cholera infantum, 251 from intermittent and remittent fevers, 676 from enteric fever, and 1,026 from diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis. - The territory of Virginia presents six great natural divisions extending across the state from N. E. to S. W., nearly parallel, and corresponding to the trend of the Atlantic coast on the east and of the Appalachian range on the northwest. They occupy different levels, rising to the west like a grand stairway. They differ also in respect to geology, climate, soil, and productions. Beginning on the east, they are the tidewater, middle, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, valley, and Appalachian sections. The tidewater country comprises the E. and S. E. part of the state, forming an irregular quadrangle, with an average length from N. to S. of 114 m. and a width of 90 m. It covers an area of 11,350 sq. in. (according to the state survey), including about 2,500 sq. m. of valuable tidal waters. It borders' for about 110 m. on the Atlantic ocean, and is penetrated by the tidal waters of Chesapeake bay and its tributaries, which give nearly 1,500 m. of tidal shore line. It is divided into nine principal and many smaller peninsulas.
Beginning on the north, they are: 1, the Northern neck, 75 m. long and from 6 to 20 m. wide, which, lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, is almost surrounded by navigable waters; 2, the Middlesex, extending S. E. 60 m. with a breadth of from 3 to 10 m., between the Rappahannock and Pianketank rivers; 3, the Gloucester, 70 m. long and from 6 to 18 m. wide, between the Pianketank and the York and Mattapony; 4, the King William or Pamunkey, extending 60 m. S. E. between the Mattapony and the Pamunkey, with a breadth of from 3 to 14 m.; 5, the peninsula which stretches 100 m. S. E., with a width of from 5 to 15 m., between the Pamunkey and the York on the north and the Chickahominy and the James on the south; 6, the Richmond or Chickahominy, 50 m. long and from 5 to 15 m. wide, between the Chickahominy and the James; 7, the Southside, 64 m. long and from 35 to 40 m. wide, embracing all the country S. of the James and between it and the Nansemond river and North Carolina; 8, the Norfolk, embracing the territory between the Nansemond river, Hampton roads, Chesapeake bay, and the Atlantic (partly covered by the Dismal swamp), and having Cape Henry on its N. E. point; 9, the Eastern Shore, a long narrow peninsula comprising the counties of Accomack and Northampton, extending from the Maryland border about lat. 38° to Cape Charles, and forming the eastern barrier between the lower Chesapeake bay and the Atlantic. Along the Atlantic shore of this peninsula extend a series of sand bars or spits with occasional narrow inlets, at a distance of from 2 to 10 m. from the coast, and in some places connected with it by extensive sand drifts.
Between these sand spits and the mainland of the peninsula are the Broadwater and other sounds and roadsteads, and in some cases islands of considerable extent. The shores of that portion of the Chesapeake bay within the limits of Virginia are indented by numerous small bays, inlets, and sounds, forming safe anchorage ground for small craft, and abounding in shell fish. The middle country is an undulating plain, with an elevation of from 150 to 200 ft. on the east, and from 300 to 500 on the northwest, which extends W. to the low broken ranges called collectively the Coast range, forming the eastern outliers of the Appalachian system. These extend across the state in a S. W. direction from the Potomac to North Carolina, and comprise the mountains, hills, etc, known as Kittoetin, Bull Run, Yew, Clark's, Southwest, Carter's, Green, Findlay's, Buffalo, Chandler's, Smith's, etc. The middle division comprises about 12,470 sq. m. in the form of a right-angled triangle whose base, about 120 m. long, rests on the North Carolina border. Along the E. base of the Blue Ridge mountains, and between them and the Coast range, the Piedmont division extends from the Potomac and Maryland to the Dan at the North Carolina border.
It is 244 m. long, with an average width of 25 m. and an area of about 6,000 sq. m. This division has numerous valleys and rivers, many extensive plains, and much picturesque scenery. The elevation increases toward the west, becoming at the foot of the Blue Ridge from 600 to 1,200 ft. The Blue Ridge, a mountain range with many branches expanding into plateaus or rising into domes, is one of the most prominent features of the topography of Virginia. It stretches across the state in a S. W. direction, and, with its numerous spurs extending in all directions, but especially on the east, its parallel ridges, detached knobs, and foot hills, comprises about 2,500 sq. m. It has a very irregular outline, and rises from 2,000 to 4,000 ft. above the sea, with a general elevation of about 2,500 ft. Near the Potomac the elevation is about 1,460 ft. Mt. Marshall near Front Royal is, according to the United States coast survey, 3,369 ft. high; and the Peaks of Otter in Bedford co., according to Guyot, are 3,993 ft. high.
The valley is a part of the great Appalachian valley, which extends from Canada to Alabama. It is a broad belt of rolling country, diversified by hills and valleys with many winding streams, lying between the Blue Ridge on the east and the Kittatinny or North mountains on the west, which comprise numerous parallel ranges with various local names. In Virginia and West Virginia the valley extends for about 330 m. from the Potomac to the Holston, of which about 300 m. are within Virginia; it has an area of 5,000 sq. m. It embraces the valleys of five rivers, viz., the Shenandoah, James, Roanoke, Kanawha or New, and Holston or Tennessee. Its western elevation is from 500 to 1,000 ft. greater than the eastern. The Appalachian division is a mountainous region traversed by the Alleghany ranges. In Virginia it is about 260 m. long and from 10 to 50 wide, and comprises 7,680 sq. m. It consists of a series of comparatively narrow, long, parallel valleys, running N. E. and S. W. and separated by mountain ranges. The highest peak in the state, Balsam mountain (about 5,700 ft.), is in the Iron mountains, between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany range, on the border of North Carolina. - Virginia has a large number of rivers and streams, which afford abundant water power and extensive commercial facilities.
Six sevenths of the state is watered by streams which flow toward the Atlantic, and the remainder by those which reach the Ohio through the Great Kanawha, Tennessee, and Big Sandy rivers.
The following streams flow into Chesapeake bay: the Potomac, the largest tributary of which is the Shenandoah, and its chief smaller ones Potomac creek, Occoquan river, Broad run, Goose, Kittoctin, and Opequan creeks; the Rappahannock, with its Rapidan and numerous other branches; the Pianketank; the York, with its Pamunkey and Mattapony branches and many other tributaries; and the James, with its vast system of tributary rivers and streams, including the Ohickahominy, Elizabeth, Nansemond, Appomattox, Rivanna, Willis's, Slate, Rockfish, Tye, Pedlar, South, Cowpasture, Jackson's, etc. The S. E. part of the state is drained by the Roanoke and its numerous affluents, of which the Dan and Staunton are the most important, and by the Blackwater, Nottoway, and Meherrin branches of the Chowan, a river of North Carolina. Both the Roanoke and Chowan discharge their waters into Albemarle sound. The sources of the Yadkin are in the Blue Ridge. The Great Kanawha or New river rises in North Carolina and flows N. E. through Virginia (where it receives numerous tributaries) and N. W. through West Virginia to the Ohio. The S. W. part of the state is drained by the forks of Holston and Clinch rivers and numerous tributary streams, which reach the Ohio through the Tennessee. In the mountain region in this part of the state rise the Louisa, Russell's, and Tug forks of the Big Sandy river, which empties into the Ohio. - A geological survey of Virginia was made in 1835-'40 by William B. Rogers, state geologist.
The eastern portion of the state is composed wholly of tertiary sands, clays, and marls, the newer pliocene and deposits belonging to the present epoch being found along the borders of the Chesapeake and the Atlantic ocean; while further inland strata of the miocene group emerge from beneath these and abut against the highest platform of granite, gneiss, and other metamorphic rocks, the eastern margin of which is defined by a line connecting the lowest falls upon the principal rivers. These falls, which also limit the navigation of the streams in ascending from the sea, mark the sites of the principal cities, as Fredericksburg, Richmond, and Petersburg. From Petersburg the dividing line between the two formations extends S. S. W., leaving the state in the S. corner of Greenville co. The miocene strata abound in fossil shells, little altered in appearance from those of living beds along the coast, and furnish most valuable material for fertilizing the soil of this region. The metamorphic belt stretches westward over the summit of the Blue Ridge, and widens rapidly toward the south, reaching as far as Grayson and Carroll cos., on the line of North Carolina. This is the metalliferous belt of the state.
The formation is similar to that traced through Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. One part of this crosses the James river a few miles above Richmond, and terminates a little S. of the Appomattox river on the eastern border of Amelia eo. In it lie the coal mines of the James river, which are referred to the triassic and Jurassic period. The great valley of Virginia, W. of the Blue Ridge, extending through the western counties of Frederick, Shenandoah, Rockingham, Augusta, Rockbridge, Botetourt, Roanoke, Montgomery, Pulaski, Wythe, Smyth, and Washington, to the Tennessee line, consists chiefly of lower Silurian rocks, among which the limestones prevail, insuring a fertile soil. On the western borders of this valley the upper members of the Appalachian system of rocks are met with, sometimes, through the effect of great faults, abutting against the lower members of the group. In the North mountains on the W. side of the valley are fragments of the sub-carbonjferous rocks, containing in places semi-anthracite coal, gypsum, and rock salt. Near these lines of fault are many mineral springs, some of which are celebrated for their medicinal effects.
Among the most noted are the Buffalo Lithia in Mecklenburg co.; Orkney in Shenandoah; Rawley in Rockingham; Stribling and Variety in Augusta; Rockbridge Alum, Jordan Alum, Cold Sulphur, and Baths in Rockbridge; Bath Alum, Wallawatoola,Warm, Hot, and Healing in Bath; Sweet Chalybeate in Alleghany; Blue Ridge, Coyners, and Daggers in Botetourt; Alleghany, Montgomery White Sulphur, and Yellow Sulphur in Montgomery; and New River White Sulphur in Giles. - Virginia is rich in minerals, which are as yet mostly undeveloped. They comprise gold, iron, copper, lead, zinc, semibituminous and bituminous coal, granite, limestone, marble, freestone, greenstone, brown stone, brick and fire clays, glass sand, plumbago, manganese, gypsum, salt, etc. Gold is found in a belt from 15 to 25 m. wide and 200 m. long, extending from Washington to Halifax Court House. Numerous mines have been opened, especially in Fauquier, Culpeper, Spottsylvania, Orange, Fluvanna, and Buckingham cos. The value of gold from Virginia deposited at the mints and assay offices of the United States to June 30, 1875, was $1,635,279. Silver is associated with some of the gold-bearing rocks of this region, especially the chloritic slate. A variety of iron, ores abounds in every natural division of Virginia excepting the tidewater.
The great iron belt, in which are found vast quantities of red and brown iron ores, is included in the Appalachian country. On the slopes of the Kittatinny mountains are found solid masses of brown hematite iron ore, extending to unknown depths and presenting the appearance of a thick stratum between the sandstone and limestone rocks that form the mountains. Among the foot hills at the W. base of the Blue Ridge are remarkable deposits of brown hematite or hydrated peroxide of iron, which extends nearly 300 m. The ore is of the best quality, and is found in beds which often extend unbroken for miles, with a thickness of from 10 to 100 ft. The manganese in some of the ores renders them valuable for the manufacture of Bessemer steel. Copper pyrites are abundant in the gold belt, where carbonate of copper is also found. Large quantities of the ore of sulphuret of copper are obtained in Louisa co. Copper, chiefly in the form of sulphurets, abounds throughout the Blue Ridge range. Mines have been worked in Floyd, Carroll, and Grayson cos. Some of the ores yield from 26 to 29 per cent.
According to Prof. T. S. Hunt, "the mountains of the Blue Ridge contain deposits of sulphur ore as abundant as those of Spain." Lead abounds in many parts of the great valley; about 25,000,000 lbs. have been taken from the mines in Wythe co. since 1703. Zinc is found coextensive with the lead. Plumbago is found in Halifax, Amelia, and other counties. In middle Virginia are beds of bituminous coal covering an area estimated by Rogers at 185 sq. m. The Richmond coal field, about 13 m. W. of Richmond, in the counties of Chesterfield, Powhatan, Henrico, and Goochland, is about 30 m. long, with a maximum breadth of about 8 m. It has been longer known and worked than any other in the United States, but its importance has declined. Bituminous coal is also found in the S. W. part of the state, in the counties of Tazewell, Russell, Scott, Lee, Buchanan, and Wise, being a part of the great Appalachian coal field. Semi.anthracite or semi. bituminous coal occurs along the western side of the valley division of Virginia. The coal is used only for domestic purposes, but its proximity to extensive iron beds may render it useful for manufacturing purposes. Marls and other agricultural minerals are abundant in the tidewater country.
A great variety and abundance of building stones are found in nearly all parts of the state. Beds of gypsum of superior quality have been opened for more than 20 m. along the North fork of Holston river, in Washington and Smyth cos. In the same region salt is obtained from artesian wells about 200 ft. deep, the water rising to within 40 ft. of the surface. The brine comes from a solid bed of salt. The annual production of salt is about 350,000 bushels. Salt has also been made in the S. E. part of Lee co., on the Clinch river. - Virginia abounds in natural curiosities of great interest. The natural bridge in Rockbridge co. is one of the most remarkable natural arches in the world. (See Bridge, Natural.) Weyer's cave, in the N. E. corner of Augusta co., ranks among the stalactite caverns of the United States next to the Mammoth cave of Kentucky and Wyandotte cave in Indiana. Madison's cave, near it, about 300 ft. in diameter, has two extensive basins of very clear water, and from the vaulted arches depend great numbers of brilliant stalactites.
The Blowing cave, near Millborough, between the Rockbridge and Bath Alum springs, during the hot weather emits a current of cold air with such force as to prostrate the weeds at the entrance; and during the winter a current of the cold air from without rushes into the cave. There is a flowing and ebbing spring near this cave, and there is also one in Brocks's gap in Rockingham co., and another near the mouth of the North Holston in the S. W. part of the state, which Jefferson regarded as syphon fountains. The numerous mineral springs are for the most part in valleys surrounded by exquisite natural scenery. - The climate varies greatly in different districts. In the E. and S. E. parts of the state the summers are hot, and in the vicinity* of swampy lands near the coast intermittent fever is common. The region lying on and near Hampton roads is however healthful and agreeable at all seasons of the year. The peninsular district between the James and York rivers, and between the latter and the Potomac, is specially subject to miasmatic influences during the summer and early autumn months; in winter it is more healthful.
The valley of Virginia has a salubrious and delightful climate, the summer heats being tempered by the elevation and the cool breezes, while it is sheltered by the mountains from the intense cold of winter. The mountainous district generally has a very agreeable climate in summer, but portions of it are very cold in winter. In general the climate is mild, dry, and healthful. The length of the growing season, the distribution of rain throughout the year, and the short and mild winters, are highly favorable to agriculture. The following statement shows the results of meteorological observations at Norfolk, lat. 36° 51'; Lynchburg, lat. 37° 23'; and Wytheville, lat. 36° 56':
Spring, mean temperature.
Summer, " "
Autumn, " "
• • •
Winter, " "
• • • •
Year, " "
Mean annual barometer....
Annual rainfall, inches ......
The soil of the tidewater region is a light sandy loam, capable of yielding large crops of fruit and esculent vegetables; but it has been to a great extent worn out by superficial cultivation without manure, and many estates, once among the finest in the state, have been given up to dwarf pines and cedars. The free use of gypsum and marl, both found in great quantities in the state, is sufficient in two or three years to restore these lands to a condition of high productiveness. In the vicinity of the Roanoke, the James, and their tributaries, large quantities of tobacco are raised. The valley has a rich soil, admirably adapted to the cultivation of cereals, and is in fact the granary of the state. Much of the mountainous region is uncultivated, and some of it incapable of tillage; but the valleys between the parallel ridges are generally well watered, and yield liberal crops if properly tilled. The forest wealth of Virginia is very great; in 1870 the products were valued at $686,862. In the tidewater section are extensive forests of pine (the noted yellow Virginia), oak, cypress, cedar, locust, etc, from which large quantities of timber and sawed lumber are obtained.
Large areas of superior hard pine, black, white, and other oaks, hickory, locust, persimmon, gum, cedar, holly, and other trees are found in the middle region. The Piedmont division has considerable forest land, with oak of many varieties, hickory, tulip-poplar, black walnut, locust, cedar, chestnut, pine, etc. The Blue Ridge is mostly covered with forests of oak, hickory, chestnut, locust, birch, etc, with some excellent yellow pines. Large quantities of charcoal for the manufacture of iron are produced here. The valley has much superior hard-wood timber, especially oaks and hickories. In some parts of the Appalachian country are extensive forests of valuable timber, including oak, walnut, tulip-poplar, locust, sycamore (buttonwood), and pine. The trade in sumach from wild shrubs is growing in importance; and the gathering of bark for tanning and dyeing purposes is an important industry. - The great advantages of soil and climate give to Virginia valuable resources as an agricultural state. The annual production of cereals is large. One of the most important crops is tobacco, the "Virginia leaf " being widely known for its excellence.
According to the census of 1870, Virginia produced 37,086,364 lbs. of tobacco, being more than in any other state except Kentucky. The nutritious grasses, including the noted blue grass, of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, valley, and Appalachian sections, place these among the best grazing regions in the United States. The production of hay is important. Some cotton is produced in the tidewater country, and flax and hemp are grown, but not extensively. Every part of the state is well adapted to the growth of fruit. The Blue Ridge has superior advantages for the production of fruit and wine. The orchard products of the state in 1870 were valued at $891,231, and the produce of market gardens at $505,117. Large quantities of small fruits and garden produce are annually shipped from the tidewater region to Baltimore, Washington, Philadelphia, New York, and other points. The trade in strawberries is especially large. Near the sea wild Scuppernong grapes abound, and are used in the manufacture of a palatable wine. Large quantities of peanuts are raised in the tidewater region, and form a considerable item of commerce. Dairying and stock raising are important industries.
According to the census of 1870, there were 3,073,257 acres of improved land in farms, 1,386,934 of woodland, and 68,613 of other unimproved land. The total number of farms was 73,849, containing an average of 246 acres each; 4,492 contained from 3 to 10 acres, 6,300 from 10 to 20, 16,891 from 20 to 50, 17,208 from 50 to 100, 26,696 from 100 to 500, 1,808 from 500 to 1,000, and 317 over 1,000. The cash value of farms was $213,120,845, and of farming implements and machinery $4,924,036. The chief crops as reported by the United States department of agriculture in 1873 were as follows:
No. of acres in each crop.
Average yield per acre.
Indian corn, bush.
The number and value of farm animals were:
Oxen and other cattle
According to the census of 1870, the state produced 7,398,787 bushels of wheat, 582,264 of rye, 17,649,304 of Indian corn, 6,857,555 of oats, 7,259 of barlev, 45,075 of buckwheat, 1,293,853 of Irish and 865,882 of sweet potatoes, 877,110 lbs. of wool, 6,979,269 of butter, 10,999 of hops, 245,093 of maple sugar, 505,239 of honey, 329,155 gallons of sorghum molasses, and 11,400 of maple molasses. - The tidal waters of Virginia abound in shad, herring, rock, perch, sturgeon, bass, trout, Spanish mackerel, and other fish, besides crabs, lobsters, terrapins, etc. Not less than $1,000,000 Worth of these fish are annually sent to northern markets. Oysters abound in the tributaries of Chesapeake bay and along the Atlantic coast. It is estimated that more than 15,000,000 bushels of oysters, valued at from $12,000,000 to $15,000,000, are taken from these tide-water beds. Pursuant to the act of 1875, three fish commissioners have been appointed for the promotion of pisciculture in the state. - The great variety and abundance of raw materials, the ample supply of water power, and the convenience and extent of transportation facilities, give to Virginia marked advantages as a manufacturing state.
The total number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 5,933, having 396 steam engines of 8,410 horse power, and 2,229 water wheels of 41,202 horse power, and employing 26,974 hands, of whom 22,175 were males above 16 years of age, 2,259 females above 15, and 2,540 youth. The amount of capital employed was $18,455,400; wages paid during the year, $5,343,099; value of materials used, $23,832,384; of products, $38,364,322. The leading industries were as follows:
No. of establiahments.
Value of products.
Boots and shoes
Carpentering and building
Carriages and wagons.......
Cars, freight and passenger
Cotton goods, not specified
Flouring and grist-mill products...............
" forged and rolled........
" nails and spikes
Saddlery and harness.....
Sash, doors, and blinds...........
Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware
Tobacco, chewing, smoking, and snuffing
Wool-carding and clothdressing
Besides the above, the products of mines and quarries amounted to $409,914, including bituminous coal valued at $226,114; copper, $8,000; gold quartz, $31,000; iron ore, $23,000; lead, $23,000; slate, $42,800; stone, $51,000; and zinc, $5,000. The amount of capital invested in mining was $1,113,000, of which $779,200 was in the coal industry. The pig iron made in Virginia in 1874 was valued at $29,451. - Chesapeake bay, the great rivers that empty into it and into the Atlantic, the numerous navigable bays, commodious harbors, roads, inlets, etc, along the eastern border of the state, give to Virginia rare commercial facilities. Large ships enter the interior of the state through rivers and other navigable waters. The Potomac is navi gable for about 120 m. from where it enters the bay, 75 m. from the ocean. Steamers and sailing vessels ascend the Rappahannock to Fredericksburg, about 100 m. from its mouth at the bay. Vessels drawing 11½ ft. go to Tappahannock, the port of entry for the river. The Pianketank is navigable for about 14 m.; Mobjack bay and its rivers afford entrances to the Gloucester peninsula. York river from the bay to Yorktown, about 13 m. distant, affords an excellent harbor.
Ships drawing 27 ft. go nearly to West Point at the head of the river and about 40 m. from the bay. The Mattapony and the Pamunkey, which unite to form the York, are navigable, the former for 30 m. and the latter for 35 m. from West Point. The James is navigable for vessels drawing 14 ft. to Richmond, nearly 150 m. from the bay, and for those drawing 15 ft. to the mouth of the Appomattox, about 60 m. below Richmond. The Appomattox is navigable for about 12 m. to Petersburg, a port of entry. The Chickahominy and Nansemond, tributaries of the James, are also navigable for short distances. Hampton roads, the broad estuary of James river, is one of the best harbors on the Atlantic coast. The Elizabeth river is a broad arm of Hampton roads, extending for 12 m., and affording the magnificent harbor between Norfolk and Portsmouth and Gosport, which is connected with the navigable sounds and rivers of North Carolina by ship canals. The foreign commerce of Virginia consists chiefly in the export of raw materials, most of the foreign imports brought to the state being entered at northern ports. Norfolk and Portsmouth are important points for the shipment of cotton.
Virginia contains seven United States customs districts, which, with their foreign commerce and the number and tonnage of vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed, for the year ending June 30, 1875, are as follows:
Norfolk and Portsmouth..............
The ports of entry have the same names as the districts, except that Crisfield is the port of entry in the Cherrystone district. The leading exports are tobacco, naval stores, cotton, and lumber. The entrances and clearances were:
Norfolk and Portsmouth....
Norfolk and Portsmouth....
The total number of vessels built in the state was 45, of 1,473 tons. - In 1876 there was 1,616 m. of railroad in Virginia. The lines wholly or partly within the state, with their termini, total length, and mileage in Virginia, were:
NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.
Alexandria and Fredericksburg
Alexandria and Washington
Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio
Chesapeake and Ohio
Fredericksburg and Gordonsville*
Weldon, N. C................
Richmond and Danville
Leased, Roanoke Valley*
Richmond and petersburg
Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potamac
Richmond, York River, and Chesapeake...
Seaboard and Roanoke
Valley (operated by Baltimore and Ohio).......
Harper's Ferry, W. Va.....
• • •
Washington and Ohio
Washington, Virginia Midland, and Great Southern.
Warren ton Junction........
The canals of Virginia are the James River and Kanawha, extending from Richmond to Buchanan, 198 m., with its North River branch to Lexington, 20 m.; the Dismal Swamp and branches, 33 m., which lie partly in North Carolina and afford communication between Albemarle sound and Chesapeake bay; the Alexandria and Georgetown, 7 m.; and the Albemarle and Chesapeake, 8½ m. - At the close of 1875 there were in the state 19 national banks, with a paid-in capital of $8,594,200; circulation outstanding, $3,286,662. - The constitution gives the right of voting to every male citizen of the United States, 21 years old, who has resided in the state for one year, and in the county, city, or town in which he offers to vote three months next preceding any election. Idiots and lunatics, persons convicted of bribery in any election, embezzlement of public funds, treason, or felony, and persons engaging as principals or seconds in a duel, are disqualified from voting. Persons entitled to vote and hold office, and none others, may sit as jurors. The chief executive power is vested in a governor, who is elected by the people for four years, and is ineligible for a second successive term.
He receives an annual salary of $5,000. The next election for governor will occur in 1877. The lieutenant governor.is elected at the same time and for the same term as the governor. He is president of the senate, and receives $10 a day during the session. The secretary of the commonwealth ($2,500), treasurer ($2,000), and auditor of public accounts ($3,000) are elected for two years by joint vote of the general assembly. The legislature (general assembly) consists of a senate of 43 members and a house of 138 delegates. Senators are elected for four and delegates for two years. They receive $6 per day of service and mileage. The general assembly meets annually on the first Monday of December; its sessions are limited to 90 days, but may be extended not more than 30 days by the concurrence of three fifths of the members elected to each house. It is believed that the pending constitutional amendment for biennial sessions will be ratified by the people. The judiciary comprises a supreme court of appeals, circuit courts, and county courts.
The supreme court of appeals consists of five judges, who are chosen for 12 years by joint vote of the general assembly, and receive an annual salary of $3,000 each except the chief, whose salary is $3,200. It has appellate jurisdiction only except in cases of habeas corpus, mandamus, and prohibition. Except in certain specified matters, it does not have jurisdiction in civil cases when the amount in controversy, exclusive of costs, is less than $500. Annual sessions are held in Richmond, Staunton, and Wytheville. The state is divided into 16 judicial circuits, in each of which a judge is elected for eight years by joint vote of the legislature. A circuit court is held at least, twice a year in each county. Circuit courts have jurisdiction in all cases in chancery and all actions at law where more than $50 is involved; also appellate jurisdiction over cases in the county courts. County courts are held every month. The judges are chosen for six years by joint vote of the general assembly. There are also elected in the same manner and for the same term, for each city or town in the state containing a population of 5,000, one city judge, who holds a corporation or hustings court with the same jurisdiction as that exercised by circuit courts.
An attorney general of the commonwealth is elected by the people for four years. United States courts are held twice a year at Richmond, Alexandria, and Norfolk in the eastern district, and at Danville, Lynchburg, Harrisonburg, and Abingdon in the western district. The constitution provides for the establishment of a bureau of agriculture and immigration, and for a board of public works, to consist of the governor, auditor, and treasurer. A board of immigration is now in operation. The general assembly is required to provide for the annual registration of births, marriages, and deaths. The constitution requires taxation to be uniform and equal, and forbids any species of property from which a tax may be collected to be taxed higher than any other species of property of equal value. The legislature may exempt all property used exclusively for state, county, municipal, benevolent, charitable, educational, and religious purposes. The credit of the state may not be granted to or in aid of any person, association, or corporation. The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent. The constitution provides that in 1888 and every 20th year thereafter the question whether it shall be amended shall be submitted to the people.
Virginia is represented in congress by two senators and nine representatives, and has therefore eleven votes in the electoral college. - The total debt of Virginia on Oct. 1,1875, including unpaid interest amounting to $2,781,030, was $32,295,456, consisting of bonds with tax-receivable coupons attached amounting to $18,881,500; registered bonds, convertible into tax-receivable bonds, $1,355,516; and bonds not so convertible, $9,277,410. The annual interest on the debt proper amounts to $1,752,682; due the literary fund, $83,907; payable by law to the sinking fund, $198,447; total, $2,035,036. The amount of interest paid in 1875 was $1,417,345, showing a deficiency of $617,691. The above does not include one third (about $15,000,000) of the former debt of Virginia for which it is claimed West Virginia is liable. The receipts and expenditures of the government for a series of years have been:
* Partly completed.
† The entire distance is 243 m., but 22 m. belong to the Uiesapeake and Ohio railroad company.
EXPENSES OF THE GOVERNMENT.
Paid to free school fund.
Paid on interest on the debt.
According to the federal census of 1870, the true value of real and personal estate was $409,588,133; the assessed value was $365,439,917, including $279,116,017 of real and $86,323,900 of personal estate. The value of property as assessed with taxes by the state authorities for three years has been as follows:
The apparent decrease in the assessed value of personal property in 1874 and 1875 is due to a change in the mode of assessing license taxes.
The total tax in 1875 was $2,465,930, including the capitation tax of $264,206 ($163,020 from white and $101,186 from colored persons), arising from $1 levied on each adult male; personal property, $401,316, being 50 cts. on each $100 value of personal property ($357,301), and 1 per cent, on annual incomes exceeding $600 ($44,015); real estate, $1,281,106; and licenses, $519,307. - The state penitentiary is in Richmond. The total number of prisoners on Sept. 30, 1875, was 942, of whom all but 182 were colored. Of this number, 575 were in the prison and 367 were employed under contract outside. The chief industries carried on in the prison are shoemaking, blacksmithing, weaving, coopering, and carpentering. In 1875 the earnings of the 219 convicts engaged in manufactures in the penitentiary were about $20,000, in addition to which nearly $30,000 was received from the hire of convicts. The expenses of the penitentiary during the year were $77,779. Virginia has three state asylums for the insane.
The eastern asylum, at Williamsburg, established in 1773, is the oldest institution of the kind in the United States. The total number of inmates during the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, was 366; average number, 302; present at close of the year, 305, of whom only 8 paid in full and 5 in part for their support. The ordinary expenditures of the institution during the year amounted to $64,094; the receipts on account of general support were $65,932, including $60,000 from the state and $5,260 from patients. The western lunatic asylum, at Staunton, was opened in 1828, and during the two years ending Sept. 30, 1875, had 469 patients; 356 were inmates at that date, of whom 332 were regarded as incurable. The receipts during the two years amounted to $142,957, including $120,000 from the state and $20,414 from patients; expenditures, $145,218. The central lunatic asylum, in Richmond, was established in 1870 for the colored insane. The total number of inmates during the year ending Sept. 30, 1875, was 287; average number, 238; remaining at the close of the year, 243. The cost of supporting the institution during the year was $46,682, exclusive of $5,245 spent for permanent improvements and supplies on hand.
The state appropriation was $50,000. The accommodations of these three institutions are inadequate for the treatment of the insane of the state, many of whom are confined in county jails. The state institution for the deaf and dumb and the blind is at Staunton, and was opened in 1839. Children of the state unable to pay are educated and clothed free of charge; others are required to pay $200 a year for board and tuition. Besides the ordinary studies, pupils are taught industrial branches. During the year ending June 30, 1875, 100 deaf mutes and 42 blind pupils were receiving instruction. The ordinary expenditures amounted to $34,765, and the total to $47,787. The income included $40,000 from the state, $1,065 from pupils, and $627 from shops, sales, etc. - The general supervision of education is vested in a superintendent of public instruction, who is elected for four years by joint ballot of the general assembly, and receives an annual salary of $2,000. The board of education, consisting of the governor, superintendent of public instruction, and attorney general, is empowered to appoint and to remove district trustees, and, with the senate's approval, county superintendents; also to provide for uniformity of text books. It has the management and investment of all school funds.
The school funds comprise the annual interest on the literary fund, a capitation tax of $1 on each adult male citizen, and an annual tax upon the property of the state of not less than one nor more than five mills on the dollar. Each county and public free school district may raise additional sums by a tax not exceeding five mills on property for the support of public free schools. Substantial aid, amounting in 1875 to $23,750, is received from the Peabody educational fund. The most important school statistics for the year ending July 31, 1875, were as follows:
School population (5to21)
" in average daily attendence
" of attendance on average enrolment
Number of public schools
" of country superintendents
" of school districts in cities and countries
Average number of months taught
Number of graded schools (included in above).
" of pupils enrolled
Average daily attendance
Number of teachers
Average monthly wages
Value of school property
Current school expenditures
Aggregate expenditures for school purposes
Recevied from state funds
" " local taxation
" " Peabody fund and private gifts
Number of pupils in private schools
" " in colleges
" of teachers in private schools
Whole number of pupils in school
" " of teachers
The constitution of 1870 requires the general assembly to establish normal schools " as soon as practicable.1' As yet (1876) no provision has been made by the state for the normal training of white teachers, but there are two excellent normal schools for colored teachers, at Hampton and Richmond. In 1875-'6 there were in the former 17 instructors and 212 students. (See Hampton.) The Richmond normal school was opened in 1867, and in 1875-6 had 6 instructors and 109 pupils. It is not a state institution. Teachers' institutes are held in most of the counties. - The Virginia agricultural and mechanical college was opened at Blacksburg, Montgomery co., in October, 1872. It has received two thirds ($270,000) of Virginia's share of the proceeds of the land grant made by congress in 1862. The general assembly has also appropriated $15,000 per annum for three years for the erection of buildings. The act of the general assembly establishing the college provides that a number of students equal to the number of members of the house of delegates, to be apportioned in the same manner, shall have the privilege of attending the college without charge for tuition. Other students are required to pay $40 a year for tuition.
The course of study comprises three years, upon the completion of which, and after examination, the degrees of graduate in agriculture and graduate in mechanics are conferred. There is a well equipped farm of 325 acres, and a large workshop supplied with steam power. Military instruction is afforded throughout the course. In 1874-'5 there were 7 instructors and 222 students. The Virginia military institute, at Lexington, was opened in 1839, and in 1875-'6 had 20 instructors and 248 students. It receives an annual appropriation of $15,000 from the state, in consideration of which board and tuition are given free to 50 state students. The plan of instruction and government is founded upon that of the military academy at West Point. The course of instruction, in which scientific branches, and the Latin, French, and German languages, are prominent studies, occupies four years. Special courses are provided for post-graduate students. Emory and Henry college (Methodist Episcopal church, South), in Washington co., was opened in 1838, and in 1875-'6 had 7 instructors and 171 students, of whom 152 were in the collegiate department.
It receives annually 16 students free of charge for tuition, in consideration of a grant made to it by the state, Hampden Sidney college (Presbyterian), in Prince Edward co., was established in 1776, and in 1875-'6 had 5 instructors and 77 students. Randolph Macon college (Methodist), at Ashland, opened in 1832 in Mecklenburg co., had in 1875-6 167 students, Richmond college (Baptist), in Richmond, has been in existence since 1840, and in 1875-6 had 7 instructors and 148 students. Roanoke college (Lutheran), at Salem, was established in 1852, and in 1875-'6 had 9 instructors and 171 students, of whom 123 were in the collegiate and 48 in the preparatory department. (See Virginia, University of, Washington and Lee Univeesity, and William and Mary, College of.) Prominent among the institutions for the superior instruction of women are the Martha Washington college at Abingdon, Hollins institute at Botetourt Springs, Roanoke female college at Danville, Farmville female college, Petersburg female college and southern female college in Petersburg, Richmond female institute, and Augusta female seminary, Staunton female seminary, Virginia female institute, and Wesleyan female institute, in Staunton. Instruction in science is afforded by the Hampton normal and agricultural institute, the Virginia agricultural and mechanical college, the Virginia military institute, and the scientific departments of the university of Virginia and Washington and Lee university; in law by the law departments of Richmond college, the university of Virginia, and Washington and Lee university; and in medicine by the medical department of the university of Virginia and the medical college of Virginia. The last named institution, established in 1851, is in Richmond. The Protestant Episcopal theological seminary, near Alexandria, opened in 1823 and chartered in 1854, has a course of study occupying three years and a preparatory department.
In 1875-'6 there were besides the president 3 professors and 40 students in the seminary, and 2 instructors and 11 pupils in the preparatory department. The library contains 10,000 volumes. The theological seminary of the general synod of the Evangelical Lutheran church in North America, established at Lexington, S. C, in 1831, was removed to Salem, Roanoke co., Va., in 1872; and in 1875 -'6 there were 3 professors and 11 students. The union theological seminary of the general assembly of the Presbyterian church, established in 1824, is at Hampden Sidney in Prince Edward co. The course of instruction occupies three years. In 1875-'6 there were 4 instructors and 74 students. St. John's theological seminary (Roman Catholic) is in Norfolk. - According to the census of 1870, the total number of libraries in the state was 4,171, having 1,107,313 volumes. Of these, 2,762 with 721,203 volumes were private, and 1,409 with 386,020 volumes other than private, including two state libraries with 22,700 volumes; 12 court and law, 2,117; 4 school and college, 50,000; 1,146 Sabbath school, 182,436; 232 church, 75,233; and 12 circulating, 52,781. In 1876 the state library in Richmond had 30,000 volumes, and that of the university of Virginia 36,000. In 1870 there were published in the state 114 newspapers and periodicals, with an aggregate circulation of 143,840, and issuing annually 13,319,578 copies.
Of these, 16 were daily, with a circulation of 24,099; 7 tri-weekly, 4,800; 8 semi-weekly, 7,033; 69 weekly, 75,488; 4 semi-monthly, 4,520; and 10 monthly, 27,900. The total number in 1875 was 142, including 21 daily, 4 tri-weekly, 9 semi-weekly, 92 weekly, 5 semi-monthly, and 11 monthly. - The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 2,582, having 2,405 edifices with 765,127 sittings, and property valued at $5,277,368. The denominations were as follows:
* Not including those in colleges or those over 21 years of age.
Moravian (Unitas Fratyum)
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian)................
Reformed church in America (late Dutch Reformed)
Reformed church in the United States (late German Reformed)
Unknown (local mission)......
The name Virginia was given by Queen Elizabeth to the region (now North Carolina) discovered in 1584 by persons sent out by Raleigh. All the country from lat. 34° to 45° N. was afterward known as Virginia, being divided into the first or southern, and the second or northern colony; the latter was subsequently called New England. In 1606 James I. granted to the London company the exclusive right to the territory from lat. 34° to 38° N., and extending into the interior 100 m. from the sea coast. The country from 41° to 45° N. was granted to another company, while the intermediate district from 38° to 41° was left open to the competition of both. The 105 colonists sent out by the London company founded Jamestown on the N. bank of James river, May 13, 1607, which was the first permanent settlement by the English in America. The three ships were under the command of Christopher Newport, and the expedition was accompanied by Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Maria Wingfield, a merchant, and the Rev. Robert Hunt. The colony met with reverses, and was only saved from a disastrous end by Capt. John Smith. (See Smith, John.) In 1609 the London company was reorganized, and received a grant of territory extending 200 m.
N. and the same distance S. of Old Point Comfort, and westward to the Pacific. The governing council was superseded by a governor to be appointed by the company's council in England, which was also empowered to make laws for the colony. Under this new charter Lord Delaware was appointed governor, Sir Thomas Gates lieutenant governor, Sir George Somers admiral, Christopher Newport vice admiral, and Sir Thomas Dale high marshal, all for life. Nine vessels with 500 colonists, including 20 women and children, set sail at once. Gates, Somers, and Newport accompanied the fleet, but the governor was detained for some time in England. The three officers all embarked in the same vessel, and were cast ashore on one of the Bermudas; one of the other vessels was lost, but the remaining seven arrived in safety in the James river. The old government was abrogated, but none of the officers of the new one having arrived, Smith retained the government, as the charter authorized him to do. He was soon after severely wounded by an accident and returned to England for surgical aid, leaving a colony of 500 persons, whose number in six months was reduced to 60. At this juncture Newport, Gates, and Somers, with 150 men, arrived from the Bermudas. In June, 1610, Lord Delaware with three ships arrived from England, bringing supplies and colonists.
He took measures for procuring supplies, and established a trading post at Hampton. But he was soon superseded by Sir Thomas Dale, who arrived with 300 settlers and some cattle. Dale was succeeded in August, 1611, by Sir Thomas Gates, who brought 350 more colonists. New settlements were commenced at Henrico (now Dutch Gap), above Jamestown, and at the junction of the Appomattox and the James (now Bermuda Hundred). In 1616 Dale, who had resumed the government of the colony at the departure of Gates, returned to England, and soon after Capt. Argall was appointed deputy governor. He used his office so much to the distress of the colonists that Lord Delaware sailed from England to resume his duties, but died on his passage at the mouth of the bay which bears his name. In 1619 George Yeardley was appointed governor. At his summons delegates from each of the 11 plantations in Virginia assembled at Jamestown, July 30,1619, which was the first elective body ever convened in the western world. During this year 1,200 colonists were sent over, among whom were 90 respectable young women, who were disposed of to the planters as wives at the cost of their passage. The culture of tobacco was already becoming profitable.
Among the new colonists were 100 sent by the king's special order from the prisons, to be sold as servants to the planters. This was the first instance in which felons had been sent to a British colony, and despite the protests of the colonists they continued to be sent to Virginia for 100 years. In the same year a Dutch man-of-war brought to Jamestown 20 negroes, who were sold as slaves for life. This was the introduction of slavery. The number did not much increase for the next 40 years, being limited to a few cargoes brought in by Dutch traders. On July 24, 1621, an ordinance was passed creating a written constitution for the colony, which secured representative government and trial by jury. The constitution provided for a governor and council to be appointed by the company, and an annual general assembly composed of the members of the council and two burgesses chosen by the people of each plantation. The assembly was clothed with full legislative authority, its acts being subject to the governor's veto. More settlers arriving, new plantations were established on the York, James, and Potomac rivers, and on the eastern shore of Chesapeake bay.
In 1622 occurred a bloody war between the colonists and the Indian tribes led by Opechancanough, the brother and successor of Powhatan. On the night of March 22 the Indians made a preconcerted attack on the white settlers scattered through distant villages, for 140 m. on both sides of James river, and massacred 347 men, women, and children. Of the total number of immigrants, exceeding 4,000, there remained a year after the massacre but 2,500 men. In 1624 the London company was dissolved by writ of quo warranto, after expending £150,000 beyond its receipts from the colony, which was thenceforward under the direct charge of the crown, except during the period of the commonwealth, 1649-'60. Its condition at this time was not prosperous, tobacco being the only article of export which paid a profit. In 1632 the laws of the colony were revised and consolidated. "A Perfect Description of Virginia" (London, 1649) gives the number of inhabitants at 15,000 English and 300 negro servants. In 1641 Sir William Berkeley became governor, and being a stanch loyalist soon came into collision with the parliament.
The colony remained firm in its adherence to the Stuarts till March, 1651, when an English fleet, accompanied by commissioners of the council of state for the commonwealth of England, visited the Chesapeake, and arranged terms of capitulation with the loyalists; and Berkeley's commission being declared void, Richard Bennet, one of the commissioners of parliament, was in April, 1652, elected governor. On the restoration of Charles II. Sir William Berkeley was elected governor by the Virginia assembly and commissioned by the king. The code of the colony was again revised in 1661-'2, and the church of England reestablished, and severe laws were passed against "nonconformists, Quakers, and Anabaptists." In 1671 the population was estimated by Sir William Berkeley at " 40,000, including 2,000 black slaves and 6,000 Christian servants, of whom about 1,500 were imported yearly, principally English." The only exported commodity was tobacco, to the quantity of 15,000 or 20,000 hogsheads of 350 lbs. each. The Indians were completely subdued, so that there was no fear of them.
There were 48 parishes, and the ministers were well paid. " But," adds the governor, " I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged them, and libels against the best government. God keep us from both." The rapacity of the courtiers of Charles II., upon two of whom, Arlington and Oulpeper, he had bestowed a patent of the Virginia colony, and the heavy taxation encouraged for his own purposes by Sir William Berkeley, and his inefficiency in repelling the Indians, led to great discontent, which in 1676, on the occasion of a levy of fresh taxes, culminated in "Bacon's rebellion." (See Bacon, Nathaniel.) Berkeley was succeeded by Lord Culpeper, and he by Lord Howard of Effingham. In 1699 an act was passed for founding Williamsburg and erecting a capitol; and in 1700 the general assembly was in session there. In 1705 the fifth colonial revision of the code was adopted. By it slaves were declared real estate, a provision which remained in force while Virginia continued a colony.
In 1754 hostilities broke out with the French, who had built a line of military posts along the western slope of the Alleghanies and at the head waters of the Ohio, and in this war George Washington first entered the service of his country, commanding the colonial troops at the battle of Fort Necessity (1754), and being placed at the head of the Virginia forces after Braddock's defeat in 1755. The assertion by parliament in 1764 of the right to tax the colonies without their consent called forth an earnest petition, memorial, and remonstrance from the Virginia house of burgesses in December of that year; and the stamp, mutiny, and quartering acts passed by parliament in 1765 led to the adoption of resolutions, introduced by Patrick Henry, denying the right of any foreign body to levy taxes upon the colony. In the first colonial congress, which met in New York, Oct. 7, 1765, Virginia was not represented, her legislature having adjourned before the issuing of the Massachusetts circular; but its action was approved at the next session of the legislature. The commerce of Virginia with Great Britain was at this time larger than that of any other colony.
In March, 1773, the house of burgesses appointed a committee "to obtain the most clear and authentic intelligence of all such acts of the parliament or ministry as might affect the rights of the colonies;" and the same committee were authorized to open a correspondence and communication with the other colonies. On the passing of these resolutions Lord Dunmore, the newly appointed governor, dissolved the assembly. In May, 1774, the burgesses protested against the act of parliament closing the port of Boston, when Lord Dunmore again dissolved the house. The Vir-' ginia convention which met at Richmond, March 20,1775, to appoint delegates to the new continental congress, took measures for enrolling companies of volunteers in each county. Lord Dunmore proclaimed martial law Nov. 7, and on Nov. 23 with a British and tory force took possession of Norfolk. He soon retired, and was defeated at Great Bridge by the Virginia troops Dec. 9; but in January, 1776, he returned by sea with a larger force and bombarded Norfolk. He continued a predatory warfare along the whole Virginia coast through the ensuing summer, but was finally driven southward. The declaration of independence was proposed in the continental congress by the Virginia delegates under instructions from the convention of the colony.
In the spring of 1779 the British made a descent upon the coast, destroyed Norfolk, took Portsmouth and Gosport, destroying the vessels of war building there, and burned or took 130 merchant vessels on the James and Elizabeth rivers. In January, 1781, Gen. Benedict Arnold entered and burned Richmond, then a village of 1,800 inhabitants. In the spring and early summer of the same year Corn wallis and Phillips plundered a great part of eastern Virginia. The surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown, Oct. 19, 1781, virtually closed the war. Virginia had been the first to urge the organization of a confederacy of states; and when it became evident that this confederation was inadequate for the purposes of a national government, she was again the first to call a convention of the states, in September, 1786, to arrange for some additional compacts relative to a tariff, navigation, etc. This convention, delegates being in attendance only from five states, recommended the calling of a convention to assemble in the following May to consider the articles of confederation, and propose such changes therein as might render them adequate to the exigencies of the Union. The constitution framed by that convention was ratified by Virginia, June 25, 1788. The constitution of Virginia was framed in June, 1776, and in 1779 Richmond became the capital.
In 1781 Virginia passed resolutions to cede, and in 1784 ceded to the United States her claims to lands N. W. of the Ohio, reserving to herself her lands S. of the Ohio, and bounty lands N. W. of that river for her revolutionary soldiers and those employed in the expedition for the conquest of Kaskaskia and Vincennes, and stipulating that the ceded lands should be erected into republican states not exceeding certain specified dimensions. Shortly afterward the territories now forming the state of Kentucky were detached from Virginia. (See Kentucky, vol. ix., p. 804.) For many years after the adoption of the federal constitution, Virginia maintained a predominant interest in the affairs of the nation. Of the first five presidents, four (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe) were natives and residents of that state, each being reelected; and three of the later occupants of the office (Harrison, Tyler, and Taylor) have been natives (one, Tyler, a resident) of it. - In 1859 Harper's Ferry in Virginia was the scene of the attempt to free the slaves made by John Brown and his followers. In the early part of 1861 public opinion was divided on the question of secession.
On Jan. 7 the legislature met in extra session, and subsequently provided for the assembling of a convention to determine what course should be adopted by the state, and passed resolutions recommending the states to appoint commissioners to a national peace convention to be held in "Washington in February, for the purpose of adjusting "the present unhappy controversies in the spirit in which the constitution was originally formed." The legislature also appointed ex-President John Tyler a commissioner to the president of the United States, and Judge John Robertson to South Carolina and "the other states that have seceded or shall secede, with instructions respectfully to request the president of the United States and the authorities of such states to agree to abstain, pending the proceedings contemplated by the action of this general assembly, from any and all acts calculated to produce a collision of arms between the states and the government of the United States." The reply of President Buchanan was that he had no power to make such agreement. In the mean time the legislature authorized the appropriation of $1,000,000 for the defence of the state.
The state convention assembled in Richmond on Feb. 13, and was composed of 152 delegates, who had been elected on the 4th. A majority of these were "conditional" Union men, a few were in favor of immediate secession, and some were unconditional Unionists. On March 10 the committee on federal relations submitted a majority report, composed of 14 resolutions which condemned all interference with slavery, asserted the right of secession, and defined the circumstances under which Virginia would be justified in exercising that right, viz., the failure to procure suph guarantees from the northern states as she demanded, the adoption of a warlike policy by the general government, or the attempt to exact payment of duties from the seceded states, or to reenforce or recapture the forts. These resolutions were discussed and adopted as far as the 13th, when the capture of Fort Sumter and the consequent proclamation of the president calling for troops led to the passing on April 17 of an ordinance of secession by a vote of 88 yeas to 55 nays. The people of the state had required that the action of the convention should be submitted to a popular vote.
The election for this purpose was held on the fourth Thursday of May, when the secession ordinance was ratified by a majority of 96,750 in a total vote of 161,018. Immediately after the passing of the ordinance by the convention, the state authorities took possession of the custom house in Richmond, the navy yard at Norfolk, the United States arsenal at Harper's Ferry, and other federal property; troops were called out by Governor Letcher, and money was raised for arming and equipping them. On April 25 the convention passed an act for the adoption of the constitution of the provisional government of the Confederate States, having on the previous day entered into an agreement to place the military force of the state under the control of the president of the confederacy, and to turn over to the confederacy all the public property, munitions of war, etc, acquired from the United States. On May 7 the state was admitted to representation in the confederate congress, and later in the month Richmond was made the seat of the confederate government. Large forces of confederate troops were now concentrated in northern and eastern Virginia to resist the advance into the state of the Union army.
During the year there were numerous engagements between the opposing forces, generally with advantage to the confederates, except in the western part of the state, which was cleared by the federals under Gen. McClellan. The most important battle was that of Bull Run, July 21. (See Bull Run.) Early in the spring of 1862 McClellan advanced upon Richmond by way of the peninsula formed by the York and James rivers. (See Chickahominy.) In the mean time federal military operations in the northern part of the state were under command of Generals McDowell, Banks, and Fremont. The confederate forces, inferior in numbers, were led by Gen. T. J. Jackson. Early in March the confederates began to fall back along their entire line, and were follow-' ed by the advance of the Union forces. On March 23 Gen. Shields, commanding a part of Banks's troops, repulsed an attack of Jackson near Winchester. Banks was attacked by Jackson at Strasburg on May 24, defeated at Winchester on the 25th, and forced to retreat rapidly to the Potomac. Subsequently Jackson fell back up the Shenandoah valley, and was followed by Fremont and Shields on opposite sides of the river.
On June 8 an indecisive battle was fought at Cross Keys between Fremont and a part of Jackson's command under Ewell. (See Cross Keys.) Soon after, Jackson moved his troops to Richmond. In June all the federal troops in Virginia, excepting those under McClellan, were placed under command of Gen. Pope and styled the army of Virginia. The advance of the army was soon after begun. On Aug. 9 the battle of Cedar run or mountain was fought between a Union force under Gen. Banks and the confederates under Gen. Jackson. (See Cedar Mountain.) After the withdrawal of McClellan from before Richmond, Lee moved with the entire confederate force upon Pope, which led to the second battle of Bull Run, Aug. 29, 30. (See Bull Run, II.) This resulted in the defeat of the Union army and its retreat to the Potomac. After the battle of Antietam in Maryland (Sept. 16, 17) Lee returned into Virginia and took a strong position near Culpeper Court House. He was followed by McClellan, who was preparing to make an attack when on Nov. 7 he was superseded by Gen. Burnside. The latter soon after began an advance movement upon Richmond, with Aquia creek, near Fredericksburg, as the base of supplies for the Union army.
He met at Fredericksburg the confederate army under Lee, and suffered a severe defeat, Dec. 13. (See Feedeeicksburg.) The Union army now lay in camp for several months on the left bank of the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericksburg, while the confederate army was intrenched on the heights on the other side of the river. On May 2-4, 1863, was fought the battle of Chanceliorsville, the federal army being commanded by Gen. Hooker. (See Chancelloesville.) After his victory here Lee advanced north into Pennsylvania, where he lost the great battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3. He then retreated into Virginia, followed by Meade, and the two armies finally took positions fronting each other near the Rapidan river. Early in May, 1864, the army of the Potomac, under the command of Lieut. Gen. Grant, again began the advance upon 'Richmond. (See Geant, Ulysses S.; Lee, Robeet Edwaed; Wildebness, Battles of the; and Chickahominy.) At the same time flank movements were made in the Shenandoah valley by Gen. Sigel, and in S. "W". Virginia by Gen. Crook. Sigel advanced from Winchester toward Staunton, but was defeated at New Market by Breckenridge. Crook advanced from Charleston, W. Va., up the Kanawha valley, having Lynchburg as an objective point, but after considerable fighting he was forced to retreat.
In June Gen. Hunter, who had superseded Gen. Sigel, having been joined by Gen. Crook, attacked Lynchburg with about 20,000 men, but was forced to retreat into West Virginia. Meanwhile an unsuccessful attempt was made by Gen. Butler, commanding the army of the James, to take Petersburg. In August Gen. Sheridan assumed command of the federal forces in the Shenandoah valley. For his operations there, resulting in the total overthrow of the army under Early which had crossed the Potomac and seriously threatened Washington, see United States, vol. xvi., p. 181. The siege of Petersburg was begun by Gen. Grant in June, and was continued till April, 1865, when Richmond was evacuated. (See Peteesbubg, Siege of.) Lee retreated toward Danville, closely pursued by Grant, to whom he surrendered at Appomattox Court House, April 9. On May 9, 1865, President Johnson issued an order providing for the enforcement of the federal laws in Virginia, and recognizing the administration of Francis H. Peirpoint as the loyal government of the state. This government had been organized in Wheeling in June, 1861, and had been recognized by congress.
It continued to exercise its functions until the admission into the Union of West Virginia in 1863, after which, having its seat at Alexandria, it represented such parts of the state as were under federal control. (See West Vieginia.) A constitution framed by a convention which sat in Alexandria from Feb. 13 to April 11, 1864, was adopted without submission to the people. This constitution was not recognized by congress, but the civil government was allowed to continue provisionally. In May, 1865, Gov. Peirpoint assumed the executive duties in Richmond. On Oct. 12 an election was held for members of the legislature, who assembled in Richmond Dec. 4. Under the act of congress of March 2,1867, providing military governments for the southern states, Virginia was made the first military district, to the command of which Gen. Schofield was appointed. A registration of voters (excluding all that could not take a prescribed oath) was now taken, preliminary to a vote for determining whether a constitutional convention should be held, and the choice of delegates to such convention. The number of voters registered was 221,754, of whom 116,982 were white and 104,772 colored.
The vote and election took place on Oct. 22, when 14,835 whites and 92,507 blacks voted for, and 61,249 whites and 638 blacks against the convention. The total vote was 169,229; majority for the convention, 45,455. Of the 105 delegates chosen, 80 were white and 25 colored, 70 were republicans and 35 conservatives. The convention assembled in Richmond on Dec. 3, and continued in session till April 17, 1868. Provision was made for submitting the new constitution to a popular vote on June 2, but the vote was postponed. The official term of Gov. Peirpoint expired on April 4,1868, when Henry H. Wells was appointed by the military authority to act as governor. On June 1 Gen. Stoneman succeeded Gen. Schofield in the command. The vote on the constitution was taken on July 6, 1869, when it was ratified by a majority of 197,044 in a total vote of 215,422. The clause disfranchising officials who had participated in the rebellion, and that requiring an oath of past loyalty, were rejected. At the same time state officers, representatives in congress, and members of the legislature were elected, Gilbert C. Walker being chosen governor. On Sept. 1 Mr. Wells retired, and the governor elect assumed the executive duties.
The legislature assembled in Richmond on Oct. 5, and subsequently elected two United States senators and ratified the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the federal constitution. On Jan. 26, 1870, Virginia was admitted to representation in congress, and on the following day Gen. Canby, who had been in command of this department since April 20, 1869, transferred the government to the civil authorities. - The resources of Virginia are fully described in the work on the state prepared, under the direction of the board of immigration, by Maj. Jed. Hotchkiss, consulting engineer, of Staunton (Richmond, 1876), advanced sheets of which have been used in the preparation of this article.
See Claudius Ceassus.