James City

James City, a S. E. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. by York river, S. by James river, and W. by the Chickahominy; area, 184 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,425, of whom 2,440 were colored. It has a rolling surface, well timbered with oak and pine. The chief productions in 1870 were 10,350 bushels of wheat, 64,-128 of Indian corn, 8,238 of oats, 6,804 of Irish and 5,071 of sweet potatoes, and 11,809 lbs. of butter. There were 298 horses, 497 milch cows, 912 other cattle, and 2,485 swine; 1 flour mill, and 2 saw mills. Capital, Williamsburg.

James Colleton

James Colleton, a colonial governor of South Carolina. He was appointed in 1686, during the attempt to carry out Locke's constitution, and in the interest of the lords proprietors, one of whom was his brother. He received with his appointment the dignity of landgrave and 48,000 acres of land. On his arrival he found the colonial parliament unwilling to recognize the constitution, and he at once excluded the refractory members. A new assembly was elected in 1687, in avowed opposition to the governor, and the people resisted his collection of quitrents., The assembly imprisoned his secretary, seized the records, and defied the governor and his patrons. In 1689 Colleton, pretending danger from Spaniards and Indians, called out the militia and declared martial law; but as the militia were the people themselves, this effort was futile. In 1690 William and Mary were proclaimed, and the representatives of South Carolina deposed Colleton and banished him.

James Copland

James Copland, an English physician, born at Deerness, in the Orkney islands, in 1792, died July 12, 1870. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, visited the principal hospitals of Europe, and spent some time in Africa, investigating diseases peculiar to that continent. In 1820, after his return to London, he became a member of the royal college of physicians. From 1822 to 1828 he was editor of the London "Medical Repository," and from 1824 to 1842 a lecturer on pathology and the practice of medicine, first at the Windmill school, and next at the school of the Middlesex hospital. He published "Outlines of Pathology and Practical Medicine," "Elements of Physiology," and a "Dictionary of Practical Medicine," in four volumes, which was reprinted in the United States and translated into German. In 1850 he published an essay on palsy and apoplexy.

James Cowles Prichard

James Cowles Prichard, an English ethnologist, born at Ross, Herefordshire, Feb. 11, 1786, died in London, Dec. 22, 1848. He graduated M. D. at Edinburgh, settled as a physician in Bristol in 1810, and in 1813 published " Researches into the Physical History of Man," which was translated into French and German, and in 1826 a second and greatly enlarged edition. In 1845 he was appointed commissioner of lunacy, and removed to London, where he brought out the third edition of the "Researches" (5 vols. 8vo., 1841-'7). He is also the author of a resume of his " Physical History," " Natural History of Man" (2 vols., 1843; new ed. by E. Norris, 1855), and " The Eastern Origin of the Celtic Nations" (1831; new ed. by R. G. Latham, 1857).