James Bradley

James Bradley, an English astronomer, born at Sherborne, Gloucestershire, in March, 1692, died at Chalford, July 13, 1762. He was educated at Oxford and took orders, but devoted himself wholly to the study of astronomy. He was chosen a fellow of the royal society in 1718, and three years afterward was appointed Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford. In 1727 he published his brilliant discovery of the aberration of light, and in 1747 the equally valuable discovery of the nutation of the earth's axis. He also made successful researches into the law of refraction, for which he produced an empirical formula. In 1742 he succeeded Dr. Halley as astronomer royal, and in 1751 he received a pension in consideration of the " advantages of his astronomical labors to the commerce and navigation of Great Britain." From his valuable observations, published after Ins death, Meyer formed his table of the moon, and Bessel drew the elements of his Fundamental Astronomies.

James Burgh

James Burgh, a Scottish writer, born at Madderty, Perthshire, in 1714, died at Islington, London, Aug. 26, 1775. He was a cousin of the historian Robertson. He prepared himself for the church at the university of St. Andrews, but engaged in the linen trade, in which he was unsuccessful. He then became a proof-reader in London, and in 1746 a teacher at Marlow and afterward at Enfield, and was principal of an academy at Newington from 1747 to 1769, when ill health compelled him to retire to London. His "Britain's Remembrancer " passed through many editions; and having been published anonymously, it was ascribed to eminent churchmen. Among his other writings are: "The Dignity of Human Nature," his principal work (1754); " Essay on the Art of Speaking " (1762); " Orito " (2 vols., 1766-'7); and "Political Disquisitions" (3 vols., 1774-'5).

James Burnet

See Monboddo.

James Burrill

James Burrill, an American jurist, born in Providence, R. I., April 25, 1772, died in Washington, Dec. 25, 1820. He graduated at Rhode Island college (now Brown university) in 1788, and in 1791 began the practice of the law. In 1797 he was elected attorney general of Rhode Island, and held the office till 1813, when the state of his health compelled him to resign. He became chief justice of the state in 1816, and in 1817 was elected senator in congress, and died before the expiration of his term. In the senate he was distinguished as an opponent of the Missouri compromise.

James Butler

James Butler, an American soldier of-the revolution, born in Prince William co., Va., died in South Carolina in 1781. He emigrated to South Carolina about 1772, took part in Gen. Richardson's "Snow Camp expedition," and afterward in a similar expedition under Gen. Williamson in 1776. When Lincoln had taken the command of the continental forces of the South, Butler joined him near Augusta in 1779. In 1780 Lord Cornwallis issued a proclamation requiring the people to swear allegiance to the crown. Butler refused to comply, was arrested*, lodged in the jail at Ninety-Six, and subsequently conveyed to the provost of Charleston, and then to the prison ship, where he was kept for 18 months in close confinement. When released, he was summoned to engage in an expedition against a foray of the tories of his precinct, and was killed at Cloud's creek.