A borough and the capital of Montour co., Pennsylvania, on the N. branch of the Susquehanna river, 12 m. above Sun-bury, and 50 m. N. E. of Harrisburg; pop. in 1870, 8,436. Montour's ridge, extending nearly 21 m. along the river, abounds in excellent iron ore, and in limestone, which is used as a flux in smelting. Rich mines of anthracite coal have also been opened in the vicinity, and the northern branch of the Pennsylvania canal affords means of transportation. The Catawissa and the Lackawanna and Bloomsburg railroads also pass through Danville. It is chiefly noted for its iron manufactures, containing eight blast furnaces, with an aggregate capacity of 50,000 tons of pig iron per year, and five rolling mills, employed in the manufacture of railroad iron, which produce about 70,000 tons of finished rails annually. A muck bar mill, worked on the cooperative plan, is in successful operation. There are also two large steam planing mills, several flour mills, etc. The town has 15 graded public schools, a semi-weekly and two weekly newspapers, and 23 churches of different denominations. II. A town of Pittsylvania co., Virginia, on the Dan river, about 120 m. W. S. W. of Richmond; pop. in 1870, 3,463, of whom 2,065 were colored.
It is pleasantly situated on high ground, near the head of navigation, and has an active trade. The surrounding country is fertile, and abounds in coal, iron, and limestone. The canal built around the falls at this place furnishes good water power. There are several churches, academies, and banks, iron founderies and mills, and two weekly newspapers. The Richmond, Danville, and Piedmont railroad passes through the town. After the abandonment of Richmond, April 2, 1865, Danville became for a few days the confederate capital, and here on April 5 Jefferson Davis issued his last proclamation. III. A town and the capital of Boyle co., Kentucky, on a small branch of Dick's river, 42 m. S. of Frankfort; pop. in 1870, 2,542, of whom 1,210 were colored. It is noted as the seat of Centre college (Presbyterian), founded in 1819, which in 1872 had 12 professors and instructors, 150 students, and a library of 5,000 volumes; and of the state deaf and dumb asylum, containing 97 inmates. The Danville theological seminary (Presbyterian), founded in 1853, has two endowed professorships, 200 alumni, a library of 7,000 volumes, and an endowment of $177,391. A branch of the Louisville and Nashville railroad passes through the town.
IV. A city and the capital of Vermilion co., Illinois, on the Vermilion river, 16 m. N. W. of its confluence with the Wabash, 125 m. S. of Chicago, and 4 m. W. of the Indiana state line; pop. in 1870, 4,751; in 1873, about 7,000. It was settled in 1828, and its rapid growth and importance are due to its situation on the N. E. outcrop of the central (bituminous) coal field (see Coal, vol. iv., p. 739), the mining of which is its chief source of wealth. It is also an important railroad centre, connecting with Chicago by the Chicago, Danville, and Vincennes railroad; with Toledo, St. Louis, Quincy, and Hannibal, Mo., by the Toledo, Wabash, and Western; with Terre Haute and Evansville, Ind., by the Evansville, Terre Haute, and Chicago; with Indianapolis, Peoria, Rock Island, and St. Paul, by the Indianapolis, Bloomington, and Western; and with Vincennes and Cairo, by the Paris, Danville, and Vincennes. There are 12 churches, a high school, 6 ward schools, 4 flouring mills, 2 founderies, 5 carriage and wagon manufactories, 2 planing mills, car and locomotive works, and other industries.
Danville is surrounded by a rich and densely settled agricultural region, with an abundance of timber, building stone, and water.