Evansville, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Vanderburg co., Indiana, 144 m. S. S. W. of Indianapolis, built on high ground on the N. bank of the Ohio river, nearly 200 m. from its mouth and the same distance below Louisville, Ky.; pop. in 1850, 3,235; in 1860, 11,484; in 1870, 21,830, of whom 6,276 were foreigners and 1,427 colored. The river at this point describes a half-moon, whence Evansville is sometimes called the " crescent city." In the vicinity are found coal and iron ore. The city contains a handsome court house, city hall, United States marine hospital, an opera house, and several hotels. The United States government is also erecting a large building to accommodate the post office, United States courts, and the custom house. The Wabash and Erie canal extends to Toledo, Ohio, a length of 462 m.; the Evansville and Crawfordsville railroad connects, via Terre Haute, with the principal railroads of the state; and the St. Louis and Southeastern railroad affords communication with that city. The Lake Erie, Evansville, and Southwestern railroad is completed to Boon-ville, the county seat of Warrick co. Evansville is a place of great commercial activity, and its manufactures are important.
In 1871 the number of arrivals and departures of vessels was 2,586; value of imports, $169,588 30, the principal items being railroad iron, hardware, and coffee; amount of duties collected, $69,-771 72. The principal articles of export are grain and flour, pork, salt, whiskey, cement and lime, cotton, hay, dried fruit, tobacco, and railroad iron. For the year ending June 30, 1872, there were 70 vessels of 10,047 tons belonging to the port, of which 56 of 9,046 tons were steamboats, and 14 of 1,001 tons canal boats; built during the year, 8 steamboats of 721 tons. The total value of manufactures in 1872 was $5,469,763, consisting of furniture, flour and meal, machinery, planing mill products, stoves and hollow ware, malt liquors, saddlery and harness, clothing, leather, marble and dressed stone, cotton goods, cooperage, tinware, brick, etc. There are four national banks, with an aggregate capital of $1,950,000. The city is divided into twelve wards. Terms of the United States circuit and district courts are held here. The assessed value of property in 1851 was $1,907,632; in 1861, $5,385,675; in 1871, $20,528,075; taxation in 1871, $265,945. There are nine large public school buildings belonging to the city, the high school building being the finest in the state.
The number of separate departments in 1872 was 49, viz.: a high school, 8 grammar, and 40 primary, having 73 teachers and 4,583 pupils. The library association has 3,500 volumes. There are four daily newspapers (two German), one tri-week-ly, five weekly, and one semi-monthly. There are 24 churches, viz.: 4 Baptist, 1 Christian, 2 Episcopal, 1 Evangelical German, 3 Lutheran, 6 Methodist, 4 Presbyterian, and 3 Roman Catholic. Evansville was laid out in 1817.