Hampton , a town and the county seat of Elizabeth City co., Virginia, on the W. bank of Hampton river, a small inlet of Hampton roads, about 2 1/2 m. from Fortress Monroe, and 75 m. S. E. of Richmond; pop. in 1870, 2,300, of whom 1,840 were colored. Before the civil war it was a fashionable watering place. It was burned by the confederates under Gen. Magruder in August, 1861, but is now steadily recovering. It is the seat of the Hampton normal and agricultural institute, designed especially to train colored youth as teachers of their own race, by giving an English and an industrial education, while affording students an opportunity to defray a portion of their expenses by labor. The grounds, comprising a farm of 125 acres bordering on the river 1/2 m. below the village, were purchased by the American missionary association in 18G7, at the instance of Gen. S. C. Armstrong, then superintendent of a department of the freedmen's bureau at Hampton, and since principal of the institute. It was incorporated in 1870, and in 1872 the state awarded to it one third ($95,000) of the proceeds of the congressional land grant for the support of an agricultural and mechanical college, with a portion of which 72 acres more of land have been purchased.
The hall containing the school rooms, printing office, and boys1 dormitories, erected in 1870, chiefly by the aid of the freedmen's bureau, is in the form of a Greek cross, three stories high and 110 ft. long by 85 ft. wide, and was constructed, partly by the labor of the students, of brick made on the farm. The corner stone of another hall, for the girls' dormitories, chapel, etc, to be 190 ft. in front and 40 ft. wide, with a wing running 100 ft. to the rear, was laid in 1873. About 150 acres of the farm are under cultivation by the boys. Tuition and room rent are free. The printing office was opened in November, 1871, and has been successfully operated by the students. The first number of the " Southern Workman," a monthly illustrated periodical devoted to the industrial interests of the freedmen, was issued on Jan. 1, 1872. The girls find employment in the laundry and kitchen, and in various kinds of needlework. The number of instructors in 1873-'4 was 18; of students, 226, of whom 149 were males and 77 females. The course is three years. The Butler school house, belonging to the institute, in which was organized one of the earliest of the freedmen's schools, is used by the county as a free school, and contains about 200 pupils.
Adjacent to the grounds is the national cemetery, containing a chapel, a handsome granite monument, and the graves of 5,123 Union soldiers; and near by is the national home for disabled soldiers, once a flourishing female seminary, which in 1872 provided for 538 veterans at an expense of $02,923 17.
Hampton , a parish of Middlesex, England, 12 m. W. S. W. of London, on the N. bank of the Thames, near its junction with the Mole; pop. in 1871, 6,122. In the vicinity is the palace of Hampton Court, once a favorite residence of the Tudors and the Stuarts, and now with its gardens a very popular holiday resort of the Londoners. The gardens in their present form were laid out by William III., and comprise 44 acres. They are in the formal Dutch style, with elevated terraces, long shady arcades, and a curious maze or labyrinth. The palace consists of three quadrangles, two of which were erected by Cardinal Wolsey, who presented them when finished to Henry VIII. The great eastern and southern fronts were erected by Sir Christopher Wren. This palace contains a fine collection of pictures, including the famous cartoons of Raphael, open to the public free of charge, and is occupied in part by persons of rank in reduced circumstances. Edward VI. was born here, and here his mother Queen Jane Seymour died.
Charles I. was for some time imprisoned here.
Hampton ,.I. Wade, an American soldier, born in South Carolina in 1755, died at Columbia, S. C, Feb. 4, 1835. During the revolutionary war he served under Sumter and Marion, and he was elected to congress in 1794, and again in 1802. In 1808 he was appointed a colonel in the United States army, and placed in command of one of the new regiments raised in apprehension of a war with Great Britain. In 1809 he was made brigadier general, and subsequently was placed in command at New Orleans, but in 1812 was superseded by Wilkinson. In 1813 he was raised to the rank of major general, and was soon after placed in command of the army on Lake Champlain. He did not succeed, and resigned his commission in 1814, and returned to South Carolina. He acquired a large fortune by speculations in land, and at his death was supposed to be the most wealthy planter in the United States, being, as it was said, the owner of more than 3,000 slaves. II. Wade, a confederate soldier, grandson of the preceding, born at Columbia, S. C, in 1818. He graduated at the university of South Carolina, studied law, and was successively a member of the house and of the senate in the state legislature.
At the commencement of the civil war he entered the confederate service, and commanded the Hampton legion of cavalry at the battle of Bull Run, where he was wounded. He was made brigadier general, served in the Chickahominy campaign, and was again wounded in the battle of Seven Pines. He afterward commanded a cavalry force in the army of northern Virginia, and was again wounded at Gettysburg. In 1864 he was made lieutenant general, and commanded a body of cavalry in Virginia. He was afterward sent to South Carolina, and in February, 1865, commanded the rear guard of the confederate army at Columbia. Large quantities of cotton had been stored here, and upon the approach of the Union army under Gen. Sherman, this was piled in an open square ready to be burned. Fire was set to it, which resulted in a conflagration by which a great part of the city was destroyed. A sharp discussion subsequently arose between Hampton and Sherman, each charging the other with the wilful destruction of Columbia. The fact appears to be that, as far as either was concerned, the conflagration was purely accidental. (See Columbia, and Conflagration.)