Costanzo Varoli

Costanzo Varoli, an Italian anatomist, born in Bologna about 1543, died in Rome in 1575. He studied medicine at Bologna, and acquired considerable distinction as a teacher of anatomy there, but removed to Rome on being appointed physician to Pope Gregory XIII. He was especially distinguished for his dissections of the brain, which he was the first to examine from the base upward, instead of from above downward, as had previously been the custom. He first fully described the arched bundle of nervous matter passing from side to side across the central parts of the base of the brain, and now known, from its resemblance in form to a bridge, as the pons Varolii. His principal works are De Nerms Opticis, nonnullisque aliis, proeter communem opinionem in Humano Capite obsertatis (Padua, 1573), and De Eesolutione Corporis Humani, published after his death (Frankfort, 1591).


Costilla, a S. county of Colorado, bounded E. by the Rocky mountains, S. by New Mexico, and W. by the Rio Grande del Norte; area, more than 2,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,779. It is situated in the beautiful San Luis park. The inhabitants are mostly Mexicans, speaking only Spanish; religion, Roman Catholic. The houses are of adobe. The settlements are scattered along Costilla, Culebra, Ute, Trinchera, and Sangre de Cristo creeks, tributaries of the Rio Grande. Fort Garland, a government post, is in the county. Stock raising is the leading industry. The chief productions in 1870 were 7,420 bushels of wheat, 1,650 of Indian corn, 2,155 of oats, 45,020 lbs. of wool, 13,480 of butter, and 278 tons of hay. There were 228 horses, 1,672 milch cows, and 22,510 sheep. Capital, Costilla.


Cothurnus, a high laced boot worn by the ancients. It rose nearly to the knee, was laced in front, and highly ornamented. The soles were made sometimes very thick for the use of tragic actors, who wished to increase their apparent height; hence it became the symbol for tragedy, as the sock was for comedy.


Cottabus, a social game, anciently a favorite amusement in Sicily and Greece. The simplest mode of playing it was as follows: A metal basin was produced, into which each person endeavored to cast a certain quantity of wine with his goblet from a certain distance, pronouncing as he threw, either aloud or to himself, the name of his mistress. If all the wine thrown fell into the basin, or if that which fell extracted from the metal a pure and clear sound, then the party concluded that he possessed the affections of his sweetheart. But if the wine missed the basin, or if the portion which chanced to fall into it produced only a dull and leaden sound, opposite auguries were signified. There were other ways of playing it, in which different apparatus was used, and in Sicily houses were built especially for the game.


Cottonwood, a S. W. county of Minnesota, watered by the Des Moines and affluents of the Big Cottonwood river; area, 725 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 534. The St. Paul and Sioux City and the Winona and St. Peter railroads are to traverse it. The estimated value of farm productions for 1870 was, $14,900; of live stock, $12,420.