Gregory , the name of 16 popes. I. Saint, surnamed the Great, born of a noble family in Rome about 540, died March 12, 604. His parents were patricians of great wealth. His father, Gordianus, renounced his senatorial rank to become a clergyman, and when he died was one of the seven regionarii or cardinal deacons; and his mother, Sylvia, devoted herself at the same time to an ascetic life. To a commanding presence and affable manners Gregory united great learning and executive ability. He was appointed governor or prefect of Rome about 573, but soon abdicated the office, withdrew from the world, and, after his father's death, employed his revenue in founding religious institutions, changed his own house on the Caelian hill into a monastery, and himself became a monk in it. On seeing one day some handsome English youths exposed for sale in the market place, he exclaimed, "They would be angels rather than Angles, were they only Christians! " Carried away by the desire of converting England, he besought the pope to allow him to go thither; and he set out by night from Rome, but was followed and brought back by the people.
Pope Pelagius II. named him one of the seven regionary deacons, and shortly afterward sent him as legate to Constantinople. He convinced the heretic Eutychius of his error, won the good graces of the emperor Mauricius, and was recalled to Rome about 585. During this period he wrote his Libri Moralium, a commentary on Job. In 590 the plague broke out in Rome, and Pope Pelagius having died of it, Gregory was unanimously chosen to fill his place. He wrote to the emperor Mauricius beseeching him not to ratify the election; but the letter was intercepted by the prefect of Rome, one of quite a different import despatched in its stead, and the consent of the emperor obtained without delay. Meanwhile Gregory had fled from Rome and concealed himself; but his retreat was discovered, and on Sept. 3, 590, he was consecrated in the church of St. Peter. Pestilence and famine were desolating Italy at that time, and hostile armies were on their march toward Rome. He called his clergy around him, labored at their head night and day to stay the ravages of the plague, collected funds and purchased large stores of grain in Sicily, which brought back plenty to the city, and by his eloquence arrested the invasion of the advancing Lombards. He bent his whole mind on reforming the abuses which had crept into the clerical body, many of which had become inveterate, and sent missionaries to all parts of the known world.
Among them Augustin and his companions went by his order to England, which was soon converted to the faith. He extinguished Arianism in Lombardy, and combated it incessantly in Spain, where he won over to orthodoxy the king Recared; in Africa he put down the Donatists, and in Constantinople opposed energetically the pretensions of the patriarch John the Abstinent to the title of oecumenical patriarch, assuming as his own title that of " servant of the servants of God," which was adopted by the subsequent bishops of Rome. Equally tolerant and zealous, while using every endeavor to spread the faith, he would have no other means employed for that purpose than those of an exemplary life and rational instruction. He reprimanded the bishop of Terracina, who would not permit the Jews to assemble for religious worship; and wrote in the same spirit to the bishops of Sardinia, Sicily, and Marseilles. At Cagliari a converted Jew had changed a synagogue which he owned into a Christian church; Gregory commanded that it be restored to its former use. He deplored the evils of slavery as it existed before his time, and seeing it aggravated by the barbarian wars, he emancipated all his own slaves as an example.
His works, besides his Libri Moralium, are Liber Reguloe Pastoralis, 4 books of dialogues, and 14 books of letters. The best edition is that of the Benedictines (4 vols, fol., Paris, 1705). An old English version of his dialogues, edited by Henry James Coleridge, S. J., was published at London in 1874. A life of St. Gregory was written by Paul the Deacon, another by John the Deacon, and a history of his pontificate by Maimbourg. II. Saint, born in Rome in the latter half of the 7th century, died in February, 731. He was equally renowned for learning and virtue when elected to the papal chair, in May, 715. He found Constantinople given up to revolutions in the imperial palace, the coasts of Italy open to the incursions of the newly created Mohammedan navy, and the interior ravaged by the Lombards. The emperor Leo the Isaurian urged in both east and west the persecution of those who honored images, and Gregory opposed him, while upholding his authority in Italy. He built up at his own expense the ruined walls of Rome, purchased back from the Lombards the city of Cumae, persuaded King Liutprand to restore Sutri to the emperor, and some time afterward stopped the united forces of Liutprand and the exarch of Ravenna at the gates of Rome, and induced them to spare that city.
He was most zealous in promoting the conversion of infidels, sent St. Boniface to preach the gospel among the Germans, and wrote to Charles Martel to beg his protection for the missionaries. He restored the ruined monastery of Monto Casino, published important laws concerning Christian matrimony, and was firm in enforcing clerical morality. There are 17 letters of this pope in Labbe's collection of the councils,, vols. vi. and vii. III. Born in Syria, succeeded Gregory II. in 731, died in 741. He wrote to the emperor Leo, reproaching him for upholding the iconoclasts; but finding that prince incorrigible, he assembled a council in 732, which excommunicated them as heretics. The Lombards annoyed him, and in the hope of obtaining the aid of Charles Martel against them he sent an embassy to France, but the application proved fruitless. Gregory was the first pope who ruled the exarchate of Ravenna in a temporal sense, not in virtue of any formal donation, but because, abandoned by the Greeks, the citizens saw no one to whom they could appeal for protection but the bishop of Rome. IV. Born in Rome, made pope in 827, died in 844. He rebuilt the city of Ostia, to defend the mouth of the Tiber against the inroads of the Mussulmans who had taken possession of Sicily, He went to France in the hope of putting an end to the dissensions between Louis le Debonnaire and his sons, but failed, and returned to Rome disgusted with both parties.
V. Bruno, a Saxon, nephew of the emperor Otho II., elected pope in May, 996, died in 999. His pontificate was troubled by Philogethes, bishop of Piacenza, who became antipope under the name of John XVI. The latter was sustained by Crescentius, consul of Rome, but finally driven thence by Otho III., and excommunicated by Gregory in the council of Pavia, 997. Otho was crowned by his cousin in 996. VI. John Gratianns, a Roman, and archpriest of the Roman church, elected pope, some say by simoniacal means, April 8, 1045, died in 1047. He resigned at the council of Sutri in December, 104G, and retired to the monastery of Cluny. VII. Hildebrand, Saint, born at Soano, Tuscany, about 1018, died in Salerno, May 25, 1085. He was the son of a carpenter, and was educated by his uncle in a Roman monaster)'. He afterward went to France, and became a monk of Cluny. Recalled to Rome, and made prior of the abbey of St. Paul extra muros, he found his church almost in ruins, the community reduced to a few members, and nearly all its lands in the possession of powerful laymen.
With an energy which foreshadowed his career, he recovered the lands, restored the church, improved the discipline, and increased the community, He gained the favor of Gregory VI., became the confidential adviser of Leo IX., and preserved his influence under Victor II. and Alexander II. By Gregory VI. he was sent to France in 1045 to urge the extirpation of simony. He had a law passed against it in a council at Lyons, and presided in the council of Tours, in which Berengarius recanted his opinions concerning the eucharist. He was instrumental in effecting the election of Nicholas II. and Alexander II.; and was himself chosen pope on April 22, 1073. It is asserted that he did not seek this elevation, and that he wrote to Henry IV., then in Bavaria, beseeching him to have the election set aside, and giving the emperor warning that if he occupied the papal chair he would call him to account for his tyranny and licentiousness. Henry sent officers to examine into the hasty election. ratified it, and allowed Gregory to be consecrated on June 30. Once enthroned, he resolved to purge the priesthood of the two enormous evils of simony and unchastity, and to emancipate the church from the interference of the temporal power.
He wrote to the countess Beatrice and her daughter Matilda to hold no communion with the simoniacal bishops of Tuscany. The emperor, who made no scruple or secret of selling ecclesiastical livings to the highest bidder, both in Germany and Italy, had thus twice disposed of the see of Milan. Gregory deposed the archbishop as an example to offenders, and held a council in Rome, in which it was made a law that all persons guilty of simony should be ipso facto excommunicated as incapable of exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and disqualified for holding any benefice whatever. It was furthermore decreed that all married and unchaste priests should be degraded from their office. This legislation produced great excitement throughout Germany, where an attempt to enforce it well nigh cost the archbishop of Mentz his life. It brought the pope into direct collision with the emperor, who traded in benefices. Henry had been summoned to Rome to answer for his tyrannical and licentious conduct; he laughed at the summons, and derided the legates whom Gregory repeatedly sent to bring him to a sense of his wrong doing. In 1075 Cencius, prefect of Rome, had been excommunicated, with several of his abettors, for various crimes.
On Christmas eve, while the pope was celebrating midnight mass at Sta. Maria Maggiore, Cencius rushed into the church with a body of armed men, who dragged Gregory from the altar, wounded him in the neck, and hurried him off to a prison. This outrage was attributed by some to the emperor's instigation. The only reply Henry made to the papal summons was to assemble a council at Worms in 10TC, which passed a sentence of excommunication against Gregory. Henry informed him of this in a letter addressed "to the false monk Hildebrand," which the imperial messenger handed to the pope at Rome in the midst of the solemn session of the council. A sentence of excommunication was fulminated against the emperor, whose crown was declared forfeited. Saxony and Thuringia had already been driven into open rebellion by the conduct of Henry; on reception of the tidings from Rome, a majority of the princes of the empire and several bishops met near Mentz, and, after vainly summoning Henry to appear and make satisfaction, they elected in his stead Rudolph, duke of Swabia. Abandoned by his adherents, Henry was compelled to sue for pardon, crossed the Alps, and presented himself before the pope, who had taken refuge in the castle of Canossa. Whatever truth there may be in the relations of those who assert that the pontiff kept the suppliant emperor three whole days in the court of the castle, clad in a single garment and shivering in the cold of January, we may well believe that he treated him with severity.
Absolved from excommunication, Henry returned, fought his enemies, and regained his crown by the death of Rudolph. The pope in absolving him had not reinstated him in his imperial rank; hence the resistance he met with on his return to Germany, and hence, too, the animosity with which from that moment he pursued Gregory to the death. In 1081 he crossed once more into Lombardy, and assembled a council, which deposed and excommunicated the pope, and elected in his stead Guibert, archbishop of Ravenna, with whom Henry advanced toward Rome, but withdrew at the approach of Robert Guiscard and his Normans. He returned the next year with no better success, but on his third attempt was admitted into Rome by the treachery of some of the citizens. The pope fled to the fortress of Sant' Angelo, and Guibert was enthroned as Clement III.; but Robert hastened by forced marches to the relief of Gregory, and Henry with his antipope withdrew from Rome. The Tuscan forces were victorious in Lombardy over Gregory's enemies, but his health was hopelessly broken.
Robert, his deliverer, was unwilling to allow him in his enfeebled state to remain within reach of his persecutors, and persuaded him to rest for a while in Monte Casino, and then to take up his abode temporarily in Salerno, where he died repeating the words, Dilexi jitstitiam et odivi iniquitatem, propterea morior in exilio ("I have loved righteousness and hated wickedness, therefore do I die in exile"). These words may still be read on his tomb in the church of St. Matthew in Salerno. There is a collection of his letters in the Bollandists' Acta Sanctorum. See also his epistles in Migne's Patrologie, vol. cxlviii.; his life by the German Protestant Voigt; and the posthumous work of Villemain, Histoire de Gregoire VII. (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1873; English translation by Brockley, London, 1874). VIII. Alberto de Mora, succeeded Urban III., Oct. 21,1187, died Dec. 17 of the same year. He is not to be confounded with the antipope Bourdin, who assumed the name of Gregory VIII. IX. Ugolino, succeeded Honorius III. in 1227, died in Rome, Aug. 21, 1241. He is remarkable chiefly for his protracted struggle with the emperor Frederick II. (See Frederick II. of Germany.) X. Tebaldo Visconti, born in Piacenza about 1209, died in Arezzo, Jan. 10, 1270. He became successively canon of Lyons, archdeacon of Liege, and cardinal.
He was papal legate in Palestine, when, after an interregnum of three years, he was elected pope Sept. 1, 1271. He opened the second general council of Lyons in 1274, made vain endeavors to rouse Christian princes to succor Palestine, effected a temporary reunion of the Greek and Latin churches, and was the first to enact a stringent law for the holding of conclaves. (See Conclave.) Gregory X. was beatified in 1713. XI. Pierre Roger, born in Lower Limousin in 1329, elected pope in 1370 (the last Frenchman who has occupied the pontifical chair), died March 27, 1378. To him belongs the credit of having put an end to what was called the captivity of Babylon, meaning the residence of the popes at Avignon. Yielding to the solicitations of many of the most eminent persons in Christendom, he quitted Avignon in 1376, and returned to Rome at the beginning of 1377. This pope was the first who condemned the teachings of Wyc-liffe. XII. Angelo Corario, born in Venice about 1325, elected pope in 1406, died at Re-canati, Oct. 18, 1417. For an account of him see Constance, Council of.
XIII. Ugo Buon-compagni, born in Bolocrna, Feb. 7, 1502, elected pope May 13, 1572, died April 10, 1585. Distinguished as a lawyer and professor of civil and canonical jurisprudence, he appeared with success at the great council of Trent. His pontificate is remarkable as the epoch of the reformation of the calendar. (See Calendar.) The Decretum Gratiani (see Canon Law) was published by him in splendid style, and with copious notes, some of which were from the pope's own hand. The end of his pontificate was signalized by the appearance in Rome of an imposing embassy from Japan, sent by some of the princes who had been recently converted to the Christian faith. XIV. Nicolo Sfondrati, born in Cremona, elected pope Oct. 8, 1590, died in 1591. XV. Alessandro Ludovislo, born in Bologna in 1554, elected pope Feb. 9, 1621, died July 8, 1623. He founded the celebrated congregation de propaganda fide, a sort of foreign office for the disposing and arranging of ecclesiastical affairs of missionary countries throughout the world. He canonized four celebrated saints of the Catholic church, Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri, and Teresa. He enacted that the balloting for the election of new popes should be done secretly.
XVI. Bartolommeo Alberto Capellari, born in Bel-luno, Sept. 18, 1765, died in Rome, Juno 1, 1846. He assumed the name of Mauro on making his profession in the order of Camal-dolese monks in 1783, became proficient in the oriental languages, taught theology with much distinction, published in 1799 1l trionfo della Santa Sede e della Chiesa, and in 1801 was elected a member of the academy of the Catholic religion in Rome, where he annually lectured on subjects bearing on the relations between science and revelation. In 1807 he was appointed one of the censors of the academy, and elected vice procurator general of his order, and abbot of his monastery in Rome. In 1809 the violent abduction of Pius VII. was followed by the dispersion of the religious orders. Capellari withdrew to his native country, and taught theology in the monastery of St. Michael at Murano. In his island solitude he remained comparatively quiet till 1812, when the ancient and magnificent library of the monastery was seized, and either sold at auction or sent to enrich the libraries of Venice. In the beginning of 1814 he and his pupils and fellow professors took refuge in Padua. Recalled to Rome after the return of Pius VII., he was made procurator general of his order, consultor of the Propaganda, examiner of bishops, commissary for examining works on oriental liturgical literature, and vicar general of the Camaldolese. He was preconized cardinal March 13, 1826, and became prefect of the Propaganda. He was charged soon after with negotiating a concordat with the government of the Netherlands in favor of the Catholic citizens, and with regulating the ecclesiastical affairs of the United States, and obtained from the Turkish government the emancipation of the Armenian Catholics. On Feb. 2, 1831, after 50 days of conclave, he was elected pope.
The secret societies which aimed both at Italian unity and at secularizing the administration of the States of the Church, made some insurrectionary movements at the beginning of his pontificate. With Prussia a long controversy arose about mixed marriages, the government claiming to regulate them as belonging solely to the civil administration. The archbishop of Cologne was imprisoned for his resistance, and the pope energetically interfered in his favor. The Catholics of Russian Poland were also subjected to oppression to induce them to join the Greek church; and the pope used no less energy in protesting against this violence through his representative in St. Petersburg. He solemnly condemned the innovations of Hermes in theology, and the extreme political radicalism of Lamennais. He spared no effort to spread the Catholic religion in both hemispheres, and to stimulate at home the zeal of all ranks of the priesthood for the attainment of solid learning and purity of life. In Rome he gave a great impulse to the study of the sciences and fine arts, created several museums, and founded a number of establishments of public beneficence and utility. During the 15 years of his reign he gave hospitality to more than one royal exile.
In December, 1845, the emperor Nicholas visited Rome, and during his interview with the pope he was bitterly reproached for his cruelty toward the Poles. It is said that Gregory spoke to him as would one on whom the shadow of death had already fallen, threatening the autocrat with that judgment for which he was himself preparing. The emperor was much moved, and returned again to visit his venerable host. It is certain that the Poles experienced less harsh treatment for some years after that.
Gregory ,.I. James, a Scottish astronomer and mathematician, born at Drumoak, Aberdeenshire, in November, 1638, died in Edinburgh in October, 1675. He was educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen, and at the age of 24 published his Optica Promota (London, 1663), which formed an era in the history of science in the 17th century, and in which he described the reflecting telescope invented by him. In the same work he pointed out the method of employing the transits of Mercury and Venus to determine the sun's parallax. In 1667 he went to the university of Padua, and soon after published a treatise on the quadrature of the circle and hyperbola by means of a converging series, which involved him in a controversy with Huygens. About 1668 he was chosen professor of mathematics at St. Andrews. In 1674 he accepted the same chair in Edinburgh, and a year later was struck with sudden blindness, and died a few days afterward. He was the inventor of the concave burning mirror, of methods for squaring curves and making logarithms by an infinitely converging series, and of a variety of other ingenious mathematical and geometrical processes.
II. David, nephew of the preceding, born in Aberdeen, June 24, 1661, died about 1710. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, where he was appointed professor of mathematics in 1684, and was instrumental in introducing the Newtonian philosophy. In the same year he published a Latin treatise on the dimensions of figures, Exercitatio Geometrica, which is esteemed his best work. In 1692, chiefly through the influence of Flam-steed and Sir Isaac Newton, he was appointed Savilian professor of astronomy at Oxford, the celebrated Dr. Halley being his competitor. In 1702 appeared his Astronomioe Physicoe et Geometrioe Elementa, a sort of digest of Newton's Principia, which Newton himself highly commended; and in 1703 he published an edition of Euclid in Greek and Latin. He was engaged at the time of his death upon an edition of Apollonius, which was completed by Halley. Newton intrusted Gregory with a manuscript copy of his Principia, and in a second edition availed himself of his friend's marginal comments.
III. John, grandson of James Gregory, born in Aberdeen, June 3, 1724, died in Edinburgh, Feb. 10, 1773. He graduated in medicine at the university of Aberdeen, where he filled the chair of medicine from 1756 to 1764, when he removed to Edinburgh. From 1766 till his death he was professor of the practice of physic in the university of Edinburgh. His principal works are "Elements of the Practice of Physic" (Edinburgh, 1772), left unfinished, and "A Father's Legacy to his Daughters " (1774).