See Bonaparte, Napoleon III.
Louis Niedermeyer, a composer, born at Nyon, Switzerland, April 27, 1802, died in Paris, March 14, 1861. He was the son of a jrerman music teacher, and received lessons on he piano from Moscheles and in vocal music from Zingarelli. His first work, Il reo per more, was represented at Naples in 1820 in 1823 he went to Paris, where most of the remainder of his life was spent. He wrote several operas, one of which, La casa nel bosco, vas produced at the Theâtre Italien, through iossini's aid, in 1828. In 1836 his Stradella vas produced at the Grand Opéra; in 1844, Marie Stuart; and in 1853, La Fronde. None of these works achieved any decided success.
Niedermeyer, disheartened, abandoned dramatc composition, and revived Choron's school for religious music with good results. Besides his aperas, he composed many masses, motets, and other religious compositions, and a number of excellent songs.
Louis Of Baden (Louis William I. Margrave Of Baden-Baden), a German soldier, born in Paris, April 8, 1655, died in Rastadt, Jan. 4, 1707. He began his career under Montecuculi against the French, and in 1683-'91 distinguished himself against the Turks. In 1693 he became commander-in-chief of the imperial army, and retook Heidelberg from the French; and in 1694 he achieved various successes in Alsace. After the death of John Sobieski (1697) he was an unsuccessful candidate for the throne of Poland. During the war of the Spanish succession he was again at the head of the imperial army, and captured Landau in 1702. He was one of the ablest generals and engineers of his day, and designed a famous line of fortifications on the Rhine.
Louis Pierre Marie Bourdon, a French mathematician, born at Alencon, July 16,1799, died in Paris, March 15, 1854. He was professor in the principal colleges of Paris, and finally inspector of studies and a member of the council of the university. His Elements d'ariih-metique and Elements d'algebre have passed through many editions; and the latter, adapted by Prof. Charles Davies (1834), has been extensively used in the United States. His Trigonometric rectiligne et spherique was published in 1854 as a text book according to the new system of instruction in France.
Louis Rene Paul De Ladmirault, a French soldier, born in 1808. He graduated at Saint-Cyr in 1829, and rose in Algeria to the rank of brigadier general in 1848. He was wounded at the battle of Solferino in 1859. In 1866 he became senator, and in 1867 was put in command of the second army corps and of the camp of Chalons. During the Franco-German war he was at the head of the fourth corps, and took part in the battles around Metz. On the capitulation of that fortress he became a prisoner in Germany, and returned to France after the conclusion of peace in May, 1871. He took a conspicuous part as commander of the first corps under MacMahon in the operations against the commune, and on July 1, 1871, was appointed military governor of Paris, which post he still holds (1874). He has published Bases d'un projet pour le recrutement de l'armee de terre (1871).