New Hampshire, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, bounded N. by the province of Quebec, Canada, E. by Maine and the Atlantic, S. by Massachusetts, and W. by Vermont, from which it is separated by the west bank of Connecticut river. It is situated between lat. 42° 40' and 45° 18' N., and lon 70° 37' and 72° 37' W.; length from N. to S. about 180 m., extreme breadth 93 m., average breadth 50 m.; area, according to the late state survey, 9,392 sq. m. The state is divided into 10 counties, viz.: Belknap, Carroll, Cheshire, Coos, Grafton, Hillsborough, Merrimack, Rockingham, Strafford, and Sullivan. According to the census of 1870, the cities were: Concord, the capital, containing 12,241 inhabitants; Dover, 9,294; Manchester, 23,536; Nashua, 10,-543; and Portsmouth, 9,211. Among the more important towns are Claremont, 4,053; Exeter, 3,437; Farmington, 2,063; Franklin, 2,301; Gilford, 3,361; Hanover, the seat of Dartmouth college, 2,085; Haverhill, 2,271; Keene (made a city in 1874), 5,971; Laconia, 2,309; Lancaster, 2,248; Lebanon, 3,094; Littleton, 2,446; Milford, 2,606; Newport, 2,163; Pembroke, 2,518; Peterborough, 2,236; Rochester, 4,103; Somersworth, 4,504; Weare, 2,092; and Winchester, 2,097. The original population of New Hampshire was almost exclusively of English and Scotch descent, and the rural districts still remain without much intermixture.
The population of the state and its rank in the Union, according to the national enumerations, have been as follows:
Seal of the State of New Hampshire.
Of the total population in 1870, which included 23 Indians, 155,640 were males and 162,660 females; 288,689 were native born, of whom 242,374 were born in the state, 11,404 in Maine, 16,510 in Massachusetts, and 12,837 in Vermont; and 29,611 were of foreign birth, including 12.955 born in British America, 2,679 in England, and 12.190 in Ireland. The density of population was 34.3 persons to a square mile. There were 72,144 families, with an average of 4.41 persons to each, and 67,046 dwellings, with an average of 4.75 to each. From 1850 to 1870 there was a decrease of 238 per cent, in the population, this being the only state except Maine in which there was not an increase. The number of male citizens 21 years old and upward was 83,361. There were in the state 78,766 persons between the ages of 5 and 18 years; the total number attending school was 65,824. There were 7,618 10 years old and over unable to read, and 9.926 unable to write. Of the latter 1,992 were native and 7,934 foreign born; 7,656 were 21 years of age and upward, including 4.257 males. The number of paupers supported during the year ending June 1, 1870, was 2,636, at a cost of $235,126. Of the total number (2.129) receiving support June 1, 1870, 1,754 were of native and 375 of foreign birth.
The number of persons convicted of crime during the year was 182; in prison June 1. 1870, 267, of whom 201 were native and 66 foreign. The state contained 206 blind, 170 deaf and dumb, 548 insane, and 325 idiotic, of the total population 10 years of age and over (200,426), there were engaged in all occupations 120,168; in agriculture, 46,573, of whom 15,666 were laborers and 30,749 fanners; in professional and personal services, 18,528, including 664 clergymen, 7,481 domestic servants. 4,686 laborers, 319 lawyers, 505 physicians and surgeons, and 1,987 teachers; in trade and transportation, 8,514; and in manufactures and mechanical and mining industries. 46,553. The total number of deaths was 4,291, or 1.35 per cent, of the population. There were 953 deaths from consumption, there being 4.5 deaths from all causes to one from that disease, which was a greater ratio of deaths from consumption than in any other state; from pneumonia, 364 deaths, there being 11.8 deaths from all causes to one from that disease; cholera infantum, 139; diphtheria and scarlet fever, 147; enteric fever, 302; and diarrhoea, dysentery, and enteritis, 177. -New Hampshire has but 18 m. of seacoast, and the shore in most places is a sandy beach, bordered with salt marshes.
There are numerous creeks and coves, which form harbors for small craft; but Portsmouth, at the mouth of the Piscataqua, is the only haven for large ships. The great feature in the topography is a mountainous ridge extending through the state in a direction E. of N. and parallel to the western border. West of this lies the Connecticut river basin; to the cast the valleys of the Androscoggin, Saco, and Merrimack rivers. From the Massachusetts line to Warren in Grafton co 80 m., the height of this ridge averages 1500 ft., the most prominent mountains be-ing, according to the recent survey by Prof. Hitchcock, Monadnock, 3,186; Sunapee, 2,683; Smart's, 2,500; Cuba, 2,927; and Piermont, 2,500. Between Warren and Randolph in Coos co., 40 m., the height of the ridge averages 4,000 ft., as it consists of the main line of the White mountains, the most prominent mountains being Moosilauke, 4,811 ft.; Blue, 4,370; Kinsman, 4,200; Lafavette, 5,259; Haystack, 4,500; Twins, 4,920; Field, 4,070; Webster, 4,000; Jackson, 4,100; Clinton, 4,320; Pleasant, 4,704; Franklin, 4,904; Monroe, 5,384; Washington, 6,293; Clay, 5,553; Jefferson, 5,714; Adams, 5,794; and Madison, 5.305. The lowest gaps in this section are the Woodstock notch, 1,655 ft.; Franconia notch, 2,014; Pinkham notch, 2,018; White Mountain notch, 1,914; and Dixville notch, 1,831. The height of the remaining portion averages 2,000 ft., the highest points being Randolph, 3,043; peak in Erving's Location, 3,156; Pisgah, 2,897; Carmel, 3,711; and the highest elevation along the northern boundary, 2,917 ft.
The lowest gaps along the whole line arc at the Orange summit of the Northern railroad, 990 ft.; at the Warren summit of the Boston, Concord, and Montreal railroad, 1,063; at the Milan summit of the Grand Trunk railroad, 1,087; at the Newbury summit of Concord and Claremont railroad, 1,161; and at the summits of proposed railroads in Harris-ville and Stoddard, 1,265 and 1,560. The country S. of the White mountains and E. of the great watershed is mostly below 600 ft., save a few peaks like Kearsarge, 2,943, Gunstock, 2,394, Crotched, 2,006, Great Moose, 1,404, and Crop-pie Crown, 2,100. The average elevation of the whole state is 1,200 ft. Considering the whole area of the state, there is one peak over 6,000 ft., 8 between 5,000 and 6,000, 14 between 4,500 and 5,000, 20 between 4,000 and 4,500, 28 between 3,000 and 4,000, and nearly 40 between 2,000 and 3,000. The White mountains cover an area of 1,270 sq. m. The general slope of the country is from N. to S. With the exception of Niagara falls, the mountain scenery of New Hampshire attracts more tourists than any other natural object in the United States. (See White Mountains.) - The Connecticut river, which is the largest stream, rises near the N. extremity, and with Hall's stream forms the W. boundary; the chief tributaries which it receives from this state are Hall's, Indian, and Perry streams, and the Upper Ammonoosuck in the north, and the Sugar, Cold, Ashuelot, Mohawk, Israel's, John's, Lower Ammonoosuck, Oliverion, and Mascoma in the south.
The Merrimack is formed by the junction of the Pemigewasset, which rises in the Franconia mountains, and the Winnipiseogee, the outlet of the lake of the same name, at Franklin, and runs S. through the middle of the state to Massachusetts. Baker's river, rising near Moosilauke mountain, unites with the Pemigewasset at Plymouth. Other important tributaries are the Newfound, Contoocook, Piscataquog, Souhegan, and Nashua rivers on the west, and the Soucook and Suncook on the east. The Piscataqua river is formed by a union of the Salmon Falls and Cochecho rivers and Great bay at Dover point, draining nearly one eleventh of the area of the state; and the Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers constitute part of the boundary line between Maine and New Hampshire. Great bay, a tidal basin containing an area of about 9 sq. m., extends to Exeter, and receives the waters of the Bellamy, Lamprey, Oyster, Squamscot, and Win-nicut rivers. The Piscataqua river from Dover point to Portsmouth is deep and about half a mile wide. Through its channel Great bay discharges its waters at ebb tide with such swiftness that Portsmouth harbor has never been known to freeze over. It is one of the most secure and commodious harbors on the coast, into which ships of the largest capacity can enter.
The Merrimack and its branches, and the Salmon Falls, have numerous cataracts, furnishing a large amount of water power to manufacturing towns. The Androscoggin has a small part of its course in the N. E. part of this state, and the Saco has also its source among the White mountains, and runs S. E. into Maine. The Saco near its head waters passes through the celebrated notch, a remarkable chasm 2 m. long, and where narrowest only 22 ft. wide. The Margalloway, which falls into Lake Umbagog, has part of its course in New Hampshire. About one sixteenth of the surface of this state is covered with water, embracing about 1,500 streams and numerous lakes and ponds. Winnipiseogee is the largest and most beautiful lake; it is about 25 m. long by from 1 to 10 broad, with an area of nearly 72 sq. m., and contains 267 islands, and its shores are indented with numerous bays. Umbagog lake, about 10 m. long and 5 broad, on the boundary between Maine and New Hampshire, is one of the sources of the Androscoggin; four Connecticut lakes, the source of the river of the same name, are in the north; and Mas-coma, Newfound, Ossipee, Sunapee, and Squam lakes, and several smaller bodies of water, are the sources and recipients of many streams. - The rocks of New Hampshire are chiefly eozoic, belonging to the Laurentian, Atlantic, Labradorian, and Huronian, as defined by the state geologist.
Small areas of Cambrian slates and larger ones of supposed Helderberg occur in the W. and S. W. portions of the state. Lithologically the rocks are gneiss, granite, felsite, ossipyte, andalusite gneiss and schists, mica, talcose, hydro-mica, and hornblende schists, clay slates, limestones, and quartzites. The most recent investigations indicate the existence of no good reasons for regarding the New Hampshire formations as altered palaeozoic. Not much has been done in the working of metallic ores. Iron has been mined at Franconia and Bartlett, and there are smaller veins at Landaff, Piermont, and Gilford. The ores are magnetic and specular. A blast furnace has been erected at Franconia, but the amount of pig thus far produced has been small, and the works have been abandoned. Copper, zinc, and lead ores, most of the last argentiferous, are found in a large number of towns. In Madison a galena rich in silver has been worked extensively. A lead mine, largely argentiferous, and containing also a considerable quantity of copper, is successfully worked in Warren. Large deposits of copper sulphuret exist in Gardner's mountain, in Lyman and Monroe. Pyrites is abundant in Hanover, Lebanon, Croydon, and Unity, suitable for the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
A vein containing oxide of tin in small quantity, and associated with arsenic, occurs in the town of Jackson. Gold is mined from the quartz in Lisbon, where are the quartz mills; two companies are at work, and since the beginning of operations about $30,000 worth of gold has been sold to the United States mint. Granular quartz has been worked in the towns of Unity and Keene, and applied to a variety of purposes. It is ground between millstones and bolted, to be used either as a polishing powder or for the preparation of sand paper at the manufactory of that article in Rockingham, Vt. It has also been mixed instead of barytes with white lead. The quartz of Lynde-borough is used in the manufacture of glass. Acworth, near Bellows Falls, is celebrated for its beryls, gigantic specimens of which are found in the collections of minerals throughout Europe. Tourmalines and mica are also found in great perfection. The latter is extensively quarried at Alstead, a few miles S. of Acworth, and at Grafton, 35 m. N. It is sold at from $2 to $3 a pound, to be used for the windows in stoves, for lanterns, compass cards, etc.
Other quarries are in Springfield and Alexandria. Sulphuret of molybdenum is found in many places, especially at Westmoreland; and graphite or plumbago is also a common mineral, which is worked for the manufacture of crucibles at Taunton, Mass. Steatite or soapstone is also found in many localities, as at Orford, Haverhill, Richmond, Weare, Warner, and Keene. It is obtained at the quarry in Francestown in large blocks, which are cut to the dimensions of 6 ft. by 3 and 7 ft. by 5, as well as into slabs and smaller blocks. It is used for stoves, fireplaces, sinks, rollers used in dressing cotton warp, and other purposes. The mills for sawing the stone from Francestown are at Nashua. Granite is extensively quarried at Concord, Plymouth, Hook-sett, Manchester, Milford, Fitzwilliam, Rox-bury, Troy, Farmington, and Marlborough. The variety known as Concord granite is finegrained, soft, and well adapted for monuments as well as for buildings, and takes a high rank in the estimation of architects. - The soil of New Hampshire is not generally very fertile, but by industry and skill the inhabitants have in great measure overcome its natural defects. The best lands are in the valleys of the rivers, some of which are subject to occasional overflows.
The N. part of' the state is chiefly pasture and wood land. The climate is severe, being somewhat colder than that of Maine, but more steady. Difference of elevation within the state causes great difference in the degree of temperature; so much even as 20° to 25° between the valleys and the more elevated positions. In summer the heat sometimes rises to 1000, and in winter the cold has been known to freeze the mercury in the thermometer. In the neighborhood of the White mountains the winters are excessively cold, and the peaks are covered more or less with snow eight months in the year, from which circumstance their name has been derived. The Mt. Washington expedition in the winter of 1870-71 showed that the weather at the altitude of 6,300 ft. is characterized by violent winds, whose velocity rose as high as 130 m. an hour, by more abundant precipitation of moisture than the low country, and a much lower average temperature; there was a fall of 55 inches for the year, against 46 at Newfound lake, the region of greatest rainfall elsewhere in the state.
The Merrimack valley below Concord is the warmest part of the state; and the abundant waterfalls here have caused the growth of the manufacturing towns of Manchester, Nashua, Suncook, and Hook-sett. All parts of New Hampshire are exceedingly healthful, and cases of remarkable longevity are very numerous. The cold weather begins about the last of October and continues till May; and from the latter part of November till the opening of spring the whole country is usually covered with snow, and the rivers are frozen. - The natural productions include the oak, pine, hemlock, ash, spruce, beech, birch, and other trees, which are largely exported in the shape of lumber. The sugar maple is abundant. The native animals, though scarce, are not yet exterminated; wolves, bears, and other wild beasts are still found in the N. part of the state, and occasionally commit depredations on the farms. Wild fowl and game are abundant, and both lakes and rivers are stocked with fish. - The farm lands of New Hampshire in ls70 comprised 2,334,487 acres of improved and 1,271,507 of unimproved land, including 1,047,090 acres of woodland.
The total number of farms was 29,042, of which 1,376 comprised from 3 to 10 acres, 2,004 from 10 to 20, 7.194 from 20 to 50, 10,107 from 50 to 100, 8,804 from 100. to 500, 75 from 500 to 1,000, and 6 over 1,000. The average size of farms was LG9 acres; percentage of improved to total land in farms, 68.8. The cash value of farms was $80,589,313; of farming implements and machinery, $3,459,943; total amount of wages paid during the year, including value of board, $2,319,164; total estimated value of all farm productions, including betterments and additions to stock, $22,473,547; orchard products $743 552; produce of market gardens, $119,997; forest products, $1,743,944; home manufactures, $234,062; value of animals slaughtered or sold for slaughter, $3,720,243. The chief productions were 189,222 bushels of winter and 4,399 of spring wheat, 47,420 of rye, 1,277,768 of Indian corn, 1,146,451 of oats," 105,822 of barley, 100,034 of buckwheat, 58,375 of peas and beans, 4,515,579 of potatoes, 612,648 tons of hay, 155,334 lbs. of tobacco, 1,129,442 of wool, 5,965,080 of butter, 849,118 of cheese, 99,469 of hops, 1,800,704 of maple sugar, 56,944 of honey, 2,668 of wax, 2,446 gallons of wine, 2,352,884 of milk sold, and 16,884 of maple molasses.
The total value of all live stock on farms was $15,246,545. There were 39,095 horses, 90,583 milch cows, 40,513 working oxen, 91,705 other cattle, 248,760 sheep, and 33,127 swine. Besides these there were 4,240 horses and 13,368 neat cattle not on farms. - New Hampshire ranks high as a manufacturing state, and is especially noted for the extent of its textile industries. According to the census of 1870, only Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Pennsylvania ranked above New Hampshire in the value of cotton goods produced. In the 36 cotton mills of this state were 19,091 looms and 447,795 frame and 302,048 mule spindles. The principal products of the 41,469,719 lbs. of cotton used were 89,326,701 yards of sheetings, shirtings, and twilled goods, 75,000 of lawns and fine muslins, 40,843,969 of print cloth, 442,696 of flannel, 1,845,199 of ginghams and checks, 5,260,000 of cassimeres, cottonades, and jeans, 237,026 lbs. of bats, wicking, and wadding, 28,300 of cordage, lines, and twines, and 1,595,700 seamless bags. The 156 woollen mills had 351 sets of cards, with a daily capacity in carded wool of 41,550 lbs., 909 broad and 699 narrow looms, and 117,057 spindles. The materials used comprised 1,079,120 lbs. of cotton, 1,380,000 of shoddy, and 8,785,882 of domestic and 793,433 of foreign wool.
Among the products were 184,800 pairs of blankets, 2,481,416 yards of cassimeres and doeskins, 184,200 of felted cloth, 13,141,565 of flannels, 75,000 of frock-ing, 1,001,000 of kerseys, 720,507 of satinets, 32000 of tweeds and twills, 110,075 lbs. of rolls, and 485,600 of yarn. In the production of worsted goods, the state ranked after Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island, and after those states and New Jersey in the production of printed goods. In 1870 the products of mining were valued at $323,805, including stone worth $309,720, silver quartz $10,000, lead $3,000, and zinc $1,085. Other important industries are the production of boots and shoes, hosiery, lumber, starch, and wooden ware. The total number of manufacturing establishments reported by the census of 1870 was 3,342, using 280 steam engines of 8,787 horse power, and 2,312 water wheels of 68,291 horse power, and employing 40,783 hands, of whom 25,829 were males above 16 years of age, 12,775 females above 15, and 2,179 youth.
The total amount of capital employed was $36,023,743; wages paid, $13,823,091; value of materials used, $44,577,967; of products, $71,038,249. The chief industries are shown by the following statement:
No. of establishments.
Value of materials.
Value of products.
Boots and shoes
Carpentering and building...............
Carriages abd wagons
Cars, freight and passenger..............
Flouring and grist mill products.........
Iron, forged and rolled
" castings, not specified..............
" dressed skins................. .
Machinery, not specified.................
" cotton and woollen...........
" fire engines
" railroad repairing.............
" steam engines and boilers.....
Paper, not specified......................
Printing, cotton and woollen goods........
Saddlery and harness
Sash, doors and blinds
The greater portion of the foreign products consumed in New Hampshire is entered, at Boston. Portsmouth, however, is a United States port of entry, where the value of imports during the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $41,388. The exports were unimportant. The number of vessels that entered in the foreign trade was 54 of 9,794 tons, and 62 were cleared. The entries in the coastwise trade comprised 1,032 vessels, of 105,142 tons, including 329, of 10,477 tons, engaged in fisheries. The number of vessels that cleared in the coastwise trade was 1,032. There were registered, enrolled, and licensed at this port 74, of 14,502 tons, of which 69 were sailing vessels. - The railroads of the state are subject to inspection by three state commissioners, who are required to report annually to the legislature. There were 92 m. of railroad in 1844, 467 in 1850, 661 in 1860, 736 in 1870, and 946 in 1874. The railroads lying wholly or partly in New Hampshire, with their termini and the number of miles completed in the state in 1874, are represented in the following table:
NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.
Miles completed in the state in 1874.
Length between termini when different from preceding.
Capital stock paid in.
*Atlantic and St. Lawrence
Island Pond, Vt..........
Boston, Concord, and Montreal.........
White Mountain branch
Boston and Maine.....................
Leased, Dover and Winnipiseogee___
West Amesbury branch
West Amesbury, Mass....
South Ashburnham, Mass.
Bellows Falls, Vt.........
South Vernon, Mass.....
Concord and Portsmouth___
Manchester and N. Weare...
Massachusetts State line..
Peterborough and Shirley branch
Ayer Junction, Mass
Manchester and Lawrence
Summit of Mt.Washington
Nashua, Acton, and Boston.
North Acton, Mass
Nashua and Lowell
* Leased to Grand Trunk railway. † Leased to Eastern of Massachusetts.
NAMES OF CORPORATIONS.
Miles completed in the state in 1874,
Length between termini when different from the preceding.
Capital stock paid in.
White River Junction....
Leased Concord and Claremont.......
Sullivan R. R. in Claremont
Portland and Ogenburg
Portland and Rochester
*Portland Great Falls, and Conway....
Conway Junction, Me
Portland, Great Falls, and Conway
Worcester and Nashua................
Leased, Nashua and Rochester.......
On Nov. 1, 1874, there were 43 national banks in operation, with a paid-in capital of $5,365,- 000 and an outstanding circulation amounting to $4,707,365, being $14 79 per capita, 1 per cent, of the wealth of the state, and 87.7 per cent, of the bank capital. In May, 1874, there were 64 savings banks, with 92,788 depositors, and deposits aggregating $28,829,377. The total liabilities amounted to $30,333,792; loans, $15,487,642. The lire insurance companies organized under the laws of the state comprised 16 town companies, 6 mutual not limited to towns and the New Hampshire joint stock company. The amount of risks carried by the town companies was $2,241,627, and by the mutual $12,932,929. There were 56 fire and 5 marine insurance companies of other states and foreign countries licensed to transact business in New Hampshire. The amount of risks assumed by these companies and in force on Jan. 1, 1874, was $38,535,887; premium receipts in 1873, $486,679; losses paid, $403,767. Thirty life insurance companies of other states were transacting business in New Hampshire, and had in force on Jan. 1, 1874, 10,150 policies insuring $14,682,950. - The constitution of 1784, amended in 1792, is the fundamental law of the state.
The legislature, styled the general court, comprises a senate of 12 members and a house of representatives, the number of which, annually varying, in 1874-5 was 341. The state is divided into 12 senatorial dis-tricts, not according to population as in other states, but according to the direct taxes paid by the different districts. The representatives are apportioned among the towns according to the number of ratable polls. A town having 150 ratable polls may choose one representative, and one additional representative may be chosen for every additional 300 polls, the legislature meets annually on the first Wednesday in June. The governor is advised in his executive duties by a council of five members. The members of the legislature, governor, and councillors are elected annually on the second Tuesday in March. A majority vote is necessary to election. If no candidate for governor receives a majority, that officer is elected by the legislature. The right of suffrage is extended to every male 21 years old who has resided in the town six months, excepting paupers and persons who at their own request are excused from paying taxes. According to the constitution only Protestants are eligible to the office of governor or as senators or representatives; but this provision is practically obsolete.
The selectmen of towns must submit to the inhabitants once in seven years the question of amending the constitution, when if a majority be in favor thereof a convention must be called, and if the amendments are carried by a two-thirds vote when submitted to the people they become law. The secretary, treasurer, state printer, and commissary general are chosen annually by joint ballot of the legislature. The salary of the governor is $1,000 per annum; secretary, $800 and fees; treasurer, $1,800; adjutant general, $600. Other interests of the state are under the supervision of commissioners of railroads, banks, insurance, and fisheries. All judicial officers, the attorney general, county solicitors, sheriffs, coroners, and registers of probate are appointed by the governor and council; county commissioners, treasurers, and registers of deeds are elected by the people. The judicial power is vested in a superior court of judicature and a circuit court, probate and police courts, and justices of the peace. The superior court consists of a chief, salary $2,400, and two associate justices, who receive $2,200 a year each. The circuit court consists of a chief and two associate justices, who receive $2,200 a year each.
Two annual law terms of the superior court are held in Concord, beginning on the first Tuesdays of June and December. At least two trial terms of the circuit court are held annually in each county. Besides appellate jurisdiction of all actions brought in the lower courts, the cir-cuit court has general jurisdiction of all civil and criminal actions at law and equity, and exclusive cognizance of all petitions for divorce. Married women may hold property to their sole and separate use, and may dispose of it by will. New Hampshire is represented in congress by three representatives and two senators, and has therefore five votes in the electoral college. The total debt of the state on June 1, 1874, was $3,826,590, all of which is funded and will mature in 31 years in nearly equal annual amounts. The actual revenue and expenses of the state for two years ending May 31 were as follows:
* Leased to Eastern of Massachusetts.
United States war claims.........
Balance municipal war loan
Increase municipal war loan
Excess of revenue over expenses
The chief items of expense were as follows: executive department, $3,130; secretary's, $2,845; treasury, $3,023; adjutant general's, $2,403; public instruction, $6,964; insurance department, $877; legislature, $45,549; supreme judicial court, $17,980; probate court, $7,662; state library, $2,393; compiling provincial records, $3,674; state house, $3,804; asylum for insane, $7,120; education of deaf and dumb, $3,198; education of blind, $2,850; reform school, $8,263; state prison, $2,467; New Hampshire medical school, $5,000; normal school, $5,486; volunteer militia, $13,767; board of agriculture, $4,934; mountain roads, $3,000; geological survey, $4,525. The total valuation of property in the state, made by the assessors of the several cities and towns for purposes of taxation, was reported at $103,652,835 in 1850, $127,018,117 in 1860, $129,856,167 in 1864, $149,065,290 in 1868, and $152,987,177 in 1872. These returns are considered to be very much below the real value, which is estimated at more than $250,-000,000. The true value of real and personal estate was reported by the federal census of 1870 at $252,624,112, and the assessed value at $149,065,290, including real estate valued at $85,231,288 and personal property at $63,834,-002. The state tax is divided among the sev-eral cities and towns according to an apportionment made every fourth year, based upon the assessed valuation of the taxable property.
The amount varies. Before the war, when the state was without debt, it never exceeded $70,000 a year; but since 1861 it has been as follows: for 1862, $80,000; 1863, $270,000; 1864, $500,000; 1865 and 1866, $750,000 each; 1867 and 1868, $625,000 each; 1869, 1870, and 1871, $600,000 each; 1872, $300,000; 1873, $600,000; 1874 and 1875, $400,000 each. Each city and town pays its proportion of this tax directly to the state treasury. Cities and towns also levy a tax for local purposes. The rate of taxation for all purposes varies in the several cities and towns, but is generally from 1½ to 2½ per cent, Railroads are taxed separately, the judges of the superior court fixing "the actual present value of the capital" and assessing it "as near as may be in proportion to the taxation of other property " in the towns where they are situated. The railroads pay these taxes to the state treasurer; and one fourth of the tax of each road is paid by him to the towns through which the road passes, in proportion to the share of its capital therein expended; such portion of the residue to towns where stock is owned as the number of shares owned there bears to the whole number of shares of the road; and the remainder goes to the state.
The proportion of this tax to some towns more than pays their state tax. Savings banks pay 1 per cent, on their deposits, which is divided among the towns in proportion to the amount of deposits held by citizens thereof. - New Hampshire has no institution for the blind or the deaf and dumb, but the state in 1874 paid $2,850 for the education of the former class in the Perkins institute in Boston, and $3,198 for the education of deaf and dumb at the American asylum in Hartford. The asylum for the insane, opened in 1842, is in Concord. In 1874 the state paid $6,000 for the support of indigent insane, and $873 for the convict insane. The number of inmates on April 30, 1874, was 281, while the total number cared for during the year was 416, and the average number was 267. Of the 140 admitted during the year, 109 were supported by themselves or friends. The state prison in Concord was established in 1812, and on May 1,1874, had 95 inmates. The earnings of the prison for the preceding year amounted to $23,679, including $22,106 from the labor of the convicts, and the expenses were $13,067, leaving a net profit of $10,612. The average number of working men was 75. The prisoners have the use of a library, and those who on entering cannot read or write are instructed in these branches.
The state reform school at Manchester, opened in 1855, had 91 inmates on May 30, 1874; the whole number during the year ending at that date was 149. Boys and girls under 17 years of age are committed for offences against the laws. The ordinary English branches are taught, The chief employments are chair seating and farming. The ordinary expenses for the year were $22,938; total expenses, $27,684; total receipts, $27,167, including $8,000 from state treasurer, $6,253 from labor of inmates, and $10,434 from towns, etc, for board of inmates. At Franklin is the New Hampshire orphans' home school of industry, a corporate institution which was opened in 1871, and is supported by contributions. - The general supervision of education is vested in the superintendent of public instruction, who is appointed by the governor and council for two years, and receives an annual salary of 81,200 and ex-penses. The several towns annually choose committees, who superintend the schools, examine teachers, grant certificates, dismiss teachers and pupils when necessary, select text books determine with the selectmen the location of school houses and change of districts, and make annual reports to the town and state.
Prudential committees are annually chosen by the districts, and have general charge of the school houses and the employment of teachers. In 1872 the legislature passed a law making women eligible as members of the town and prudential committees. High schools may he established by vote of the town or by the union of contiguous districts. There is no general state revenue for the maintenance of common schools. Public school- are supported by local taxation of property, each town being required to raise for this purpose $3 50 for every dollar of its apportionment of the state tax. Towns or districts may vote additional sums for school purposes. There is also a literary fund for the maintenance of public schools, arising from a tax of one half of one per cent, on the capital stock of savings hanks. Several towns and districts have permanent local funds for the support of schools. The state provides for the registration of pupils, statistical returns, and annual teachers' institutes in each county. A compulsory educational law was passed in June, 1871, requiring all children between 8 and 14 years of age to attend school at least 12 weeks every year, under penalty of $10 for the first and $20 for every subsequent violation of the statute.
The progress of the state in respect to public schools during the last decade is as follows:
1863 - '4
Number of school districts...........
of graded schools...........
Average length of schools in weeks...
Legal school age.
4 to 21
4 to 21
Total school population of the state...
Number of pupils enrolled...
Average daily attendance
Number of pupils between 4 and 14 not attending any school
Number of male teachers
Average monthly wages
Nurnber of female teachers
Average monthly wages
Amount of school revenue raised by taxation as required by law
Additional amount raised by town or district tax
Amount received from local funds. railroad tax, and literary fund
Amount contributed by individuals
Total school fund......
Average cost per pupil
Estimated total value of school houses
The state normal school was opened in 1871 at Plymouth, Grafton co. Up to June, 1874, the legislature had appropriated $18,000 for permanent improvements, and annual appropriations have been made for current expenses. The institution depends upon these annual appropriations and the proceeds from tuition; the rate per pupil is about $25 a year. Besides a preparatory course, there are two courses of instruction of one year each. A certificate of graduation from the first entitles the holder to teach in the state three years, and of the second five years. In 1874 there were four instructors in the normal department; the number of graduates from the opening of the school was 102. In 1873 the institutions for secondary instruction were reported as 27 high schools, 17 academies, 5 seminaries for females, and 4 institutes; 37 of these reported an aggregate attendance of 3,685 pupils, including 1,915 females, and 96 teachers, of whom 55 were females. There are three schools devoted chiefly to preparing boys for college, the most noted of which, Phillips academy at Exeter, is described in the article on that town. The other two, St. Paul's school in Concord and Kimball union academy at Meriden, have extended facilities for instruction and a large attendance.
The only college in the state is Dartmouth at Hanover, which besides the college proper comprises the Chandler scientific school, the Thayer school of civil engineering, the medical school, and the New Hampshire college of agriculture and mechanic arts. (See Dartmouth College.) The leading institutions for the superior instruction of females are Adams female academy at East Derry, Robinson female seminary at Exeter (see Exeter), Tilden seminary at West Lebanon, the New Hampshire conference seminary and female college at Tilton, and. the New Hampton literary institution at New Hampton. - According to the census of 1870, there were 1,526 libraries in the state, having 704,269 volumes. Of these 856, with 379,876 volumes, were private, and 670, with 324,393 volumes, other than private, including the state library in Concord, with 13,500 volumes; 32 town and city, 44,744; 21 school and college, 30,800; 538 Sabbath school, 164,570; 38 church, 7,425; 4 of historical, literary, and scientific societies, 18,510; and 29 circulating, 47,217. The largest library in the state is that of Dartmouth college, which had 46,000 volumes in 1874. The other chief libraries are the Manchester city library, 20,000 volumes; New Hampshire historical society, Concord, 7,500; Concord city library, 6,400; and the Portsmouth Athe-naBum, 12,000. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals in 1870 was 51, having an aggregate circulation of 173,919, and issuing annually 7,237,588 copies.
There were 7 daily, with a circulation of 6,100; 37 weekly, 75,819; and 1 semi-monthly, 67,000. In 1874 the whole number reported was 60, including 9 daily, 44 weekly, 6 monthly, and 1 quarterly. The total number of religious organizations in 1870 was 633, having 624 edifices with 210,090 sittings and property valued at $3,303,780. The leading denominations were as follows:
New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian
New Hampshire was first visited by Europeans in 1614, and the first settlements were made at Dover and Portsmouth in 1(523. In 1641 the district was annexed to Massachusetts; it was made a royal province in 1679, but was again joined to Massachusetts in 1689. In 1741 it became a separate province, and remained so till the revolution. The early settlers were greatly annoyed by the Indians until after the English got possession of Canada. In 1689, in revenge for some injuries done them 13 years before, a party of Indians attacked Dover, killed many of the inhabitants, and burned several houses. The settlements of New Hampshire were gradually extended further W. than the original limits prescribed by the grant to John Mason in 1629, and it was supposed till 1764 that the territory at present included in Vermont formed part of the province, and grants of land were made in that direction by the authorities. The disputed district was claimed by New York, and a vexatious controversy ensued, which lasted till the independence of Vermont was acknowledged in 1790. In 1776 New Hampshire made a public declaration of independence, and established a temporary government to continue during the war.
The state took an active part in the war of independence, and the men of New Hampshire were engaged on every battle field from Bunker hill to the surrender of Cornwallis. At the battles of Bennington, Stillwater, Saratoga, and Monmouth they were particularly distinguished for their bravery. On June 21, 1788, the state in convention ratified the constitution of the United States, 57 votes being cast for and 46 against it. On June 12, 1781, a convention assembled and prepared a constitution very similar to that which had been recently adopted in Massachusetts. After numerous alterations suggested by the people, the instrument went into force June 2, 1784. Pursuant to its provision for submitting the question of amending it to a vote at septennial periods, a convention assembled in Concord, Sept. 7,1791, and adopted amendments, which were approved by the people and went into force in September, 1792. This constitution has since continued the supreme law of the state. In 1849 another convention was called, which sat in Concord from Nov. 6, 1850, to April 17, 1851, and proposed numerous amendments; but only one was adopted, removing the property qualification of representatives.
In 1807 the seat of government was permanently established at Concord. The aggregate number of troops furnished to the federal army by New Hampshire during the civil war was 34,605, or, reduced to a three years' standard, 30,827. The geological survey of New Hampshire has now (1875) been in progress six years, under charge of the state geologist, Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock. Five brief annual reports have been made, and the first volume of the final report was published in 1875. It is devoted to physical geography, and treats among other things of climatology, topography, altitudes, river systems, distribution of animals (particularly insects) and plants, agricultural geology, scenery, etc. Prof. Hitchcock has drawn a new map of the state, on a scale of 2½ m. to the inch.