Greenfield , the shire town of Franklin co., Massachusetts, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, 20 m. N. of Northampton, and 80 m. W. N. W. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 3,589. It is situated at the junction of the Vermont and Massachusetts with the Connecticut River railroad, and is connected with Albany and Troy by the Troy and Greenfield line, which passes through the Hoosac tunnel. It is supplied with water power by Green and Fall rivers, the latter of which forms part of the E. boundary. Besides the county buildings, it contains three manufactories of hardware for children's carriages, one of children's carriages, one of bolt-cutting machines, one of plumbs and levels, one of bench planes and ox shoes, a tannery, a carriage factory, and a sash and blind factory. The first manufactory of table cutlery in the United States was established here by John Russell in 1834, under the name of the Green River manufacturing company; destroyed by fire in 1836, it was rebuilt near Greenfield village, but within the limits of the town of Deerfield. The J. Russell manufacturing company of table cutlery was established in 1855; in 1870 its works were removed to Turner's Falls, a village on the E. bank of the Connecticut, 2 1/2 m. from Greenfield, with which it is connected by a suspension bridge built in 1872. Greenfield contains two national banks with an aggregate capital of $500,000, two savings banks with deposits amounting to $3,500,000, four hotels, gas works, water works, 10 public schools, including a high school, a young ladies' select school, a town library of 4,000 volumes, and seven churches, and has two weekly newspapers.
The town was separated from Deerfield in 175:3.