Janesville, a city and the county seat of Rock co., Wisconsin, in the S. part of the state, situated on both sides of Rock river, and at the intersection of the Wisconsin division of the Chicago and Northwestern railroad with the Prairie du Chien division of the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul line, 35 m. S. E. of Madison and 71 m. W. S. W. of Milwaukee; pop. in 1860, 7,703; in 1870, 8,789. The ground on which the city is built rises gradually on either side to an elevation of nearly 100 ft. at the summit. The court house occupies a commanding position on the E. side of the river. An active trade is carried on by the railroads, and a large amount of capital is invested in manufactures, Rock river affording valuable water power. The principal establishments are flour mills, saw mills, machine shops, founderies, woollen factories, carriage factories, breweries, etc. There are two national banks, with a capital of $225,000, and a savings bank. The city is the seat of the state institution for the education of the blind, supported by legislative appropriations, and open to pupils from Wisconsin free of charge except for clothing. This institution was founded in 1850, and in 1873 had 77 pupils.

There are 14 public schools, including a high school, which in 1872 had 28 teachers and 1,150 pupils; a daily, a semi-weekly, and three weekly newspapers, and 11 churches. Janesville was founded about 1836, made the county seat in 1839, and incorporated as a city in 1853.