Nicolas Louis Carat

Nicolas Louis Carat, a French landscape painter, born in Paris, Dec. 24, 1812. He studied under Camille Flers, explored the picturesque regions of France and subsequently of Italy, produced his first work in 1833, and acquired celebrity as a landscape painter of the realistic school. His earlier paintings resemble those of the old Flemish masters, but his later ones display less vigor and charm of execution, and are more after the style of Poussin. Among his more recent works are "The Ravine of Villeroy " (1855), " Pond in the Wood " (1859), and " Solitude " (1865). In 1867 he was elected member of the academy of fine arts.

Nicolas Stem

Nicolas Stem, a Danish anatomist born in Copenhagen in 1638, died in 1686. He studied medicine at Copenhagen and afterward at Leyden, where he graduated in 1664. Very early in his professional life he discovered the existence, course, and office of the excretory duct of the parotid gland, since known as "Steno's duct."He acquired reputation by his anatomical writings, became physician to the grand duke of Tuscany, and afterward professor of anatomy at Copenhagen. Returning to Florence, he became a Catholic in 1669 and a priest in 1677, and was for the rest of his life a missionary with the title of apostolic vicar of the see of Rome for all the north.

Nicole Reine Etable De Labriere Lepaute

Nicole Reine Etable De Labriere Lepaute, ma-dame, a French mathematician, born in Paris, Jan. 5, 1723, died at St. Cloud, Dec. 6, 1788. She was married in 1748 to the celebrated mechanician and clockmaker Jean Andre Le-paute (1709-'89), and was the principal author of his Traite d'horlogerie (1755). In 1757 she assisted Clairaut and Lalande in calculating the attraction of Jupiter and Saturn on the comet predicted by Halley. Lalande acknowledged her services in his Theorie des cometes, and Babinet likewise rendered justice to her genius. From 1754 to 1759 she edited La Con-naissance des Temps, an astronomical annual of the academy of sciences, in which in 1763 she published a table of paralactic angles for the better observation of the progress of the eclipse predicted for April 1, 1764. She also wrote Exposition du calcul astronomiqve.


Nicolet, a central county of Quebec, Canada, bounded N. W. by the St. Lawrence, and intersected by the Bécancour; area, 593 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 23,262, of whom 22,621 were of French origin or descent. It is traversed by the Three Rivers division of the Grand Trunk railway. Capital, Bécancour.


Nicollet, a S. E. county of Minnesota, bounded E. and S. W. by the Minnesota river; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,362. Its surface is level, and contains several lakes, of which Swan lake is the largest. The soil is fertile. The Winona and St. Peter railroad passes through it. The chief productions in 1870 were 315,803 bushels of wheat, 83,256 of Indian corn, 264,565 of oats, 32,411 of barley, 36,158 of potatoes, 24,446 tons of hay, 5,389 lbs. of wool, 250,844 of butter, and 4,117 gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 1,879 horses, 3,189 milch cows, 788 working oxen, 3,386 other cattle, 1,619 sheep, and 1,982 swine; 2 manufactories of brick, 3 of furniture, 1 tannery, and 1 flour mill. Capital, St. Peter.