Nicolo Canale, a Venetian admiral who lived in the second half of the 15th century. In 1469 he was commander of the Venetian fleet at Negropont (the ancient Chalcis), and succeeded in seizing the town of Enos, belonging to Turkey, but wholly occupied by Greeks. The cruelties perpetrated upon the inoffensive inhabitants created great indignation at Constantinople, and Mohammed 1L, with a view of avenging the outrages, besieged Negropont with a force of 120,000 men, and after a violent contest expelled the Venetians in July, 1470. Canale, to whom this defeat was attributed, was sentenced to death by the council of ten; but at the instance of Pope Paul II. and of other influential persons, his punishment was commuted to exile for life at Porto Gruero, where he died.
Nicolo Vaccaj, an Italian composer, born at Tolentino in the Papal States in 1791, died in Milan in 1849. He was a pupil of Paisiello at Naples, and from 1811 to 1820 wrote operas, cantatas, and ballets, which had a moderate success. He then taught singing in Venice, Trieste, and Vienna, and wrote Pietro il Grande, a comic opera performed at Parma, Zadig ed Astartea, performed at Naples, and Giulietta e Romeo, performed at Milan, his best work. He afterward taught singing in Paris and London, but returned to Italy in 1832, and in 1838 became first master of composition at the conservatory of Milan, which post he held till his death.
Nicolo Zingarelli, an Italian composer, born in Rome, April 4, 1752, died in Naples, May 5,1837. He composed the opera of Montezuma in 1781, followed by numerous other operas for Italian theatres, and produced his Antigone unsuccessfully in Paris in 1789. He became musical director of the chapel of the Vatican in 1804, in 1813 director or the new conservatory in Naples, and in 1816 musical director at the cathedral. He composed about 16 operas, besides many cantatas and oratorios, and a variety of church music.
Nicomedia, the capital of ancient Bithynia, on the Astacenian gulf, at the E. extremity of the Propontis. It was built in 264 B. C. by Nicomedes I., and for six centuries prospered, being often, under the Roman empire, the residence of the emporors while engaged in their eastern wars. It was adorned with many magnificent buildings, the ruins of which still exist, but is especially celebrated as having been the place where the historian Arrian was born, where Hannibal and Constantine the Great died, and Diocletian abdicated. The modern name is Ismid, and the place is still of some importance. (See Ismid).
Nicopolis, a city of ancient Greece, in Epi-rus, on the Ambracian gulf, built by Augustus to commemorate his victory over Mark Antony, achieved off the neighboring promontory of Actium (31 B. C). It was peopled from the Epirotic towns, invested with the privileges of a Roman colony, and raised to the dignity of an amphictyonic city. The conqueror erected a temple to Neptune and Mars, and instituted a quinquennial festival styled Actia. Under his successors this city became the capital of Epirus, but it decayed in the middle ages. Numerous ruins remain, and the great theatre is one of the best preserved of Roman theatres.