Evening Standard - established in 1827; 1d; now forms an evening edition of the. Standard".

Pall Mall Gazette - established in 1865; 2d.; politics liberal; remarkable for literary ability, and in part a literary review.

Echo - established in December, 1868; ½d.; independent; general newspaper.

Globe - established in 1803; Id.; politics conservative.

Shipping and Mercantile Gazette - established in January, 1836; 5d.; commercial.

There are also several local daily papers, like the "Daily Chronicle and Clerkenwell News" and others, devoted to London interests exclusively, or to particular localities. The "London Gazette," the organ of publication for official acts, appointments, etc, appears twice, and several other papers (in one or two cases summaries of news for the foreign mails) thrice a week. There are more than 150 weekly papers in London; they include "Punch" and such literary organs as the " Athenaeum," " Saturday Review," "Spectator," "Academy,"etc, and a very great number of papers devoted to special branches of science and art and occupations and classes of society. Among the weekly papers which reach the highest circulation are the "Illustrated London News" and the "Graphic," the latter an illustrated paper of very great artistic merit. Both devote much space to the illustration of current events. - French newspapers date their origin from the publication of the Mercure franco is (1605-'45), a kind of historical compilation. Their more immediate prototype was the Gazette issued by Theophraste Renaudot in 1631, and continued under the name of Gazette des Recueils and Gazette de France till about 1789, appearing generally once, and for some time twice a week, and at length daily.

A poetical newspaper, which chiefly treated of local gossip and scandal, was published by Loret for about 15 year, during the second half of the 17th century. The Mercure galant (1672), a species of literary journal, was succeeded by the Nou-veau Mercure and Mercure de France, which was discontinued in 1815. The Journal Etran-ger, edited by the abbe Arnaud and Frerois, and having among its contributors Rousseau, Grimm, and Prevost, existed till 1763, when Arnaud became one of the editors of the Gazette de France. The Moniteur, the official organ of the government, was founded in 1789 and treated of moral and. political subjects; while some of its contemporaries, especially the notorious Nouvelles d la Main, contained a budget of scandalous intelligence. From the close of the 17th century to the middle of the 18th, many weekly and monthly journals were published in Paris, chiefly literary and scientific, with which the most eminent men of France were connected. The first daily political newspaper was the Journal de Paris, on Poste du Soir (1777-1825). The first political editor who attracted general attention was Linguet, who was connected from 1774 till 1783 with the Journal de Politique et de Litte-rature, better known under the title of Journal de Bruxelles, although it was issued in Paris. The famous Courrier de l'Europe was published in London (1776-'89) twice a week for 6d. a number; on its staff were Morande, Bris-sot, and. the count de Montlosier. The revolution gave a powerful impulse to French journalism, and Mirabeau's Courrier de Provence (1789) became the precursor of thousands of newspapers of every description, the most violent of which was Marat's Ami du Peuple. After the 18th Brumaire all the political journals of Paris excepting 13 were suppressed by the first consul, and under the empire only live were permitted to appear, viz.: the Moniteur, Gazette de France, Journal de Paris, Journal des De-bats (under the temporary name of Journal de l'Empire), and Petites Ajficlies. The condition of the press did not much improve after the restoration.

The censorship was replaced in 1825 by securities to be furnished by each proprietor of a Parisian journal to the extent of 200,000 francs, and somewhat less in the provinces. The increase of the stamp duty from 5 to 10 centimes caused the price of the leading journals to be raised from 72 to 80 francs a year. The Journal des Debats was originally founded Aug. 29, 1789, by the printer Bau-douin, Barrere, and Louvet, passed in 1800 into the hands of Louis Francois Bertin the elder, and has since remained the property of the Bertin family. It was conspicuous for the support of existing authorities, but after the restoration it advocated a moderate liberalism. Its literary and scientific departments have always held the highest rank; and, besides many others of nearly equal fame, it has counted among its regular contributors Royer-Col-lard, Malte-Brun, Geoffroy Saint-IIilaire, Saint-Marc Girardin, Jules Janin, Michel Chevalier, Philarete Chasles, Prevost-Paradol, and Ilippo-lyte Taine. The Journal des Debats has continued to hold its prominent place through all the political changes of recent years, and still advocates a policy of moderate liberalism- One of the most prominent journals during the latter part of the restoration was the Globe, which counted among its contributors Guizot, Cousin, Jouffroy, and the duke de Broglie, and after-ward'Remusat, Saint-Marc Girardin, and Car-not. Many of its writers were brought into political prominence by the revolution of 1830, after which the Globe appeared for a few years as an organ of St. Simonism. The Constitutionnel, established in the early period of the restoration, opposed the elder Bourbons, and reflected in a great measure the views of aspiring and influential politicians of the higher middle class and of the military and civil aristocracy created by Napoleon. Thiers and Mignet wrote largely for this journal until toward the end of the restoration, when they found a more energetic outlet for their liberal opinions in the National; and shortly after the July revolution the Constitutionnel lost its political influence.

The National, founded at the beginning of 1830, rapidly gained importance through the influence of Louis Philippe, Talleyrand, Laffitte, and other opponents of the elder branch of the Bourbons; and its first editoral staff comprised Thiers, Mignet, and Carrel. It contributed powerfully to the overthrow of the government of Charles X., soon after which it became, under the sole editorship of Carrel, equally opposed to that of his successor. Carrel was succeeded by Bas-tide, and the latter by Armand Marrast; and the National took as prominent a part in the overthrow of Louis Philippe as it had in that of Charles X. The foundation in 1836 of the Presse, by Emile de Girardin, at 40 francs a year, half the price of the leading journals, called the cheap press into existence. A powerful means of the success of the Presse and of the Siècle, which also reduced its price to 40 francs, was the publication of novels in their feuilletons, for which the services of Eugène Sue, Alexandre Dumas, and other celebrated writers were enlisted at extravagant prices. The fortunes of the Constitutionnel were also revived under the editorship of Dr. Vèron, by the reduction of its price, and by the publication in its feuilletons of Le Juif errant, for which he paid Eugéne Sue 100,000 francs.

Sainte-Beuve was for a long time its literary critic. Under the direction of Véron, the Constitutionnel increased its circulation to upward of 20,000; and the general influence of the cheap press, and its handmaid the feuilleton, increased the aggregate of subscribers from 70,000 in 1835, when the number of the principal daily journals in Paris was 20, to 180,000 in 1845, when there were 26. The Steéle became the favorite paper of the lower middle classes, and reached in 1846 a circulation of upward of 40,000. Within three months after the revolution of 1848, about 400 new journals sprang into existence, many of which were ultra socialistic or democratic. The principal organ of the moderate republicans was still the National, and of the more radical party the Réforme, founded by Godefroy Cavaignac and edited by Flocon. After June, 1848, the newspapers were again required to deposit security and pay stamp duty, and many were consequently obliged to stop. The estimated daily circulation of newspapers in Paris in 1850 was: of republican organs, 129,000; Orlean-ist and legitimist, 83,000; Bonapartist, 65,000; total, 277,000. The coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, terminated the existence of the National, as well as of many other liberal organs.

The restrictions imposed under the second empire were extremely unfavorable to the growth of the French political press, and comparatively few new papers attained other than literary importance during the earlier years of Napoleon's rule. In 1853, instead of the former multitude of Parisian daily journals, there were but 14 having the slightest importance; of these the following are noteworthy: the Journal des Débats, Presse, Siècle, Constitutionnel, Pays, Patrie, Univers, Assern-blee nationale, Gazette de Prance, Union, and Charivari. The Moniteur was the official journal till 1869, when it was replaced by the Journal officiel. Of later origin than those just named were the Temps, France, Avenir national, Opinion nationale, Liberte, Courrier francais, Epoque, National, Paris-Journal, the long prominent Gaulois, and the very successful Figaro. All of these met with some success and influence, though only the last has attained any remarkable permanerft position. Nearly all were subjected to frequent prosecutions, and several were suppressed.

It was only in the later years of the empire that the political press again became a formidable power in France. Rochefort's Lanterne (1868), a weekly publication entirely devoted to attacks upon the emperor and his party, marks an epoch in the history of French journalism, and attained a most extraordinary success and influence. The Rappel, Cloche, Marseillaise, Journal de Paris, and many other political sheets sprang up and became involved in endless difficulties with the government; but their influence was great and their circulation in some cases phenomenal. The revolution of Sept. 4, 1870, had much the same influence upon the French press as that exercised by the proclamation of the republic in 1848; calling into existence a multitude of new papers, many of which attained considerable temporary success in spite of the Prussian siege and the disturbed state of the capital. Such were the Vérite, Constitution, Mot d"Ordre, Patrie en Banger, Bien public, and Soir. The communal insurrection, largely excited by and under the partial guidance of journalists of the revolutionary order, gave rise to an immense number of popular journals, most of them of the most violent character; but only one or two survived the downfall of the commune.

Prominent among them were the Cri du Peuple, Paris libre, Sociale, Bonnet Rouge, Commune, Affranchi, Reveil du Peuple, Père Duchene, and Montague. Among the more prominent journals which have appeared since the suppression of the commune and the return of political affairs to the ordinary channel, are the République francaise, the Radical (which was suppressed after a brief existence), and the XIX'Steele. In all, Paris lias 791 periodicals, of which 118 are political, 90 scientific, 78 religious, 58 devoted to fashion, 4-2 legal, 3!) financial, 14 military, 9 naval, and 8 architectural. - Italian newspapers are traced to the early gazzette of Venice of the 16th century, many volumes of which in manuscript are preserved in the Ma-gliabecchian library, while one printed copy dated 1570 is in the British museum. In more modern times the principal newspapers consisted at first only of those serving as official organs of the respective authorities, as the Di-ario di Roma and Gazzetta di Napoli. The Voce della Veritd, published in Modena (1831), was ultra conservative; and the Antologia, established ten years earlier in Florence, was ultra liberal.

The total number of Italian newspapers in 1836 was 171; in 1845, 205. After the accession of Pope Pius IX. in 1846, Italy produced an enormous crop of new journals, chiefly revolutionary, which were discontinued in 1849; and with the exception of Sardinia, the Italian press was again put under restraint until 1859-'60. The changes of those years conferred an almost complete freedom upon the whole Italian press, and called into existence a great number of new political journals. In 1859 the Turin Opinione, which is still an important Italian journal, reduced its price to one sou. With the Diritto, another important paper, the Opinione was removed to Florence in 1865, on the removal of the capital to that city. Between that year and 1870 Florence remained the central point of Italian journalism, and all parties were represented there by political newspapers; but on the second transfer of the seat of government to Rome nearly all of these again removed thither, and are now published in the new political centre.

The chief of them, besides the Opinione already referred to, arc the official organ, the Gazzetta ufficiale del Regno d'ltalia, and L'ltalie, published in French and looked upon as the organ of the department of foreign affairs. - The first regular newspaper in Spain was the court journal, Diario de Madrid, established about the middle of the 18th century. After the establishment of the liberty of the press in 1834, nearly 20 political journals were started in Madrid alone, and more than 40 were published there in 1844, the Heraldo (moderado organ) circulating 7,000 daily. Satirical and humorous papers nave played an important part in the history of Spanish journalism, and many of the ablest writers are engaged in the conduct of literary, scientific, artistic, and religious papers. About 30 journals were published at the beginning of 1861 in Madrid, the most important of which were the Clamor publico and Espafla; and in 1863 the total number in Spain was 279, of which 93 were devoted to special scientific or literary branches. After the political reaction of 1866 all the more influential liberal papers were suspended. Many of them were renewed in 1868, but without force or vigor, and suffering constant official persecution.

At this time the Diario espanol, Politico, and other journals, represented the liberal party; the absolutist organs were the Esperanza, Pensamiento espanol, Lealtad, and several other papers; the Espanol and Espafla were ministerial organs. Portuguese newspapers are confined to the organ of government, the Diario do Governo, and some half dozen other journals published in Lisbon, and to a corresponding number in Oporto and other cities. - German newspapers were preceded by irregular publications of news, a specimen of the oldest of which, dated in 1494, is preserved in the university library of Leipsic. Summaries of events, generally in Latin, and with such titles as Relationes Semestrales, Re-lationum Historiearum Pentaplus, etc, were frequently published at stated intervals in Germany during the 16th century. The first regular journal was a weekly paper established in 1615 by Egenolph Emm el, a bookseller at Frankfort, and published at his own expense. In imitation of this the Frankfurter Ober-postamts-Zeitung, the oldest successful German paper, was founded in 1616 by the postmaster, Johann von der Birghden. Beginning as a weekly, it was many years later made a daily paper, and as such existed till 1866. This was followed by newspapers in all the leading cities of Germany, and by the middle of the 17th century they had become subject in most cases to government censorship, and generally contained little besides official publications.

One considerable journal, Der Hamburgische Correspondent, was founded in 1714; but with this exception the history of the German press is unimportant until the period of the French revolution, when many political papers sprang up in Germany as elsewhere. The Vossische Zeitung, still an important journal of Berlin, and the Spener'sche Zeitung, which held a prominent place until the year 1874, when it stopped publication, had been founded before that period, but were almost exclusively literary until the events of 1789-'93. In 1798 appeared at Tubingen the Allgemeine Zeitung (now of Augsburg), destined to surpass in success and permanence all other German journals. It was founded by Cotta the publisher, and was at first called Neueste Weltlcunde, but almost immediately changed to its permanent title. It suffered from repeated government persecutions on account of its outspoken character; and in 1799 it was transferred from Tubingen to Stuttgart, in 1803 to Ulm, and in 1824 to Augsburg, the present place of publication. Its conductors have been successively Posselt, Ruber, Stegmann, Kolb and Heboid, Kolb and Altenhofer, and since Kolb's death in 1865 Altenhöfer alone.

After the beginning of the present century the growth of the German press was very rapid, though for a time the French rule prevented the existence of any really national school of journalism, and political papers of consequence only appeared after 1813. Kotzebue's Russisch-deutsches Volksblatt (Berlin), Niebuhr's Der Preussische Correspondent, Brockhaus's Deutsche Blatter, Görres's Der Rheinische Mercur, and Der Deutsche Beo-bachter of Hamburg were among the most influential journals of this period, though most of them were short-lived. Vienna had at this time the Austrian official organ, the Wiener Zeitung, and Der 0ester reichische Beobachter, which was regarded as semi-official. In Berlin, the Preussische Staatszeitung was founded about 1816. In 1819 a decree of the Bundestag placed the press throughout Germany under an exceedingly strict censorship, and thus its rapid increase was again suddenly checked. The French revolution of 1830 gave a fresh impetus to its progress, and called into existence several radical journals, as Siebenpfeiffer's Westbote, Wirth's Deutsche Tribune, and Der Freisinnige by Rotteck and Welcker; but most of them were suppressed in 1833. Among the ablest journals published between that period and the revolution of 1848 was the Bheinische Zeitung, established in Cologne in 1841, where it continued until 1850. The increase from 1840 to 1848 was steady and moderately rapid.

Several noteworthy journals attained success during this period, the more important being the Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung (begun in October, 1837), which in 1843 changed its name to that of Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, and the Kblnische Zeitung. The Bremer Zeitung and Weserzeitung also gained their first importance at this time. The revolution of 1848 caused the birth of a great multitude of journals, most of them of the violent political order, and very short-lived. In 1849 the total number of German newspapers, excluding purely scientific and literary journals, was 1,551. This includes the German papers of Austria, Switzerland, and the Baltic provinces of Russia. From that date the number steadily increased; in 1855 it was estimated at 1,600, besides 860 scientific and literary journals; and in 1868 the number of journals of all kinds was 2,566, of which 761 were entirely political. The wars of 1866 and 1870-'71, the unification and rapid advance in power of the German empire, and other causes have contributed to foster the growth of the German press. Its gain in influence in Europe has been accompanied by a corresponding increase in ability, and it is now more prominent than ever as a political power.

In March, 1872, the most trustworthy statistics obtainable gave the number of German journals as follows (excluding all purely literary and scientific publications not properly included under the name of newspaper): in Prussia, 951; Bavaria, 250; Saxony, 119; Wurtem-berg, 102; Baden, 72; Hesse, 53; Mecklen-burg-Schwerin, 51; other states of the empire, 145; total, 1,743. The principal dailies in Berlin (1875) are the Vossische Zeitung, Volkszei-tung, Staatsburgerzeitung, Nationalzeitung, Neue Preussische Zeitung (commonly known as the Kreuzzeitung), Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (semi-official), Post, and ZuJcunft (democratic). The Börsenzeitung and Bank-und Handelszeitung are the principal financial journals. The Staatsanzeiger and (since 1871) the Reichsanzeiger are official, corresponding to the London "Gazette." The Intelligenz-blatt is an important local sheet, and is the favorite for advertisements. Kladderadatsch is a humorous weekly corresponding to the London "Punch," and there are great numbers of other weekly papers. In all, Berlin in 1871 published 175 newspapers, including weeklies and similar periodicals.

Leading journals of the empire outside of Berlin are the very influential Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung, already mentioned, the Kölnische Zeitung, the Hamburger Correspondent, the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung of Leipsic, and the Stettiner Zeitung. The Austrian press is much inferior to that of the German empire, and has had its growth almost entirely in Vienna. In 1846 there were in the whole territory of Austria but 155 periodicals of all classes, and among them only 41 political journals, most of which were practically made up from the Wiener Zeitung, the official government organ. The revolution of 1848 called forth in Austria as elsewhere a multitude of political newspapert?; but they were unimportant and short-lived. Only within the last decade has Austrian journalism attained a greater influence; and this is now almost entirely centred in the Vienna press. The chief journals of that city, besides the official Wiener Zeitung, are the Neue freie Presse (which in ability and influence rivals the foremost journals of the German empire), the Presse, and the Abendpost; and there are several cheaper journals of wide circulation, such as the Morgenpost, Fremdenblatt, and Vorstadtzeitung. Outside of Vienna are the Bohemia at Prague, the Mahrischer Correspondent at Brfinn, and the Triester Zeitung at Trieste. - The first regular series of Hungarian newspapers was published in Latin in 1721, and the first in the vernacular tongue appeared in 1781 in Presburg. The principal Hungarian journals shortly before the revolution of 1848-'9 were the Jelenkor ("Present Age"), the organ of Count Szechenyi, Vildg ("Light"), Budapesti h'iradb ("Buda-Pesth Intelligencer," edited by Count Emil Dessewffy), Pesti hirlap ("Pesth Journal," edited by Kossuth), and the Pesther Zeitung, in German. Among the most celebrated journals which sprang up during the revolution were the Közlony ("Organ"), the revolutionary Moniteur, and Kossuth hirlapja ("Kossuth's Journal"), edited by Bajza. Among the principal newspapers which have appeared in Hungary since the revolution are the Buda-pesti naplb ("Buda-Pesth Diary"), edited by Baron Kemeny, the Hon ("Fatherland' ), edited by Jokai, and the Pesther Lloyd, in German. In 1868 the total number of journals and similar periodical publications was 205, 53 being political; 111 were printed in Hungarian, 29 in Slavic languages, 55 in German, 6 in Roumanian, and 4 in Italian. - The first Turkish newspaper appeared in French in 1795, but the actual founder of journalism in Turkey was Alexandre Blacque (father of Blacque Bey, late Turkish minister to the United States), who established at Smyrna in 1825 the Spec-tateur d'Orient, which, under its subsequent title of Courrier de Smyrne, exerted considerable influence during the Greek revolution.

The official journal has appeared in French since 1831 under the title of Moniteur Otto-man, and in Turkish since 1832 under that of Taquimi Vaqdi. The leading Constantinople journals are now the Journal de Constantinople in French, the Dyeridei Havadis in Turk-is. and the "Levant Herald" and "Levant Times" in English; besides which several other papers in French, Italian, modern Greek, and Armenian are published in various parts of the Ottotnan empire. A modern Syrian newspaper has been published by missionary enterprise since 1850 at Oroomiah. Armenian journals have existed at various periods in Vienna, Venice, Transcaucasia, Calcutta, Madras, and Singapore, some of which are still in existence. - The origin of Greek newspapers dates from the national independence. The centre of Greek journalism is Athens. The number of periodicals published in Greece is more than 80, of which about 75 are in the Greek language. The leading political journal of Athens is the Spectateur d'Orient, a semi-monthly journal published there in French since 1852. There are journals published at Syra, and in the Ionian islands; there are several publications in English and Italian as well as in Greek. - Newspapers were established in the Low Countries before they were known in Great Britain, France, or Germany. The earliest appears to have been the Nieuwe Tydinghen, published at Antwerp by Abraham Verhoeven in 1005. No copy of this journal anterior to 1619 is now known to exist, and it is somewhat uncertain whether it was from the beginning a regular periodical.

It was followed by the Port-Ty-dinghen, which was published between 1037 and 1644, and was the foundation of the Ga-zettevan Antwerpen, which continued till 1827. At Brussels at least two newspapers were in existence between 1637 and 1045. The Annates politiques of that city was a famous journal of the last century, and the Austrian government subscribed for 1,200 copies of it annually. It was so popular that a pirated edition was regularly printed and circulated. The most noted Belgian journals at the present day are the Moniteur beige, the official paper, the Independance beige, an organ of the liberal party, and Le Nord, a Russian organ, published in Brussels, and conducted with much ability. Independent newspapers are the Echo de Bruxelles and the Journal de Belgique, both published at Brussels. Holland has numerous newspapers, but none of much political importance. The principal ones are the Han-dclsblad of Amsterdam, the Courant of Haarlem, and the Staats Courant and the Journal de la Haye, both published at the Hague. - In proportion to its population, Switzerland has a more productive periodical literature than almost any other European nation; and the Swiss political and general press is especially flourishing.

In 1868 there were 375 journals of all classes, of which 240 were printed in German, 110 in French, and 13 in Italian. Most of these papers are circulated in small neighborhoods, discuss local affairs, and have little political influence; but a few, such as Der Bund in Bern, the Neue Züricher Zeitung, the Journal de Geneve, and the Gazette de Lausanne, are more widely known and read. - Peter the Great took a personal part in the establishment of the first Russian journal, published at Moscow in 1703. Journals appearing once or twice a week are published in almost every chief city of the Russian governments; but the principal seats of Russian journalism are St. Petersburg and Moscow. There is no journal in Russia which corresponds exactly to the French Moniteur. The "Gazette of the Senate " is official in regard to the publication of laws, ukases, and other regulations of a strictly administrative character. Other official organs are the Journal de St. Peters-bourg, published in French, for information in regard to the imperial court and to foreign affairs, and the "Northern Post," concerning the interior administration. During the reign of Nicholas the "Northern Bee" had considerable influence. The Invalide russe is a semi-official organ in military affairs.

The "Police Gazette" of St. Petersburg relates chiefly to police regulations. Among the other daily journals are the " Son of the Fatherland," the " St. Petersburg Gazette," and the " Commercial Gazette," which last is published both in Russian and German; and the most prominent of them all is the Golos ("The Voice"). The most popular humorous journal is Iskra (" The Spark"). The principal daily journals of Moscow are the " Russian Messenger," the " Police Gazette," and the " Moscow Gazette," the oldest and most influential political journal of the empire, edited by Katkoff. In the Baltic provinces daily journals are published in German, particularly in Riga. The journals of Finland are published in Swedish, and those of Poland and Lithuania in Polish. Owing to the restrictions on the press, however, the Polish journals of Warsaw and Wilna are insignificant compared with those published in Galicia, such as the Cracow Czas ("Times") and the Lemberg Gazeta Narodowa ("National Gazette"), or in Posen. In Kazan a journal is published in Tartar, in Astrakhan one in Kalmuck. Odessa has daily journals in French and Italian. - The earliest newspaper in Sweden was the Ordinarie Post-Tidning, established in 1643; but the journals had little political influence till 1820, when the Argus appeared at Stockholm. Since then the Fclderneslandet and the Aftonbladet have been the principal journals of the capital, the former conservative, the latter liberal.

There is a newspaper published in every considerable town of the kingdom; the total number of periodicals published in 1867 was 179. The Christiania Intelligentssedler, founded in 1763, is the oldest newspaper in Norway. The Gon-stitutionelle at Bergen is the organ of the government; and the Morgenblad, established at the same place in 1819, is the journal of the popular party. The oldest newspaper of Denmark is the Berlingshe Tidende, which was first published in 1749 in German, but now appears in Danish. Until 1830 Copenhagen had but two journals, and those of little influence. In 1849 the number of political papers in the kingdom was 36. The total number of periodicals is now upward of 200. - In China, a species of newspaper has existed at Peking for centuries under the title of King Chau, "Court Transcripts," which is commonly called by Europeans the " Peking Gazette." It is compiled from the papers presented before the general council of the empire, and constitutes the principal medium available to the people for ascertaining what is going on in the country. Couriers are despatched to all parts of China bearing copies of these papers to the high provincial officers. Anybody is permitted to print these documents without note or change, and to sell them to the people.

In the provinces thousands of persons find employment in copying and abridging them. In 1827 an English weekly newspaper, the " Canton Register," was established at Canton; and in 1836 a similar journal, the " Canton Press," made its appearance. At present the " North China Mail" and " Shanghai Herald" at Shanghai, and the " China Mail" at Hong Kong, are the principal English newspapers in that quarter. In the island of Penang the "Prince of Wales Island Gazette" was founded in 1805, suspended for some years, and revived in 1833. At Singapore, the "Singapore Chronicle" was established in 1823; at the same place the " Straits Times " is now published. - In India, "Hicking's Gazette " was established at Calcutta, in January, 1871; and in 1795 the Bengal Hurkuru made its appearance and still continues, the oldest of the Indian newspapers. It became a daily in April, 1819. Until 1835 the press in India was restrained either by a censorship or by the right assumed by the East India company of deporting to Europe obnoxious editors. (See Buckingham, James Silk, and Duane, William.) A law in 1835 removed all arbitrary restrictions upon the press.

On the outbreak of the sepoy mutiny in 1857, an act was passed prohibiting the use of the press except under a license; this act, however, was by its term limited to one year from date. The leading English journals now in existence in Hindostan are the "Friend of India" at Serampore, the "Gazette" and "Englishman" at Calcutta, the "Athenaeum" and "Spectator" at Madras, the "Herald" at Bangalore, the "Times," "Telegraph," and "Gazette" at Bombay, the " Gazette" at Delhi, the " Observer" at Poonah, and the " Chronicle " at Lahore. At Calcutta and at some other cities there are newspapers in the native languages. - The first newspaper in Australia was the " Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser," founded in 1803 by George Howe. At present a great number exist in the various colonies, of which the principal dailies are: at Melbourne, the "Argus," the "Age," and the "Herald;" at Sydney, the "Herald" and the "Empire." In New Zealand the "Southern Cross," "New Zealand Gazette," and a number of other papers are published.

Several are published in Tasmania, at Hobart Town and Launceston, and also several in Cape Colony; the first of which was the "South African Commercial Advertiser," established in 1824. - In the Hawaiian islands several newspapers are published in Hawaiian and English. The chief of the latter are the "Honolulu Gazette" and " Pacific Advertiser." In Japan there are several papers in English, the "Japan Herald" of Yokohama being the best known; in the native language there is an official government gazette, and within a few years several political journals, modelled upon those of Europe, have been begun at Tokio (Yedo). - Among the countries of South America, Brazil, with a total of about 60 dailies and a very large number of weeklies and periodicals, has the most important press. The leading papers are of course published at Rio de Janeiro; the number of periodical publications of all kinds in that city is 58. The leading dailies are the Diario official and the Jornal do Rio. There are also four English and four French newspapers, and one German. An influential daily, the Diario de Bahia, is published at Bahia. The press of the Argentine Republic, having its chief activity in Buenos Ayres, ranks next to that of Brazil. "The Standard," published in English, is the leading daily; others are the Tribuna, the National, and the usual Diario official.

There are also papers in French, German, and Italian. Venezuela has several important dailies, chief among them the Fede-ralista and the Opinion national, published at Caracas. Peru has a very influential press, the Comercio and Hcraldo of Lima having a wide circulation outside the country as well as in it. In all, Peru has nearly 40 journals. In Chili the Ferrocarril, Independiente, and Mercurio are the most important among the eight dailies of Santiago. Valparaiso has four dailies, of which the Mercurio, Patria, and " West Coast Mail" are important. The press of the United States of Colombia is unimportant; the papers are numerous, but very ephemeral. The long-est-lived and best known is the Tradwwmsta of Bogota. The "Panama Star and Herald," which can hardly be classed as a Colombian paper, has considerable commercial importance. In Mexico the oldest and most important daily is the Sigh XIX.; there are also the Universal. Revisto Universal, Idea Progrcsista, and Iberia. all published in the city of Mexico. At Vera Cruz the Pensamiento is an important paper.

In Cuba the chief journals are the following, at Havana: Diario dc la Marina, Espaila, Progreso, and Voz de Cuba. Three dailies are published at Cienfuegos, two at Santiago, two at Matanzas, and two at Sagua la Grande. - The first American newspaper was issued at Boston, Sept. 25, 1690. It was printed by Richard Pierce and published by Benjamin Harris, and was intended to be issued once a month, but was immediately suppressed by the authorities. The only copy known to be in existence is in the state paper office in London, and it is headed "Publick Occurrences, both Foreign and Domestick." The "Boston News Letter," published by John Campbell, appeared April 24, 1704, and continued to be issued weekly till 1776. It was followed by the "Boston Gazette," Dec. 21, 1719; and the "American Weekly Mercu-rie " was issued by William Bradford at Philadelphia, Dec. 22, 1719. On Aug. 17, 1721, James Franklin, elder brother of Benjamin Franklin, established at Boston the "New England Courant " (weekly), which soon became involved in a violent controversy with the Rev. Increase Mather and other ministers on the subject of inoculation, and was so free in its remarks on public affairs, that in 1722 the legislature issued an order forbidding James Franklin " to print or publish the ' New England Courant' or any other pamphlet or paper of the like nature, except it be first supervised by the secretary of this province." James Franklin's name was consequently taken from the paper, and that of Benjamin, then but 16 years of age, and an apprentice in the office, was substituted.

In the "Courant " he began his literary career, and at this period he was one of the most frequent and pungent of its writers. On Oct. 16, 1725, William Bradford, the founder of the "Mercuric" at Philadelphia, began the publication of the "New York Gazette," the first newspaper issued in that city. In 1728 Benjamin Franklin established jn Philadelphia the " Pennsylvania Gazette," which continued under different publishers till Nov. 3, 1815, when it was merged in the - North American." In 1754 four newspapers were published in Boston, two in New York, two in Philadelphia, and the "Virginia Gazette at Williamsburg, which was first issued in 1736 by William Parks, who had previously published for nine years the "Maryland Gazette' at Annapolis. In 1776 seven'were published in Massachusetts, one in New Hampshire, two in Rhode Island, four in Connecticut, four in New York, nine in Pennsylvania, two each in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina, three in South Carolina, and one in Georgia - in all, 37.. These were all weeklies, with the exception of the " Advertiser " of Philadelphia, which was semi-weekly. During the revolution the principal journal in Boston was the " Gazette," established in April, 1755. In this journal John Adams, under the signature of Novanglus, wrote in 1775 a series of papers in defence of the colonial cause.

The " Massachusetts Spy," edited by Isaiah Thomas, the historian of American printing, was established in Boston March 7, 1771, and removed to Worcester in 1775, where it is still published under the title of the " Worcester Spy." In New York, during the revolution, Rivington's "Royal Gazette," established in 1773, was a zealous supporter of the royal cause, and was discontinued soon after the peace of 1783. In 1797 was established the "Commercial Advertiser," now the oldest of New York newspapers. In 1800 the number of newspapers in the United States had increased to 200, of which several were dailies, the first daily having been the "Pennsylvania Packet, or the General Advertiser," called afterward the "Daily Advertiser," which continued to be issued daily from 1784 to 1837. In 1801 the "Evening Post" was founded by William Coleman, and William C. Bryant, William Leggett, and Parke Godwin have been its editors. The " National Intelligencer " was founded at Washington by Samuel Harrison Smith, and was first issued as a tri-weekly on Oct. 31, 1800. Joseph Gales became connected with it in 1807, and continued its editor till his death in 1860. In 1812 he took into partnership his brother-in-law, William W. Seaton, by whom the journal was edited till January, 1865. It was issued as a daily from January, 1813, to 1869, when it was discontinued.

From 1800 to 1810 the number and circulation of American newspapers largely increased. By the census of 1810 the number of journals was 359, of which 27 were dailies, and the total annual issue was 22,321,000 copies. In 1824 there were 11 daily newspapers in Philadelphia and 12 in New York, with a circulation varying from 1,000 to 4,000 copies. In 1828 the whole number had increased to 852, with a yearly issue of 68,117,796 copies. In 1830 the number was estimated at 1,000. The census of 1840 returned 1,631 newspapers, with a yearly issue of 195,838,673 copies; in 1850 the number had reached 2,526 newspapers, with 5,142,177 circulation, and a yearly issue of 426,409,978 copies; in 1860, 4,501 newspapers, 13,663,409 circulation, yearly issue 927,951,548 copies; and in 1870, 5,871 newspapers, 20,842,475 circulation, yearly issue 1,508,548,250 copies. RowelPs "American Newspaper Directory " (New York) gives the following table showing the number of newspapers published in the United States and territories and British America in 1874:



















District of Columbia





















































New Hampshire.



New Jersey



New York......



North Carolina..









Oregon .........






Rhode Island___



South Carolina...















West Virginia...











Total United





New Brunswick.



Nova Scotia









British colonies..



Total British America....



Grand total



About one seventh of the daily papers print triweekly or semi-weekly editions; nearly every daily issues a weekly; a few journals issue only serai- or tri-weekly editions; the weekly total includes religious, literary, agricultural and horticultural, technical and professional, illustrated, and miscellaneous papers. - In 1833 a "penny paper " called " The Sun " was established in New York by Benjamin H. Day, but it soon passed into the hands of Moses Y. Beach. It was at first about 10 inches square, and being sold for one cent, grew rapidly into a circulation of 60,000 copies. It was afterward enlarged, and its management and character having been changed in 1807, its circulation was greatly increased, the price being two cents. In 1835 James Gordon Bennett began the publication of the "New York Herald," at first as a penny paper, but afterward raised the price to two cents, and subsequently to four cents. At his death it passed into the hands of his son, James Gordon Bennett, jr., by whom it is now conducted. On April 10," 1841, the "Tribune" was founded by Horace Greeley, and it was edited by him till his nomination for the presidency in 1872, when he was succeeded by White-law Reid. Politically it is now independent.

The "New York Times" was established in 1850 by Henry J. Raymond. " The World " was established in June, 1860, as a religious daily, and in July, 1861, united with itself the "Courier and Enquirer." In 1862 it was purchased by Manton Marble, who made it a democratic journal, and who still edits it. "The Graphic," established in 1873, was the first attempt in this country to publish an illustrated daily paper. The "Herald," "World," and " Times" are published every day in the year, and their Sunday issues are sold at five cents. In 1849 the New York "Journal of Commerce," "Courier and Enquirer," "Tribune," " Herald," " Sun," and "Express" combined to form the "New York Associated Press," of which the "Times" on its establishment in 1850 became a member; the "World " when founded in 1860 was made a participant in its news privileges, and in 1861 by absorbing the "Courier and Enquirer" became a member. The association collects and distributes to the newspapers the latest news by telegraph from all quarters, at an annual expense (in 1875) of about $1,000,000. The New York "Evening Post," "Commercial Advertiser," and Staats-Zeitung buy their telegraphic news from the associated press, as also do the local associations known as the "New York State Associated Press," the " Western Associated Press," the "New England Associated Press," and the " California Associated Press." The "American Press Association," organized in Boston in July, 1870, is independent.

Some of the New York weekly papers, as " Harper's Weekly," "Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper," and the "New York Ledger," have an immense circulation, that of the last having at times exceeded 400,000 a week. A noteworthy one is the chief American sporting paper, "The. Spirit of the Times," founded by William T. Porter, Dec. 10, 1831, conducted by him for 25 years, and merged in the present journal of the same name, originally " Wilkes' Spirit of the Times," under the management (still continued) of George Wilkes. The religious newspapers, of which the earliest was the " Boston Recorder," established in 1815, are weekly. The chief of these published in New York are the " Observer" and "Evangelist," Presbyterian; "Independent," Congregationalist; " Churchman," Episcopal; "Christian Advocate," Methodist; "Examiner," Baptist; "Liberal Christian," Unitarian; "Christian Intelligencer," Reformed; "Christian Union," Congregationalist; "Morning Star," Freewill Baptist (chief ofiice at Dover, N. H.); " Tablet," Roman Catholic; "New Jerusalem Messenger," Swedenborgian; and the " Jewish Messenger." Many country publishers now purchase "auxiliary papers," having one side filled with general matter, and print the other side for their respective localities.

Newspapers in foreign languages were published in the United States in 1874 as follows: German, 310 - 58 in Pennsylvania, 50 in New York, 33 in Ohio, 25 in Wisconsin, 24 in Illinois, 16 in New Jersey, 15 in Indiana, 14 in Missouri, 11 in Iowa, 9 in California, 7 in Texas, 6 each in Kentucky, Michigan, and Minnesota, 4 each in Maryland, Kansas, and Nebraska, 2 each in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, Louisiana, and Colorado, and 1 each in Delaware, the District of Columbia, West Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Dakota, and Oregon; French, 28 - 18 in Louisiana, 5 in New York, 2 in Massachusetts, and 1 each in Rhode Island, Illinois, and California; Scandinavian, 19 - 8 in Illinois, 3 in Minnesota, 2 in New York, and 1 each in Iowa, Wisconsin, Kansas. Nebraska, Utah, and California: Spanish, 16 - 7 in New York 6 in New Mexico, and 3 in California; Dutch, o - 5 in Michigan and 1 in Iowa; Italian, 2 - 1 each in New York and California; Welsh, 4 - 3 in Pennsylvania and 1 in New York; Bohemian 5 - 2 in Nebraska, and 1 each in Ohio, Iowa! and Wisconsin; Polish, 2 - 1 each in Illinois and Missouri. There is a Portuguese paper in New York, a Chinese in San Francisco, and a Cherokee at Tahlequah, Indian territory. (See Periodical Literature).