Philaret (Basil Drozdoff), a Russian prelate, born near Moscow in 1782, died there, Dec. 1,1867. He was a professor in the academy of St. Petersburg, and in 1812 became its rector, in 1817 bishop of Revel, in 1819 archbishop of Tver, and in 1821 metropolitan of Moscow. His eloquence was greatly admired by Alexander I. Under Nicholas he kindled the popular enthusiasm during the Crimean war, but the emperor was displeased with his independence, and deprived him of his vote in the synod. He fully recovered his influence under Alexander II., upon whom he urged the emancipation of the serfs. He was the first to promote Biblical researches among the Greek orthodox clergy. A second edition of his sermons was published at St. Petersburg in 1848-'60, in 3 vols. - Of three other distinguished prelates of the same name, one was archbishop of Rostov and subsequently patriarch of Moscow, and the father of the czar Michael Romanoff (1613-'45), the founder of the reigning Russian dynasty; the second (1778-1858) was metropolitan of Kiev, and author of a collection of Russian hymns (1860) and of "Lives of Russian Saints " (1861); and the third (1805-'66) archbishop of Kharkov, and a historian of the Russian church (5 vols., Moscow, 1857-'9) and of the ecclesiastical literature of Russia from 862 to 1858 (2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1860-'61).