I. A Province Of British India

I. A Province Of British India, commonly known as a presidency, comprising the southern part of the peninsula of Hindo-stan, bounded N. W. by the Bombay territories, N. by the Nizam's Dominions and the Central Provinces, and on the extreme N. E. by Bengal. It extends from Cape Comorin, in lat. 8° 5' N., to the N. E. limits of the district of Ganjam, in lat. 20° 18', and is included between Ion. 74° 40' and 85° 15' E., having an extreme length of about 950 m., and a breadth of 450 m. measured northwestward from the capital. Area, 141,746 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 31,311,142. For administrative purposes it is divided into three divisions or commissioner-ships, called the Northern, Central, and Southern ranges, and into 21 districts, as follows, beginning at the N. E. extremity and proceeding southward and westward: Ganjam, Viza-gapatam, Godavery, Kistnah, Nellore, Kurnool, Bellary, Cuddapah, 1ST. Arcot, Chingleput, Madras, Salem, S. Arcot, Trichinopoly, Tanjore, Madura, Tinnevelli, Coimbatore, the Neilgher-ry hill district, Malabar, and S. Canara. The population of the divisions is respectively as follows: Northern Range, 6,794,912; Central Range, 10,436,821; Southern Range, 14,079,-409. In the S. W. part of the province are the subject-allied native states of Cochin and Travancore, both of which are prosperously administered under the supervision of the Madras government.

Cochin has an area of 1,988 sq. m. and about 300,000 inhabitants; Travancore, about 4,700 sq. m. and 1,500,-000 inhabitants. These feudatory states, together with the Malabar and Canara districts, form the western seaboard. French settlements at Pondicherry, Karical, Yanaon, and Mah6 are also included within the boundaries of Madras. - The coast line of Madras constitutes one half the entire coast line of the great Indian peninsula, and extends northward from Cape Comorin 540 m. along the Arabian sea and 1,187 m. along the bay of Bengal. The western shore, which is generally muddy or sandy, is known as the Malabar coast. It is deeply indented and penetrated by many creeks and backwaters. Of the latter the most important is at the port of Cochin, which is said to be capable of being made the finest close harbor in the world, as it is 10 m. wide at its southern end, and has a depth varying from 10 to 48 ft. The harbor at Man-galore admits vessels drawing from 10 to 12 ft. The port of Calicut, whence teak is exported, is on this coast. Between Cape Comorin and Calimere point, opposite the N. extremity of Ceylon, the E. coast of Madras is low, rocky, and fringed with reefs.

The mainland is here separated from Ceylon by the gulf of Manaar and Palk strait, and almost united to it by a line of islands and the shoals and rocks known as Adam's Bridge. A passage through this obstruction has been constructed by deepening the Pamban channel between the continent and the nearest island, called Rameswar, so that it is navigable for vessels which do not draw more than 12 ft. There is an excellent roadstead at Tuticorin, on this part of the coast. From Calimere point northward to lat. 15° 20' stretches the Coromandel coast, a part of the ancient province of the Carnatic, low, sandy, and without good harbors. Its principal port is the capital, Madras; and other important shipping resorts are Negapatam, Nagore, Tranquebar, Cuddalore, Sadras, the French colony of Pondicherry, and Pulicat, at one of the entrances to the extensive saltwater lake or inlet of that name. There is not a harbor on the coast, however, which affords safe anchorage in all weathers. North of the Coromandel coast begins the Golcon-da coast, extending up to lat. 17° 15', a distance of about 270 m., the only ports of which are Masulipatam and Coringa. Between the termination of this coast and the northern boundary of the province, the maritime border, which is bold and rocky but not high, is known as the Orissa coast.

Ganjam and Vi-zagapatam are its leading ports. - The mountains of Madras are the Eastern and Western Ghauts, parallel to the E. and W. seaboards respectively, and the ranges which traverse the peninsula and connect them S. of the table land of Mysore, including the Neilgherry hills. (See Ghauts.) The great rivers of the province flow eastward. They comprise the Godavery, the Kistnah, the Pennar, the Cavery, and the Vygay, all of which flow into the bay of Bengal. There are no large rivers on the W. coast, though small streams are numerous. The tank system of irrigation prevails in Madras, and there are extensive irrigation works in the river deltas, particularly in those of the Godavery, Kistnah, Pennar, and Cavery, the water being diverted by means of dams thrown across the streams just above the heads of the deltas. There are 43,000 tanks in 14 districts, and in the whole province 3,300,000 acres of irrigated land. - The climate of Madras, generally esteemed the hottest in India, seems to vary according to elevation above the sea level, rather than with latitude. Among the Neilgherry hills it resembles that of the temperate zone.

The heat is greatest on the E. coast, being lessened in Malabar by the sea breezes and the nearness of the Western Ghauts. This range receives an enormous rainfall during the prevalence of the S. W. monsoon, which begins to blow in April. The 1ST. E. monsoon sets in during October, and is accompanied by much less rain, which fact to some extent accounts for the excessive heat in the eastern districts; the annual rainfall there ranging from 45 in. at Vizagapa-tam and 50 in. at Madras, to 30 and 22 in. further S., as against upward of 75 in. on the W. coast. Malabar is frequently visited by terrific thunder storms. - The soil of that portion of the province adjacent to the bay of Bengal is light and sandy near the coast, but increases in richness and fertility as the surface rises inland toward the Ghauts and the interior plateau. N. of Vizagapatam the country is somewhat hilly; between that district and the Kistnah a flat alluvial plain stretches backward to the mountains. Bellary, Kurnool, and Cuddapah, known as the ceded districts, are upon the table land between the Eastern and Western Ghauts, at an elevation of from 500 to 1,(500 ft. above the sea, while further S. wide plains, traversed by rivers, slope seaward from the inland ranges.

The rugged western coast rises more abruptly, and borders an elevated region of exuberant vegetation and magnificent forests. Ship timber, including teak and peon, grows abundantly and of excellent quality in Travancore, Malabar, and Canara, and forms one of the most valuable products of the province. The finest teak plantation in all India is in Malabar on the river Bepur, where the annual rainfall is 150 in.; it contains 1,800,000 trees. The Madras forest department maintains 26 plantations for railway fuel, three or four for teak, and two for sandalwood, which is exported to China. - The chief agricultural productions of Madras are rice, cotton (of which the largest quantity is raised in the Tinnevelli district), sugar, and coffee, which is the special product of the province. In 1872, 72,983 lbs. of cinchona bark were obtained from the government plantations on the Neilgherry hills, where there are 2,639,285 plants. Small quantities of tea, indigo, and jute are raised. Other important crops are a small dark-colored grain called ragi, millet, maize, tobacco, oil seeds, spices, pulse, yams, and plantains. An intoxicating beverage is made from the sap of the palmyra palm, and the cocoanut palm is raised both for its fruit and cordage.

Iron is the most abundant mineral, and immense deposits of magnetic ore, from 50 to 100 ft. in thickness, occur in the Salem district. Coal of inferior quality is found on the banks of the Godavery. Large quantities of salt are produced by manufactories under government control. The consumption of salt averages 12 lbs. per annum for each inhabitant. - The city of Madras is connected by railway with Bombay, Negapatam, Bangalore, and Bellary. Up to April 1, 1873, 957 3/4 m. of railways had been opened for traffic in the province. An important line of water communication is afforded by the Malabar and Travancore back-waters, and the delta canals are much navigated by boats. The foreign trade is with Great Britain, France, New South Wales, America, Mauritius, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements, and ports on the Arabian sea and Persian gulf. The following table shows the quantity and value of the principal articles exported from Madras in 1871-'2:

ARTICLES.

Quantity.

Value.

Coffee...............

52.047,458

lbs.

£1,278.789

Cotton.............

73,771.643

lbs.

1,684.942

Grains........

2,370.247

cwts.

827,017

Indigo.......

44.598

cwts.

1,193,715

Jute...........

4,771

cwts.

2,728

Seeds.........

583.735

cwts.

438,461

Tea......

36,758

lbs.

4,883

The total value of the exports, inclusive of treasure, from Madras for the year ending March 31, 1872, was £7,297,324. The principal articles imported in 1871-'2, with their values, were as follows: cotton twist and yarn, £718,326; cotton piece goods, £1,084,-594; machinery, £16,422; manufactured metals, £83,873; raw metals, £100,638; railway materials and stores, £60,232; silk goods, £9,093; wines and liquors, £211,449. The total value of the imports, including treasure, for the year ending March 31, 1872, was £3,-792,232. The chief exports to Great Britain, and the quantities and value thereof, for the entire year 1872, were as follows: cotton, 75,238,688 lbs., £2,099,310; coffee, 27,979,280 lbs., £888,108; indigo, 19,413 lbs., £508,042; goat skins, 4,103,367, £448,608; sugar, 31,170,-496 lbs., £353,040; and cocoanut oil, 129,272 cwts., £266,341. The total value of the exports to Great Britain in the same year was £5,653,636. The total value of the imports from Great Britain and the British colonies in 1872 was £1,491,630. In 187l-'2, 3,497 vessels, of 493,372 tons, entered the ports of the province from foreign countries; and the clearances to foreign ports comprised 3,738 vessels, aggregating 571,728 tons. - The ryotwar system of land revenue, whereby each ryot or actual cultivator pays a fixed money assessment directly to the government, prevails throughout the greater part of Madras. The net revenue derived from land in 1871-'2 was £4,016,555 on 16,877,509 acres.

The districts of Ganjam, Vizagapatam, and a part of Goda-very, embracing most of the former Northern Circars, are subject to a permanent land settlement like that of Bengal; and there are many rent-free estates in the country. In Malabar a proprietary tenure exists, the landlords retaining from 20 to 40 Per cent. of the rent received from the cultivators, and paying the balance to the government. The salt monopoly yielded a net income of £1,153,425 in 187l-'2. A bonus of £40,000 a year is paid to the French government to prevent the manufacture of salt at Pondicherry. The receipts for customs in 1871-'2 were £298,206, and the excise revenue was £553,791. - Under the former division of British India into three presidencies, the proper designation of Madras was the presidency of Fort St. George, from the name of the principal fortification at the capital. The administration is in the hands of a governor, assisted by a council of three persons, of whom the commander-in-chief is one, and also by a legislative council. The governor is appointed by the crown.

The military force under the government supplies troops not only for Madras itself, but also for the Central Provinces, the Nizam's Dominions, Mysore, and Burmah; in 187l-'2 it comprised 40,121 men, of whom 26,934 were natives and the rest British. There are 46 municipalities in Madras. The principal cities and towns are Madras, the capital, Ganjam, Bellary, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Calicut, and Cochin. The entire number of judicial divisions is 699, with 760 judges. There are six classes of civil tribunals and seven classes of criminal courts. The high court, composed of a chief justice and four puisne justices, exercises original civil and criminal jurisdiction in the city of Madras, and appellate jurisdiction throughout the country. In 187l-'2 there were 4,401 schools and colleges in the province, with an average daily attendance of 135,192 pupils. At the head of these educational institutions stands the Madras university, attended by more than 500 undergraduates; with it are affiliated 13 colleges and 52 high schools. In the southern districts education is largely under the control of Christian missionaries, who exert great influence, particularly in Tanjore, Tinnevelli, Travancore, and Madura; in the last named district there is a prosperous American mission with 7,000 converts.

There are 160,955 native converts in the province. Hindoos make up the bulk of the population, and more than half the entire number of inhabitants are of Tamil nationality. The country is well furnished with medical dispensaries, which are numerous and popular. In 1871-'2 there were 508 books published in Madras, in the English, Tamil, Telugu, Malaya-lim, and Canarese languages. The latest official reports contain no information as to the newspapers.

II. A City

II. A City, capital of the province, on the Coromandel coast of the bay of Bengal, in lat. 13° 5' 10" N., lon. 80° 16' 29" E., 835 m. S. W. of Calcutta, and 640 m. S. E. of Bombay; pop. in 1872, 395,440, mostly Hindoos. According to the census of June 15, 1871, there were but 1,308 British-born residents. The city extends about 9 m. along the shore, with an average breadth of 3 1/2 m. It is bounded S. by the small river Adyar, which is not navigable; another small river called the Kuam, at the mouth of which is an island, flows through the city from W. to E., and connected with this stream is the Cochrane canal, extending northward. Fort St. George, a strong and handsome fortress, having a double line of bomb-proof defences on the land side, and a sea face 500 yards in length, with accommodations for a garrison of 1,000 men, fronts the sea immediately N. of the mouth of the Kuam. The most populous section of the city, called the Black Town, is about 1 m. in width, extending northward from the Kuam, and 1 1/4 m. long, between the Cochrane canal and the seashore. It is protected by a stone wall against the inroads of the spring tides, to which its low level renders it liable.

It contains three broad and well built streets, in which there are some fine residences and shops; but the minor streets, inhabited by the natives, are narrow and dirty. In the outskirts or suburbs of the city, which rise to a height of 20 ft. above the sea level back of the Black Town, are many ornamental villas belonging to the European residents, usually light and comfortable two-story dwellings, in enclosures thickly planted with shade trees. The custom house, some of the government buildings, and the warehouses and offices of the principal European merchants, are built along the beach; and here too are the principal drive and promenade, and the fine esplanade adjoining the fort. The government house stands in a park on the S. side of the Kuam river, opposite the island; immediately W. of it, on the shore of the bay of Bengal, is the marine villa, where the governor resides in hot weather. Other notable public buildings are the arsenal, the mint, the military male orphan asylum, the university, and the Madras club. There are three cathedrals in the city, English (St. George's), Scotch (St. Andrew's), and Roman Catholic, seven or eight Anglican churches, American and Armenian missions, a mosque, and several unpretending Hindoo temples.

The institutions of learning comprise the Madras university, which was founded by Lord Harris in 1857, the presidency college, the medical college, the school of art, and the government central museum, with a zoological garden attached, which was visited by 116,691 persons in 1871-'2. The Madras literary society, a distinguished branch of the London Asiatic society, was founded in 1818. An excellent astronomical observatory is maintained by the government, and its recorded observations extend back to the year 1787. An agri-horticultural society was founded in 1835. Madras is supplied with excellent water from wells in the Black Town; it is conveyed in pipes to two reservoirs, and thence distributed through the city. The streets are lighted with gas. There is telegraphic communication from Madras to all the leading cities of India, and by submarine cable to Penang and Singapore. The railway lines leading from the city are referred to in the account of the province. - Madras is totally destitute of a harbor. Large ships are obliged to anchor about 2 m. from the beach in nine fathoms of water, and landing is effected by boats called masulahs, built of thin planks, flat-bottomed, without ribs or keel, and so flexible as to yield to the impulse of the breakers.

The greatest skill is required to conduct them through the tremendous surf, in which no boat of ordinary construction could live a moment. The native fishermen use a float or raft called a catamaran, consisting of two or three light logs lashed together, upon which they make their way through the surf in weather far too rough for boats. Throughout the S. W. monsoon the anchorage is extremely hazardous, and ships are often obliged to cut loose their anchors and put out to sea. Propositions for the erection of a breakwater 2,000 yards long, or of two piers so placed as to form a closed harbor, were under consideration by the government in 1873. A lighthouse, 128 ft. high, furnished with a powerful flashing light, stands near the fort. In the year 1871-% the value of the imports and exports of the port of Madras was as follows:

The Presidency College, Madras.

The Presidency College, Madras.

Imports.

Exports.

Merchandise..........

£2,615,078

£2,640.344

Treasure...........

450,030

260,723

Total........

£3,065,108

£2,901,067

- Madras was founded in 1639 by Francis Day, chief of the British factory at Armegon, the second English settlement on the Coroman-del coast, who in that year removed his establishment to the site of the present city, and built Fort St. George on a small tract of territory granted by a native prince. The settlement was known at first as Chenappatam.

The presidency was created in 1653. The city was blockaded in 1702 by Daoud Khan, a general of Aurungzebe. In September, 1746, it was besieged by the French under Labour-donnais, and surrendered after five days' bombardment. In 1758-'9, having reverted to Great Britain by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), it successfully withstood a siege by a large French and native force under Lally. After the first war with Tippoo Saib in 1799, the presidency was enlarged by the incorporation of Canara, Coimbatore, and the Neilgherry hills, parts of the conquered kingdom of Mysore; and soon afterward Bellary and Cuddapah were ceded to Madras by the Nizam. In 1801 the nawaub of the Carnatic, whose dominions comprised the present districts of Nellore, N. and S. Arcot, Trichinopoly, and Tinnevelli, transferred them all to the British. The Madras government acquired Kurnool in 1841, and ceded N. Canara to Bombay in 1862. The city and province remained undisturbed during the sepoy mutiny.