A district of Hindostan, in the presidency of Madras, between lat. 13° 5' and 16° 20' N., lon. 77° 48' and 79° 50' E., bounded N. by Kurnool and Guntoor, E. by Nellore and N. Arcot, S. by N. Arcot and Mysore, and W. by Bellary and Kurnool; area, 12,900 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 1,343,762. It is traversed from N. to S. by a range of mountains connecting with the Eastern Ghauts, and is drained by the Pennar and its tributaries. The climate is very enervating for Europeans, being very hot during the day, and the air close and stagnant at night. Forests are few, and wild animals are not numerous. Cotton, wheat, and indigo are largely cultivated. On the Pennar, about 7 m. N. E. of the town of Cuddapah, are diamond mines which have been worked for centuries, but of late they have not been profitable. Iron ore abounds, and soda, saltpetre, and common salt are found in large quantities. Cuddapah came into possession of the East India company in 1800 by treaty with the Nizam. II. A town, capital of the district, situated on the Bogawunka, a small affluent of the Pennar, 140 m.
N. W. of Madras, in lat. 14° 32' N., Ion. 78° 55' E.; pop. from 10,000 to 15,000. It was once a place of great consequence and the capital of an independent Patau state; but most of its public buildings are now in ruins, and the greater part of the houses in the native town are mud huts. Its chief importance consists in its military station, 3 m. E. of the town on the opposite bank of the river.