British India A District Of Madras, in the territory formerly known as the Northern Circars, bounded N. E. by Ganjain, E. and S. E. by the bay of Bengal, S. W. by the district of Godavery, and inland by the Jeypoor agency; area, about 9,935 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 1,832,614. The sea coast is bold and steep, rising into a ridge of rocky hills. The surface is mostly mountainous, and is drained by several small streams. The Eastern Ghauts extend in a N. E. direction along the western boundary. Saltpetre and iron are the chief mineral productions. The climate is warm and damp on the coast, but drier in the interior. The district produces rice, maize, millet, oil seeds, various kinds of pulse, sugar cane, indigo, cotton, and tobacco. The manufactures are few. The French acquired Vizagapatam in 1753, and retained it till 1759, when Olive expelled them. In 1765 the country was ceded by Shah Alum to the British East India company.
A Town, capital of the district, at the mouth of a river of the same name, on the W. shore of the bay of Bengal, 380 m. 1ST. E. of Madras; pop. about 40,000. It stands on a small peninsula near a remarkable bold rocky hill about 1,500 ft. in height, called the Dolphin's Nose, is a military station, and has considerable trade.