John Campbell, a political and historical writer, born in Edinburgh, March 8, 1708, died in London, Dec. 28, 1775. His parents removed to Windsor in his childhood. He was intended for the law, but became a writer in the departments of biography, history, politics, and statistics. His first publications were anonymous, and appeared in the following order: " The Military History of Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough" (2 vols, fol., London, 1736); "Travels and Adventures of Edward Brown, Esq." (1739); and "Concise History of Spanish America " (1741). In 1742 he began to put his name to his works; the first was the "Lives of the British Admirals," etc. (4 vols., 1742-'4; increased to 8 vols., 1812-'17). In 1745 he became one of the principal contributors to the Biographia Britan-nica. In 1750 he published a "Survey of the Present State of Europe." After the peace of Paris, 1763, he was employed by the British government to write a vindication of it. His last work was "A Political Survey of Great Britain" (2 vols. 4to, 1774). In 1755 he was appointed agent for the province of Georgia, which office he retained till his death.
John Campbell, a Scottish clergyman, born in Edinburgh in 1766, died April 4, 1840. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith and jeweller in Edinburgh, but when about 23 years old entered the ministry. He undertook the charge of 24 young Africans who had been brought from Sierra Leone to be instructed in Christianity. He took an active part in the formation of the British and foreign Bible society in 1804, and was ordained the same year pastor of the Kings-land dissenting church, near London. In 1812 he made a journey to South Africa, to inquire into the religious state of the natives, and the prosperity of the missions among them, and repeated the visit in 1818. On his return, each time, he published an account of his travels and observations; and he was the author of several other works. In 1823 he founded the magazine called the " Teacher's Offering," having previously established the "Youth's Magazine," which he edited for 18 years.
John Campbell, lord, a British jurist and author, born near Cupar, in Scotland, Sept. 15, 1779, died in London, June 23, 1861. His father was minister for 54 years at Cupar. John, the 2d son, was educated at the university of St. Andrews. He went early in life to London, entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn (1800), and was called to the bar in 1806. While pursuing his legal studies, he supported himself by writing law reports and theatrical criticisms. His industry and talents soon brought him a good practice at the common law bar; nevertheless he found time to publish reports of the principal cases decided in the courts of king's bench and common pleas. In 1827 he received the appointment of king's counsel. In 1830 he was returned to parliament for the borough of Stafford, and in 1832 for Dudley. In November of the latter year he was appointed solicitor general by the Grey ministry, which office he retained till February, 1834, when he became attorney general. He left office with the Grey ministry in November, 1834, and at the ensuing general election was returned for the city of Edinburgh, which he continued to represent till his elevation to the peerage.
After the resignation of Sir Robert Peel's ministry in 1835, Sir John Campbell regained the attorney-generalship, which he held till June, 1841, when he was appointed lord chancellor of Ireland, and raised to the peerage as Baron Campbell. On the resignation of the Melbourne administration, September, 1841, he lost his chancellorship. From this period till 1846 his public life was confined to hearing appeals in the house of lords and on the judicial Committee of the privy council, and acting as one of the leaders of the opposition in the upper house. His leisure was devoted to literary pursuits, the results of which were: " Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England from the earliest times to the reign of George IV." (7 vols., London, 1846-7); and "Lives of the Chief Justices of England, from the Norman Conquest to the death of Lord Mansfield " (2 vols., 1849; vol. iii., continuing the series to the death of Lord Tenterden, 1857). The return of the liberal party to power in 1846 gave him the post of chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and a seat in the Russell cabinet. On the retirement of Lord Denman.from the chief justiceship of the queen's bench in March, 1850, Lord Campbell, notwithstanding his great age, accepted that laborious appointment.
His speeches at the bar and in the house of commons were collected and published in 1857.