John Cameron, a Scottish theologian, born at Glasgow about 1579, died at Montauban, France, about 1625. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, where at the age of 19 he lectured upon the Greek language, which he spoke with facility. In 1600 he went to France, became rector of the university of Bergerac, then for two years professor of philosophy at Sedan, whence he removed to Bordeaux. By a provision of the church here four students of theology were maintained from the church funds. Cameron was nominated one of these, and spent the next four years at Paris, Geneva, and Heidelberg. In 1608 he became pastor at Bordeaux, and in 1618 professor of theology at Saumur. The university being dispersed in 1621 in consequence of the civil war in France, Cameron returned to Glasgow, where he was for a year regent of the university. He went back to France, and in 1624 became professor of theology at Montauban. The doctrine of passive obedience, which he had promulgated, exposed him to the censures of many Protestants, and he withdrew to Moissac, but soon returned to Montauban, where he died of a wound given in the street by an unknown hand.

He held some peculiar doctrines on the action of the will, which distinguished him from the Calvinists, and also from the Arminians. His theory of will was based on the position that it could only be acted on by motive appealing through the judgment or intellect. He also taught the universality of the effects of Christ's sacrifice, and was designated a Universalist. His followers were styled Amyraldists from his disciple Mo'ise Amyraut, and also from himself Cameronites. They are to be distinguished from Cameronians. His works, including posthumous remains, were published at Geneva in 1658.