Bergerac

Bergerac, a town of France, in the department of Dordognc, on the right bank of the river Dordogne, 25 m. S. S. W. of Perigueux; pop. in 1866, 12,116. It is ill built, but finely situated, and divided into two parts, one of which is called St. Martin de Bergerac and the other Madeleine. The town grew out of the abbey of St. Martin, founded in 1080. It was taken by the English in 1345, who were not finally dispossessed till 1450. It was a stronghold of the Calvinists, and suffered much during the religious wars. Its fortifications were demolished by Richelieu in 1621; and the revocation of the edict of Nantes (1685) destroyed its prosperity. There are iron founderies and smelting furnaces in the vicinity and the town has a trade in Perigord truffles, and in wine, brandy, and liqueurs. The Bergerac red and white wine, often called petit champagne, is produced on the Dordogne and Gironde, the best being the Montbazillac, St. Nexans, and Sance.

Bergues, Or Bergnes-St

Bergues, Or Bergnes-St.-Winoc, a fortified town of France, department of Nord, 5 m. S. S. E. of Dunkirk, on the railway from that place to Hazebrouck, and at the junction of several canals, by one of which vessels of 300 tons reach the town from the sea; pop. in 1866, 5,738. It is well built. The finest buildings are the town house, an ancient clock tower 160 feet high, and the two towers of the abbey of St. Winoc. It has manufactories of soap, hosiery, cotton yarn, sugar, salt, distilled spirits, leather, etc, and has a considerable trade in corn, cheese, butter, wine, and cattle. It was fortified by Vauban, and besieged by the English in 1793 without success.

Berkeley Springs, Or Bath

Berkeley Springs, Or Bath, a town and the capital of Morgan county, West Virginia, about 3 m. from the Potomac river and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 77 m. N. W. of Washington, D. C.; pop. in 1870, 407. The place is much visited by invalids, the water of the springs being deemed efficacious in cases of neuralgia, dyspepsia, and chronic rheumatism; its temperature is 74° F.

Bermejo, Or Vermeio

Bermejo, Or Vermeio. a large river of South America, rises in the Tarija mountains in Bolivia, flows S. E. through the Argentine provinces of Jujuy and Salta. meandering through the dense forests and sandy plains of the Gran Chaco, where it receives the waters of some lakes and forms a large number of others, and falls into the Paraguay near the fortress of Ilumaita, 30 m. above the confluence of that river with the Parana. Its chief affluents are the Tarija and the Labayen or Rio Grande de Jujuy. It is extremely tortuous, and its entire length is 1,200 m., although less than 600 m. in a straight line. Its course generally varies five or six times in a league. Jose Maria Arce, who descended it in 1863 in vessels drawing but 27 inches of water, and with 150 tons of cargo, from Oran in Jujuy to Corrientes, found the river nowhere less than five feet deep; but sunken trees frequently obstructed navigation.